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ries of broken bones, and shaking the whole together until they formed á something approaching to the shape of a human being. It was not the tortuous construction usually occurring from scrofula, or the rickets. He had not the crooked twisted bones of disease. They appeared as if they had literally been broken, and some of them badly united, some not united at all. The common marks of a sickly constitution were absent, and he enjoyed a state of general health fully proportioned to the structure of his frame. Indeed, from the minutest examination, I do not feel myself authorized to consider this very peculiarly deranged conformation as the effect of disease, but am rather inclined to regard it as an extraordinary lusus naturæ.
His head was the only part that was well formed, and this, although of natural size, appeared very large, owing to the great disproportion of the body and extremities, whicb, from their extreme distortion, had not grown with the growth of the head.
With regard to his mental faculties nothing peculiar was noticed. He answered the questions that were put to him expertly, and was considered, in point of intellect, to be quite equal to the generality of the people of colour.
I placed my elbow at his side, when he was sitting as upright as his figure would'admit, and extending my hand upwards, found that his height from the seat to the crown of his head, was not quite equal to the length of my fore arm, from the elbow to the extremities of the fingers
Every rib, and every limb, seemed as if it had been fractured. The long bones of the arms, being divided in the middle, were loosely held together by a mémbraneous or ligamentous union. Those of the legs appeared as if they had been broken, and the two parts (or rather the four parts of the tibią and fibula) afterwards placed together, in a direction parallel with each other, and thus united into one broad flat bone, the end of which projected considerably forward in the middle of the leg, thinly covered with integuments, while the lower part of the limb was thrown backwards, with the heel up towards the thigh; so that if he had been placed in the erect position, the points of
the toes would have been brought to the ground, instead of the flat part of the foot.
He had not the power of moving from his seat without assistance, except in a very slight degree, by a writhing or twisting, and most unseemly motion, upon his buttocks, wholly unassisted by his limbs. During the day he remains always in the sitting posture, and from the distortion of his lower extremities, these are brought into a position somewhat resembling a taylor sitting at his work. With some difficulty he could bring the lower arm to reach the head, but this was effected more from a kind of flexure at the ligamentous uvion, in the middle of the bone of the upper arm, than from a direct motion of the shoulder-joints, the action of which was extremely limited, from the want of the fulcrum commonly afforded to the muscles by the bone of the arm.
THE PILOT FISH. · IT has been asserted, says M. Geoffroy, that the sharks have subject to their empire a very small fish, of the species of the gadus; that the latter precedes his master during his voyages, points out to him those places of the sea most abundant in fish, discovers to him the traces of the prey of which he is fondest; and that, out of gratitude for such signal services, the shark, 'notwithstanding his voracity, lives in good intelligence with a companion so useful to him. Naturalists, always on their guard against the exaggerations of travellers, and not being able to conceive the motives of such an association, have doubted the truth of these facts. It will, however, be seen, that they were wrong: the observations even which I have been able to make, are accompanied with circumstances which, perhaps, never occurred with so many details to any one but myself.
In the month of May, 1798, I was on board the Alceste frigate, between cape Bon and the island of Malta. The sea was tranquil, and the passengers were much fatigued with the long duration of the calm, when their attention was attracted by a shark, which they saw advancing towards the vessel. It was pre
ceded by its pilots, which kept at a pretty regular distance from each other, and from the shark. The two pilots directed their course towards the poop of the vessel, inspected it twice from one end to the other, and, after having satisfied themselves that there was nothing which they could turn to their advantage, resumed their former route. During the various movements which they made, the shark never lost sight of theni, or rather followed as exactly as if he had been dragged by them.
