where are kept the soldiers' beer and guns. On one side of the room was a row of pegs, on which were hanging military hats, cloaks, and weapons; from among these he took down the precious relic, Wallace's sword. It is about four feet long, although it has lost two feet of its original length: Its breadth, on any average, is scarcely an inch : the handle is seven or eight inches, terminated by a round ball, and separated from the hilt by a cross-bar or guard of the same dimensions : the blade has now no edge. My companion grasped the weapon with enthusiasm, and brandished it most heroically. Near this room we ascended a steep and long flight of steps, cut out in a narrow cleft in the rock, which brought us to the opening where the rock divides. Here are the barracks for the soldiers and a large reservoir always full of fine fresh water. We now walked up to the lower summit, and looked down a steep precipice, broken, jecting craggs. This side of the rock, in the time of Mary Queen of Scots, was scaled during the night, by a Capt. Crauford, followed by a small party of soldiers,

Seeking the bubble reputation,

Even in the cannon's mouth. Many apparently insurmountable obstacles occurred in this hazardous, but as it turned out, successful undertaking. By the aid of ladders, a few of them easily attained their first landing, and having twisted ropes round an ash tree which they found there, they drew up their companions. Their ladders were made fast a second time, but in the middle of their ascent, they met with an unforeseen difficulty. One who had got above the rest, was seen clinging in a fit to the ladder. They found they were unable to pass him, and were too humane and too fearful of being discovered to tumble him down the rock. Capt. Crauford's behaviour on this occasion, is a curious instance of coolness, intrepidity and humanity. He ordered the soldier to be tied to the ladder, that he might not fall when he should recover his senses, and turning round the ladder, they clambered up the other side without any difficulty. As day dawned upon their undertaking, they reached the ramparts, and after surmounting so many superior

difficulties, were not long in climbing af lofty wall: Three guards opposed them, but were soon overcome. Capt. Crauford now surprised Lord Fleming, the governor, and his officers: Fleming, however, escaped in a small boat, leaving the fortress in the possession of this adventurous party.




By H. J. October 24, 1818.
Time like an arrow fies, with rapid course,
And states, and empires, 'neath it roll away!
But thou, rare treasure long hast stood its test,

To please the curious of a modern age! SIR.-As an account of these celebrated remnants may prove entertaining to some of your readers, I offer to their perusal this short article. · In the early part of September last, while staying at Arundel, in Sussex, a place justly celebrated for its fine castle, the property of his grace the duke of Norfolk, I was, (ainong other things), persuaded to visit the tesselated pavements at Bignor.

We accordingly, (for there was a friend with me,) left Arundel on the afternoon of Saturday, September the 12th, and, after journeying about five miles in a north-westerly direction, found ourselves in the farfamed field !---a field that the most illustrious personages of our island have been prompted to visit. .

The tessellæ of the first pavement that was shewn to us had fallen in, in some places; but what remained perfect exhibited, in various coloured stone, Bacchanalian and other ornamental devices, encompassing a circle, wherein was represented the rape of Ganymede, In this apartment there is a small but very perfect vapor bath, as may very reasonably be concluded from the metallic pipe in its centre. To what a length may the imagination wander while gazing at this, in contemplating who were the original inmates of this splendid villa! Alas! in the rapid current of Time, they

have been swept away, and who can tell where to find even the dust of their bones !--But to proceed.---The pavement adjoining the one already described, appears to have been but a passage to some other apartment, its tessellæ are worked into a variety of pleasing figures. The visitor is here shown some pieces of pottery---one

