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meter, in the air, was at 54°, just after a heavy thunderstorm, attended with much rain; at four o'clock it was 520; at six, 510; at nine, the same; and, at seven o'clock the next morning, just before we descended, it was 59o. During the whole time, the direction of the wind was from N. and by E. to N.N.E. The sensa. tion of cold we experienced on the summit, was much greater than we expected from the state of the ther, mometer, owing, probably, to the rarity of the air producing an increased evaporation from the surface of our bodies; not to mention other circumstances which also must have co-operated, as the sudden transition, as it were, from a temperature of 800 to one of 51° ; á brisk wind, which blew when we were on the top; and the fatigued and nearly exhausted state in which we found ourselves when we arrived.
The country, between the foot of Adam's Peak and Colombo, is interesting to the traveller; it exhibits fine mountain scenery, that brought to my recollection some of the most beautiful parts of the highlands of Scotland ; and here and there the vallies presented rich meadows, that, in appearance, rivalled the verdure of England. The country however, in general, is overgrown with wood and thick jungle; and, in consequence, the low grounds are extremely monotonous. The only rock that makes its appearance, from the Peak to Colombo, is gneiss, varying, in the proportion of its constituent parts, in different places. It is curious to observe this uniformity of rock, for the space of sixty miles. The soil too, in general, as well as the rock from which it is derived, is every where pretty similar; it is, most commonly, a tine light loam, composed of silicious sand, and clay, and iron, in variable proportions, with about one or two per cent. of vegetable matter. The soil is so favourable to vegetation, and the heat and moisture so conducive to the same end, that every spot where a root can fix itself is covered with foliage. Nothing is wanting but industry, enterprise, agricultural knowledge, and, above all, the complete abolition of the old feudal system of government, to convert this wild and beautiful country into a garden, when it will really merit the name of Paradise, that from time immemorial it has acquired, though ill deserved.--I am, &c. &c. J. DAVY.
SEPTEMBER. THIS month was under the protection of Vulcan. It received various names at various times, but did not long retain them. The Roman senate wished to call it Tiberius, in compliment to that emperor, but he declined to agree to it; Domitian denominated it Germanicus, to honour his victory over the Germans; the senate named it Antoninus, in memory of Antoninus Pius ; Commodus termed it Herculeus, in honour of Hercules ; aud the Emperor Tacitus was desirous that it should be called after him, because that he was born and made emperor in this month.
The first day was a festival in honour of Neptune; sacrifices were also offered to Jupiter the turbulent, or stormy. The next day was a holy day. The Dionysia, a festival dedicated to Bacchus, was held on the third. The Roman games began on the fourth, and lasted ten days. They were instituted by Tarquin the Elder, and dedicated to the great gods; that is to say, to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, to render them propitious to the people. On the sixth of the month a black ram and ewe were offered up as a sacrifice to Erebus. The thirteenth was the day of the dedication of the Capitol, and on this day the pretor performed the annual ceremony of driving the nail into the right side of the altar, in the Temple of Jupiter. This ceremony, which at first was designed only to mark the number of years, became afterwards a religious ceremony, intended to arert public calamities. It was conceived to be of such importance, that dictators were sometimes created expressly to perform it. The great Circensian games, which lasted five days, commenced on the fifteenth These games were borrowed by Romulus from the Greeks, and were at first held in the Campus Martius. They were not named Circensian games till Tarquin the Elder constructed the Circus in the valley Murcia, between the Aventine and Palatine Hills. Five sorts of exercises were performed in these games, namely, running, boxing, wrestling, the discus, and dancing. On the day when the sports began, the people went to the Capitol, and thence proceeded in good order to the Circus. At the head of the march appeared the cars which contained the statues of the gods. All the children of the knights came on horseback, distributed by 'squadrons, and the others on foot, ranged in battalions. Next' followed those who led the horses; then the combatants, naked; succeeded by dancers, players on the flute; and slaves, bearing censers of gold and silver, and other sacred vessels. The procession having arrived, the consuls and pretors made the accustomed sacrifices, the people took their seats, and the sports began. The twentieth was the birth-day of Romulus, and the twenty-third that of Augustus. Sacrifices were offered on the twenty-fifth to Venus, to Saturn, and to Mania, the mother of the Lares. To the latter young children were originally sacrificed; but Brutus abolished this inhuman custom, and ordered that heads of poppy and garlic should in future be offered, instead of the heads of children. Human sacrifices were also originally offered to Saturn in Greece ; but they were abolished by Hercules, who substituted straw figures. As, however, Saturn was supposed to be fond of blood, the Roman gladiators offered it to him, in order to render him propitious. On the twenty-seventh, sacrifices were offered to Venus genitrix, and to Fortune, as Fortuna redux ; for the Romans worshipped Fortune under a variety of appellations, so that Plutarch sarcastically observes, that they venerated fortune more than virtue. The thirtieth was a festival consecrated to Minerva, and the Meditrinalia appear also to have been sometimes held on this day; but we shall describe them under the head of October, the eleventh of which month was their usual period.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE POCKET MAGAZINE.