He was no sooner descried than one of the sailors got ready a large hook, which he baited with bacon; but the shark, and his companions, had already proceeded to some distance, before the sailor had made all his preparations : he, however, threw the piece of bacon into the sea, at a venture. The noise occasioned by its fall was heard at a considerable distance. The travellers were astonished, and stopped. The two pilots then detached themselves, and went to explore at the poop of the vessel. The shark, during their absence, sported in a thousand ways at the surface of the water, turned himself on his back, then on his belly, and dived to a greater depth, but always re-appeared at the same place. When the two pilots came to the poop of the Alceste, they passed close to the bacon, and no sooner observed it than they returned to the shark, with a greater velocity than they had advanced to it. When they reached him, the latter continued his course. The pilots, one swimming on his right, and the other on his left, then made every exertion to get before him. Scarcely had they done so, when they suddenly returned, and then went back a second time to the poop of the vessel. They were followed by the shark, who was enabled, by the sagacity of his companions, to perceive the prey destined for him. It has been said, that the shark is endowed with a very delicate sense of smelling. I paid a great deal of attention to what took place on his approaching the bacon. It appeared to me that he did not discover it till the moment it was pointed out to him by his guides : it was then only that he began to swim with greater velocity, or rather made a jump to seize it. He detached a portion of it, without being hooked; but, at the second attempt, the hook pene
trated the left lip, by which means he was hoisted on board.
It was not till the end of two hours, during which I was employed in anatomizing the shark, that I began to regret that I had not observed more accurately the species which had devoted themselves so readily to the service of this voracious fish. I was assured that some of them might easily be procured, as it was certain they had not quitted the neighbourhood of the vessel ; and a few minutes after I was presented with an individual, wbich I found to belong to the pilot, or san fre des marins, and the gasterosteus of the naturalists.
It would, no doubt, be curious to enquire what interest can induce animals, so different in their organization, their size, and habits, to form a sort of association? Does the pilot fish, as M. Rose thinks, feed on the dung of the shark? and has it imposed on itself the painful duties of domesticity, to find protection and safety in the neighbourhood of so voracious an animal?
THE DISTRESSES OF A BASHFUL MAN. SIR, -I LABOUR under a species of distress, wbich I fear will at length drive me utterly from that society, in which I am most ambitious to appear ; but I will give you a short sketch of my origin and present situation, by which you will be enabled to judge of my difficulties.
My father was a farmer of no great property, and with no other learning than what he had acquired at a charity school; but my mother being dead, and I an only child, he determined to give me that advantage, which he fancied would make him happy, viz, a learned education. I was sent to a country grammar school, and from thence to the university, with a view of qualifying for holy orders. Here, having but small allowance from my father, and being naturally of a timid and bashful disposition, I had no opportunity of rubbing off that native aukwardness, which is the fatal cause of all my unhappiness, and which I now begin to fear can never be amended. You must kuow, that in my person I am tall and thin, with a fair complexion, and light Aaxen hair, but of such extreme susceptibility of shame, that on the smallest subject of confusion, my blood all rushes into my cheeks, and I appear a perfect full blown rose. 1 consciousness of this unhappy failing made me avoid society, and I became enamoured of a college life; particularly when I reflected, that the uncouth manners of my father's family were little calculated to improve my outward conduct; I therefore had resolved on living at the university, and taking pupils, when two unexpected events greatly altered the posture of my affairs, viz. my father's death, and the arrival of an uncle from the Indies.
This uncle I had very rarely heard my father mention, and it was generally believed that he was long since dead, when he arrived in England only a week too late to close his brother's eyes, I am ashamed to confess, what I believe has often been experienced by those whose education has been better than their parents', that my poor father's ignorance, and vulgar language, had oftev made me blush to think I was his son; and at his death I was not inconsolable for the loss of that, which I was not unfrequently ashamed to own. My uncle was but little affected, for he had been separated from his brother more than thirty years, and in that time he had acquired a fortune which he used to brag would make a nabob happy; in short, he had brought over with him the enormous sum of thirty thousand pounds, and upon this he built his hopes of never-ending happiness. While he was planning schemes of greatness and delight, whether the change of climate might affect him, or what other cause I know not, but he was snatched from all his dreams of joy by a short illness, of which he died, leaving me heir to all his property. And now, sir, behold me at the age of twenty-five, well stored with Latin, Greek, and mathematics, possessed of an ample fortune, but so awkward and unversed in every gentlemanlike accomplishment, that I am pointed at, by all who see me, as the wealthy learned clown.
I have lately purchased an estate in the country, which abounds in (what is called) a fashionable neighbourhood; and when you reflect on my parentage and uncouth manner, you will hardly think how much my