ce in particular, (stamped with the name Juvenus, deserves attention. We were then led to another very beautiful pavement, in one compartment of which is represented the upper part of a female figure, with a garment drawn over the back part of her bead, and bearing in her hand a leafless branch. It is for this reason denominated the head of Winter. Adjoining, and a few feet below this, is another pavement, exhibiting much variety in the disposition of its tessellæ. A few weeks ago, (in this field) was discovered a very beautiful tesselated gallery, one hundred and twenty feet in length; there is but a small portion of it preserved, the remainder being too imperfect to repay the expense of building over it. Our conductor then led us to the opposite side of the field : we there examined another bath. Its dimensions are much larger than those of the one before described, and it is of a different shape, but rapidly going to decay, through being exposed to the weather. There is a pavement of black and white tiles, leading to this bath, about the size of a Dutch tile, and in alternate squares after the manner of a draught board..--Here an excellent opportunity presents itself to examine the construction of a tesselated pavement. The tessellæ of the one of which I am about to speak being too imperfect to preserve, the proprietor was induced to remove it, when he discovered a layer of flat stones, such as are used for paving the streets now-a-days; upon removing these stones, they were found to be supported by piles of red bricks, such as are used for flooring kitchens---each pile about eighteen inches asunder, and two feet and a half high, leaving a vacant space between each pile, for the purpose of warming the pavement above.---The fire-place, Aue, and piles of brick remain in their original state, for the gratification of the curious. The next pavement, being nearly square, much resembles a painted floor-cloth; its centre represents Medusa's head. We were now conducted back to the side of the field we had just before left, to examine another pavement which was judiciously reserved for the last, because it is the most perfect and beautiful. The first thing that attracted my attention in this apartment was the representation of Gladiators in the various stages of combat, pleasingly formed in various coloured stone. The fine curve of the eyebrow, and general expression of the countenance, render it an object of the highest admiration. On each side of this figure is a pheasant beautifully formed. The tessellæ that compose these pavements are of various sizes, but for the most part extremely small. The exterior border of each pavement is formed of a small red brick, in size from half to three-quarters of an inch square. These relics of antiquity, so well worthy the attention of every one who journeys that way, are preserved from the inclemency of the weather, by thatched buildings of Aint bowlers, after the Sussex style. Having examined all that was to be seen---we mounted the hills, and

Gliding down the western sky beheld Sols parting ray; pure serenity reigned all around us, and over the downs to the tinkling sheep bell, we homeward pursued our course.

DETACHIED THOUGHTS. “WHERE the Roman conquers, he inhabits, says, Sepeca. Where the Briton inhabits, he conquers; and that is a purer praise. He seizes on the wilds of nature, and adds them to his empire, by planting there the industry that will fertilize the soil, and the laws that will civilize the people. His invasions are made with the pruning hook, and the plough; his levies and contributions are an interchange that is to enrich; his

ampments are fairs and warehouses, the corn springs along his path, the city climbs beside his resting place.”

* Personified abstractions belong to the philosophic, not to the poetic style; the Greeks wisely avoided them in poetry.'

“The wisest revenge for injustice, is the affectation of an opposite generosity. The fear of shame accomplishes what retaliation cannot effect.”




THIS month was under the protection of Vesta. The flatterers of the detestable Commodus gave it the name of Amazonius, in compliment to a mistress of the emperor, whom he had caused to be painted in the dress of an Amazon. But this name was abolished after his death. This month was almost entirely devoted to sports and pleasure, and, during its continuance, games of chance, which were forbidden at other times, were allowed to be played. Romulus gave thirty days to this month, which Numa reduced to twenty-nine ; but the number was increased to thirty-one, by Julius Cæsar.'

The Festum Fortunæ Muliebris or festival of female fortune, was celebrated on the first of the month, in memory of a war having ceased on that day. Sacrifices were offered, on the fourth, to Minerva and Neptune. The Faunalia took place on the following day. This feast was devoted to Faunus, to whom a he goat was sacrificed, and libations of wine were made. This day was a day of feasting, merriment and dancing for the peasants. Offerings were made on the ninth, to Juno, as presiding over marriage. Under this character, she had an altar in one of the streets of Rome. The festival of the Agonalia was held for the third time in the year, on the eleventh. On the thirteenth there were equestrian exercises.

The Saturnalia began on the fifteenth, and lasted for seven days. This was a time of unlimited freedom and gaiety. All business was postponed, and nothing was thought of but pleasure. The senate suspended its debates, the law proceedings paused, the schools were closed, and even the slaves had the liberty of acting and speaking in whatever manner they pleased. During this festival, sacrifices were offered to Saturn, with the head uncovered, contrary to the usual practice. The statue of the god was also freed from the woollen bands with which it was enveloped all the rest of the year, probably, in memory of the captivity to which he had been reduced by the Titans and Jupiter.


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