ACCOUNT OF THE MOTLEY SOCIETY. SIR,—The object of the present is to give you some short account of a society to which I belong, and of which I am president, as I hope and trust it will not prove uninteresting to you and your readers.
We call ourselves by the name of “ The Motley Society,” because, as our chief object is to make discoveries of all kinds, we think it proper to adınit people of all sorts, ranks, and denominations, in order that we may meet with the greater variety of opinions. It was established about six months ago, and already consists of upwards of fifty members, of some of the most conspicuous of which I shall now proceed to give you an account. . The first on the list, sir, is your humble servant; of whom, you must excuse me, if I take no farther no. tice, except that I am universally allowed to be the cleverest fellow among them, and am consequently treated with all due deference and respect.
The next is an old officer, by name Captain Grumble, who, early in life, ran away from his guardian, and entered into the - regiment of foot. By degrees he was promoted to the rank of captain, not on account of any merits of his own, as he was never present at any engagement, having purposely fallen ill six times to avoid fighting ; but, because the officers above him having nobly lost their lives in the service of their country, be stepped into their places as a matter of course. However, he himself takes care to tell us, that it was in consequence of his having performed prodigious feats of valour at the dreadful battle of - Soon after his last promotion a peace was concluded, and as no more vacancies took place in his regiment for the space of six months, he advanced not a step higher, and immediately fancied that bis valuable services had been overlooked, and accordingly left the army in disgust, and has ever since been living upon half-pay. He is always boasting of his heroism ; but, very fortunately, has so bad a memory, that he never recollects the
names of places where these said deeds, “ surpassing human knowledge,” were performed; thus rendering it impossible for us absolutely to deny them, by producing proof to the contrary. He is, moreover, very obstinate, very fond of contradiction, and cannot bear being contradicted himself. However, we manage to keep him in tolerable order, by every now and then threatening to horsewhip him, as he is a most thorough coward.
Mr. Hubble-Dubble is another of our members. This gentleman places his whole delight in filling his stomach, (which by the bye is a very capacious one,) and merely belongs to our society for the purpose of passing away the leisure time between tea and supper. He sits and smokes the whole evening, and like the philosophers of old, says little, but, contrary to their practice, thinks less. The only subject he can discourse upon is eating and drinking, and if once he gets upon this topic, it is difficult to make him stop.
Our next member is Mr. Stiff, a linen-draper by birth, and buck by profession. He merely associates with us “ low born beings" for the purpose of having a quiz, and during the whole time of our meeting, (which lasts three hours) is occupied in adjusting his shirt collar, and surveying himself from top to toe, always taking care to place himself directly opposite a large glass, which reaches from the ceiling to the floor of the room.
These, sir, are among the most conspicuous characters; and the rest consist of a wit, a lawyer, a hatter, a coal-heaver, a barge-man, a lamplighter, a butler, a footman, a Jew, a Turk, &c. &c. whom I may perhaps introduce to your notice at a future period.
The following are our rules and regulations :
1. That every member subscribe what he likes, not less than one half-penny, or more than ten-pence three farthings.
2. That no person whatsoever be refused admittance into the society who wishes to become a member.
3. But that, in order to prevent disputes, no two people of the same trade or profession be admitted.
4. That no member speak like an orator, making use of the figures of rhetoric, but express himself as clearly, and in as few words as possible, as the object of the society is utility alone.