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greatly distant from one another at once, nor yet in conjunction with the same fixed stars, it evidently has no great degree of elevation.
THE NEW GEYZER.* ON the visit of Mr. Hooker to this spring, in the summer of 1810, for the space of an hour and a half an uninterrupted column of water was continually spouted out to the elevation of one hundred and fifty feet, with but little variation, and in a body of seventeen feet in its widest diameter; and this was thrown up with such force and rapidity, that the column continued to nearly the very summit as compact in body, and as regular in width and shape, as when it first issued from the pipe: a few feet only of the upper part breaking into spray, which was forced by a light wind on one side, so as to fall upon the ground at the distance of some paces from the aperture. The breeze also, at times, carried the immense volumes of steam that accompanied the eruption, to one side of the column of water, which was thus left open to full view, and we could clearly see its base, partly surrounded by foam, eaused by the column striking against a projecting piece of rock, near the mouth of the water; but, thence to the upper part, nothing broke the reguJarly perpendicular line of the sides of the water-spout, and the sun shining upon it, rendered it in some points of view of a dazzling brightness. Standing with our backs to the sun, and looking into the mouth of the pipe, we enjoyed the sight of a most brilliant assemblage of all the colours of the rainbow, caused by the decomposition of the solar rays passing through the shower of drops that was falling between us and the crater. After the water had risen to the vast height above described, I ventured to stand in the midst of the thickest of the shower of spray, where I remained till my clothes were all wetted through, but still scarcely felt that the water was warmer than my own temperature. On the other side of the spout the co
* For another account of this extraordinary phenomenon, see the Pocket Magazine, vol. i. p. 197.
lumn was so undivided, that though upon the very brink of the crater, within a few inches of the water, I was neither wetted, nor had I a fear of being scalded by any falling drops. Stopes, of the largest size that I could find, and great masses of the silicious rock, which we threw into the crater, were instantly ejected by the force of the water; and though the latter were of so solid a nature, as to require very hard blows from a large hammer when I wanted to procure specimens, they were, nevertheless, by the violence of the explosion shivered into small pieces, and carried up with amazing rapidity to the height of, and frequently higher than the summit of the spout. One piece, of a light porous stone, was cast at least twice as high as the water, and falling in the direction of the column, was met by it, and a second time forced up to a great height in the air.
EARTHQUAKE IN CANADA.
ON the 5th of February, 1663, about half an hour past four in the evening, a great noise was heard, nearly at the same time, throughout the whole extent of Canada. That noise seems to have been the effect of a sudden vibration of the air, agitated in all directions. It appeared as if the houses were on fire, and the inhabitants, in order to avoid its effects, immediately ran out of doors. But this astonishment was increased when they saw the buildings shaken with the greatest violence, and the roofs disposed to fall, sometimes on one side, sometimes on the other. The doors opened of themselves, and shut again, with a great crash. All the bells were sounding. The pallisades of the fences seemed to bound out of their places, the walls were rent, the planks of the floor separated, and again sprung together. The dog's answered these previous tokens of a general disorder of nature by lamentable howlings; the other animals sent forth the most terrific groans and cries, and, by a natural instinct, extended their legs to prevent themselves from falling. The surface of the earth was moved like an agitated sea; the trees were thrown against each other, and many, torn up by the roots, were tossed to a considerable distance.
Sounds of every description were then heard, at one time, like the fury of a sea which had overflown its barriers; at another, like a multitude of carriages rolling over a pavement; and, again, like the mountains of rock or marble opening their bowels, and breaking into pieces with a tremendous roar. Thick clouds of dust, which at the same time arose, were taken for smoke, and for the symptoms of an universal conflagration.
The consternation became so general, that not only men, but the animals, appeared as if struck with thunder; they ran in every quarter, without a knowledge of their course, and wherever they went they encountered the danger which they wished to avoid. The cries of children, the lamentations of women, the alternate successions of fire and darkness in the atmosphere, all combined to aggravate the evils of a dire calamity.
