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physician's character, that the author screamed with approbation. His raptures were soon checked, for the mimic told him, with the emphasis of sensibility, that he would sooner die, than prostitute his talents to the rendering such genuine humanity a public laughing stock.
JOHN WESLEY. IN the course of his voyage to America, Mr. Wesley, hearing an unusual noise in the cabin of General Oglethorpe, (the governor of Georgia, with whom he sailed,) stepped in to enquire the cause of it: on which the general immediately addressed bim; “Mr. Wesley, you must excuse me, I have met with a provocation too great for man to bear. You know, the only wine I drink is Cyprus wine, as it agrees with me the best of any. I therefore provided myself with several dozens of it, and this villain Grimaldi (his foreign servant, who was present, and almost dead with fear,) has drank up the whole of it. But I will be revenged of him. I have ordered him to be tied hand and foot, and to be carried to the man of war which sails with us. The rascal should have taken care how he used me so, for I never forgive.” “ Then I hope, sir, (said Mr. Wesley, looking calmly at him,) you never sin.” The general was quite confounded at the reproof; and putting his hand into his pocket, took out a bunch of keys, which he threw at Grimaldi: “ There, villain, (said he) take my keys, and behave better for the future."
LINNÆUS. LINNÆUS, great as his talents were, had one striking defect. His vanity was unbounded He was one day exhibiting his museum to a lady, who, in her admiration, exclaimed, “I no longer wonder that Linnæus is so well known over the whole province of Upsala."He, who had expected to hear her say “the whole universe," instead of the whole province, was so mortified, that he would shew her nothing more. The sun of botanists--the man who had put nature to the rack to dis. cover her dearest secrets—the ocean of science--the moving mountain of erudition-these pbiases of impudent ridicule were not too gross for his greedy vanity.
A DESCRIPTION OF ADAM'S PEAK,*
BY JOHN DAV Y, M.D. F.R.S. IN A LETTER ADDRESSED TO SIR N. DAVY, F.R.S. LL.D.
Colombo, May 1, 1817. I AM just returned from Adam's Peak. It is a noble mountain, surrounded by mountains, and surpassing them all. The road to its summit, for eight miles, is steep, difficult, and, in a few places, dangerous; it passes through time wood, or impenetrable jungle, over The faces of enormous masses of rock, on the brink of precipices, and through the beds of rivers. In the most difficult places the ascent is facilitated by rude ladders, made uf the boughs of trees, by steps cut in the solid rock, and hy strong iron-chains. The road, such as it is, is decidedly artiticial, made for the use of pilgrims; and is not, as it is commonly reported, the bed of a mountain torrent. Its direction, the loose sand, and gravel, and clay, with which it is covered in many places, are circumstances incompatible with the idea. The area of the top of the mountain is about seventytwo feet by fifty-four. This spot is sacred: it contains the imaginary impression of the foot of Buddou, is consecrated to devotion, surrounded by a low wall, and
* The Mahometan writers say, that Azrael, though he was aware that Adam would rebel, executed the commission of creating him, which other angels had declined, and for this reason was called the Angel of Death. They add, that the earth of which Adam was formed was carried to a place in Arabia, near Mecca, where, after having been prepared by the angels, the human form was given to it by God himself. The angel Eblis, afterwards the devil, being in dread of a superior, treated with contempt the materials of the human frame, which had been left to dry for forty days, or, according to some writers, for forty years,
The Almighty, they say, animated the clay with an intel. ·ligent soul, and placed it in Paradise, and, after it was so placed, Eve was formed out of the left side. Mahommed stated this paradise to be in the seventh heaven. When our parents were cast down from it, Adam is said to have fallen on the island of Serendib, or Ceylon, and Eve near Mecca. After having been separated two hundred years, the angel Gabriel united them on a nountain near Mecca, and then removed them to Ceylon, in which island the peopling of the world was commenced. ED.