The ice which covered the St. Laurence, and the other rivers, broke into pieces, which crashed against each other; large bodies of ice were thrown into the air, and from the place they had quitted, a quantity of sand, and slime, and water spouted up. The sources of several springs and little rivers became dry: the waters of others were impregnated with sulphur. At times the waters appeared red, at others of a yellowish cast; those of the St. Laurence became white from Quebec to Tadoussac, a space of thirty leagues. The quantity of mattor necessary to impregnate so vast a body of water must have been prodigious. In the mean time the atmosphere continued to exhibit the most awful phenomena : an incessant rushing noise was heard, and the fires assumed every species of form. Porpoises and sea-cows were heard howling in the water at Three Rivers, where none of these fishes had ever before been found, and the noise which they sent forth resembled not that of any known animal.
Over the whole extent of three hundred leagues from east to west, and one hundred and fifty from north to south, the earth, the rivers, and the coasts of the ocean,
experienced for a considerable time, although at intervals, the most dreadful agitation.
The first shock continued without intermission for half an hour; about eight in the evening there came a second, no less violent than the first; and in the space of half an hour were two others. During the night was reckoned thirty shocks.
JULY. THIS month was under the protection of Jupiter, and was originally called Quintilis, as being the fifth month of the year, according to the old Roman calender. It was Mark Anthony who, during his consulate, ordered that it should thenceforth be called Julius, in honour of Julius Cæsar, it being the month in which he was born.
The first was the day on which the leases of houses in Rome generally expired, and were renewed. On the fifth the festival of the Poplifugia was celebrated, in memory of the retreat of the people to the Aventine Hill, at the time when Rome was taken by the Gauls. The festival of Fortuna muliebris was held on the sixth : it was established by the wife and sister of Coriolanus, on their having obtained peace from him for their country. On this day also began the Ludi Apollinares, which lasted eight days, in honour of Apollo. They were celebrated in the great Circus, under the direction of the Prætor. The seventh, or first day of the Nones, was called nones caprotines, and was a festival in honour of Juno ; in which, in memory of the services that they had rendered, after the capture of Rome by the Gauls, the slaves entertained their mistresses, under the wild fig-trees out of the city. Romulus disappeared on this day. Vitula, the goddess of rejoicing, had a festival on the eighth; and, under the emperor's, the twelfth day was kept, it being the birthday of Julius Cxsar. The Mercuriales, dedicated to Mercury, began on the fourteenth, and continued for six days. The fifteenth was consecrated to Castor and Pollux, and solemn sports and combats took place. The seventeenth was an unlucky day, because on that day the battle of Allia was lost. The Lucaria began on the eighteenth, and continued for four days. They took their name from a sacred wood, Lucus, situated between the Tyber and the road called Via Salaria. It is said they were celebrated in this place, because here the Romans took refuge after having been defeated by the Gauls. Others derive their origin from the offer ings in money which were made in the sacred wood, and which were denominated luci. Sports were held in honour of Neptune on the twenty-second. and pregnant women offered sacrifices to the goddess Opigena, which, in fact, was only another name for Juno. On the twenty-fifth the Furinalia were held. Some contend that Furina, the goddess to whom they were dedicated, was the goddess of thieving; others, and Cicero is of the number, consider her as being the same with the Furies. Be that as it may, she had a temple and a priest of her own. The Ambarvalia was also said to have been held on this day, but this is not certain. They were, however, held in July. The intent of them was to obtain a plentiful harvest from the gods. They took place in the country, and the offering was a young cow, a sow, or a sheep. On the twenty-eighth sacrifices of wine and honey were offered to Ceres; and, about the end of the month, a carrottyhaired dog was sacrificed to the Dog-star, in order to avert the excessive heat of the season.
The sun, during this month, is in the signs Cancer and Leo.
AN INSCRIPTION ON A BASKET. SIR,_SHOULD the following be deemed worthy a place in your valuable miscellany, I shall be very much gratified by its insertion.
G. W. L. March 22, 1818.
Here lies the Body
Sept. 29, 1817, aged Nine Months.