skirted by a grove of sacred trees. These trees are said to be a new species of rhododendron; they are of a respectable size. Their foliage, which is ever-green, is dark and thick; and their flowers bright red, large, and magnificent. The natives hold these trees in high veneration, no one ventures to touch a leaf, and much less gather a flower. The tradition is, that they were planted by the God of the Hills when Buddou left the earth, and took his departure from this mountain. If report be correct, they are found in no other part of the island. The imaginary impression of the foot of Buddou is on a rock, nearly in the centre of the inclosed ground: its resemblance to the impression of a human foot is very rude indeed. It is an oblong, five feet four inches long, and two feet seven inches wide in the widest part, which is over the toes. The toes are five in number, and all of the same length. The whole is surrounded by a margin of brass, ornamented with a few bad gems, chiefly rock-crystal, the green jargon, and the ruby, or rock-crystal, with a foil underneath it, to represent this precious stone. It is covered with a small square wooden building, which we found it being the season of the pilgrimage) decorated, and very gay with flowers, and streamers. The sacred impression of the foot, to which the mountain owes all its interest amongst the natives, is, I have good reason to believe, in a great measure artificial, and the work of priestcraft. Some religious enthusiast probably first climbed the mountain, and, to give it celebrity, made this impression, and invented a story to suit it. Be that as it may, at present there are evident marks of design about it. I could observe on its surface traces of the labour of the workman: and the partitions which are between the toes, though resembling the native rock exactly in appearance, I found, on examination, to be a composition of lime and sand. The influence of religion on the minds of the natives, is well exemplified in the immense number of pilgrims that annually ascend this steep and rugged mountain. The number must amount to many thousands. We saw, at least, two or three hundred. They were of all ranks and descriptions of people, from the highest to the lowest casts, women as well as men: all ages, from the child that was carried on its father's back, to the gray-headed tottering old man, that could not ascend without support. The object of their worship is a strong example too of the lowness of their faith, and their amazing credulity; it was painful to see them on the summit of a mountain, overlooking some of the sublimest and most beautiful scenery in nature, forgetful of the nature of God, and prostrate before a thing deserving only of contempt. However, few national rites, or generally received customs, whether religious or civil, that differ from our own, a
they at first appear. This worship of the natives, when examined into, appears, at least, harmless, and is, probably, attended with good effects; it is accompanied by no cruel rites, or bloody sacrifices; the offerings are of the fruits of the land; the prayers of the supplicants are, first for their parents, next for the prosperity of the shrine, and lastly for themselves. Before the pilgrims descend, an affecting scene takes place; they exchange with each other the betel-leaf, their token of peace; wives shew their respect and af. fection for their husbands, by their profound salans, and children for their parents, and friends for one another. Thus the ties of kindred are strengthened, friendships are confirmed, and animosities removed. They are then blessed by the priest, and bid to return to their homes, and lead a virtuous life.
Geologically considered, the mountain may be said to be composed of gneiss. The rock on the top, on which is the impression of the foot, is gneiss, of a very tine grain. It abounds in quartz. It is hard and compact, of a gray colour, and only in mass exhibits a Hakey structure. A little below felspar predominates, and the rock is rich in garnets. Here it is in a soft state; and, towards the surface, rapidly decomposing. Still lower, hornblende prevails, and in so large a proportion, that particular masses may be called hornblende rock. Near the bottom felspar again predominates, and the rock contains much molybdena disseminated through it. Besides, in different places, the rock exhibits other peculiarities : here abounding in quartz, in a massive form; there in mica, in large plates; and very frequently rich in iron cinnamond stone. ́ Garnet, traces of the ruby, and adularia, were
the only minerals which I observed; but, I have no doubt, more minute examination would have detected others, and particularly the corundum, all the varieties of which, including the finest blue sapphires, are found in considerable abundance in the alluvial country at the foot of the mountains.
The height of Adam's Peak has not hitherto been accurately ascertained. The assertion of some author's, that it is fifteen thousand feet, is evidently incorrect: From the barometrical observations I made, I do not believe that its perpendicular height, above the level of the sea, exceeds six thousand three hundred and forty-three feet. I had not the means of measuring it accurately, in consequence of there being no barometer to make the necessary observations below. On the top of the mountain I made two observations: one in the morning, and the other in the evening. In the morning, the barometer remained stationary at 230 75' after having been exposed to the air about half an hour, till it had acquired the temperature of the air itself, which was 580 ; and, in the evening, similarly exposed, it stood at 230 7', the temperature of the air being 520. The supposition that the height of the mountain does not exceed six thousand three hundred and forty-three feet, is founded on these observations, of which it is the mean result, and on the idea, that the average height of the barometer, at the level of the sea, is about thirty inches; which, from what I have observed within the tropics, is not, I believe, far from the truth; and that the average temperature of the air is 80°, which it generally is at Colombo, on the seashore, at the hours the above observations were made.
I regret we did not remain long enough on the top of the mountain to observe the range of the thermometer, which, I have no doubt, is there very great. We reached the top towards evening, spent the night on the mountain, and proposed continuing there the next day, but our native servants could not be made to stay; for the first time in their life they experienced the sensation of cold, and shivered from its effect; they were so much alarmed at their new and disagreeable feeling, that they resolved to go down at all events," they must die,” they said, “if they remained there.” At three o'clock in the afternoon the thermo