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Five-Power Treaty is that of one who of Japanese naval policy in the postdecides to make the best of a bad job. Treaty period has aroused misgivings Her leading statesmen have declared in the American mind. No one quesrepeatedly that they will not suffer her tions Japan's scrupulous observance hands to be tied again in the matter of of the letter of the compact. She unnaval defense. If the most serious dertook to scrap her battleship prodifferences between French and British gramme, and she has done so. She has policy could be adjusted, if the German also discarded the older ships which the Reparations problem could be solved to Treaty required to be sacrificed, and the satisfaction of both parties, and if she has discontinued the fortification France received those guaranties for of islands within the zone affected by her future security by which she sets so Article 19 of the same agreement. much store — if all this could be ac- What she has not done is to suspend complished she might then be inclined the operation of her eight-eight proto lend a more sympathetic ear to gramme so far as it relates to auxiliary proposals for mutual disarmament naval craft. The result is that her force But until these conditions are fulfilled of such ships is expanding year by year, it seems worse than futile to approach and the balance of power in the Pacific her on the subject. The almost inevi- which the Treaty aimed to stabilize is table result would be a fresh outburst of thus turning steadily against the rage from those influential publicists United States, whose fleet of auxiliary who professed to see in the Five-Power ships remains stationary. Treaty a shameful betrayal of French The scope and significance of this interests and who all but succeeded in Japanese auxiliary programme were having it thrown out by the Chamber. discussed by the present writer in an Then would follow an agitation for article published in the Atlantic for stronger defenses at sea, culminating, February 1923. His purpose was not perhaps, in a new programme of sub- to disparage the fruits of the Washingmarines and aircraft, the two French ton Conference, but to show that Japweapons of which Great Britain is most anese action in continuing to build up apprehensive. In face of such develop a powerful fleet of secondary naval ments the Entente could not survive. craft must eventually upset the ratios A period of open antagonism might en- of international strength formulated sue, and Europe's last hope of pacifica- by the Treaty. This article appears to tion would vanish. Again, therefore, have given offense in Japan, though the one must register a fervent hope that data it presented had been carefully the British Labor Government's zeal checked, and the conclusions drawn for disarmament will not blind them to therefrom were, in the writer's judgthe dangers of precipitate action. ment, entirely justified by the premises.

A detailed reply has since appeared in the Far Eastern Review from the pen of

Rear-Admiral K. Nomura, a Japanese As between the United States and officer who was at one time attached to Japan the issue is rather more simple. the Embassy in Washington and who Apart from the immigration contro served as personal aide to Admiral versy there is not, for the time being, Baron Kato during the Conference. any acute political difference of opinion Describing the Atlantic article as 'the between Washington and Tokyo. The most potent because the most adroit of fact remains, however, that the trend the several criticisms of the naval treaty

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that have been offered,' he submits the original programme, equivalent to the following extract as a specimen of its displacement of two small cruisers. supposedly tendentious character: 'To Such is the limited extent to which state the case in a sentence: Japan, by Japan has reduced an auxiliary fleet diverting to the construction of cruis- that was designed, in the first instance. ers and submarines no small part of to serve all the needs of a great battlethe energy she formerly expended on ship force. Since fourteen of the capital ships, will soon be in possession projected battleships were afterward of a fleet of “auxiliary combatant” ves- dropped in deference to the Treaty, the sels superior in some respects to that of tactical necessity for so large a number any other power. . . . Japan during of ancillary craft ceased to operate, yet the last five years has built or ordered Japan has nevertheless continued buildno less than 23 light cruisers, as against ing them up to within 13,395 tons of a collective total of 16 for Great Britain the original standard of strength, which and the United States.' Commenting postulated an aggregate displacement on this, Admiral Nomura writes: "The of 130,000. The net reduction is thereeffect of this paragraph is to give a fore only about ten per cent. definitely erroneous impression. It is This disparity between the number carefully worded, but seems deliber- of ships canceled and the diminution of ately designed to alarm where no tonnage is explained by the fact that alarm is necessary.

all the surviving craft, from cruisers That, of course, is no more than an to submarines, have been redesigned expression of personal opinion by the on the basis of larger dimensions and Admiral. Since he does not attempt to greater fighting power. With regard to dispute the figures mentioned in the cruisers and destroyers, though the statement, it is to be presumed that he total number was reduced by 14, accepts them as accurate. On his part the sum of displacement was actually he submits various tabular surveys of increased by 144 tons. In other words relative naval strength at given periods, 32 ships of 102,000 tons are now buildone of which shows that Japan, by the ing or on order, in place of the 46 ships end of 1927, will possess 28 cruisers of 101,856 tons projected before the of 171,055 tons, against 10 American Conference. Admiral Nomura seems cruisers of 75,000 tons, the ratios being to have overlooked the damaging sig2.2 and 1 respectively. This position nificance of his own figures! So far may be quite satisfactory to Japan, but from disproving the case presented in the Admiral can hardly expect it to be the Atlantic article, they confirm and viewed with equal complacence by strengthen it. Only in respect of subthe United States. He makes much marines has any positive reduction of the circumstance that when the been made in Japanese naval shipeight-eight programme of battleships building since the Treaty. Here we find was canceled, the complementary pro- a substantial cut in the programme, gramme of light craft was also modified from which 24 boats of 13,539 tons by deleting one cruiser, 13 destroyers, have disappeared. The surviving 22 and 24 submarines, a total of 38 vessels. will all be of large design, and their This seems at first sight a very drastic completion four years hence will bring reduction, but what does it really the Japanese underwater flotilla up to amount to? We find that the cancel- 69 units — ocean-going boats without ing of these 38 vessels has involved exception, and all less than ten years a decrease of only 13,395 tons in the old from date of completion. Numeri

Conferenceshe knew the

boats comprising about thirty ye no

cally, and still more in the size and Islands was pushed on by Japan as power of individual boats, this Japa- soon as she knew the Washington nese fleet of submarines will have no Conference to be impending, her rival. Moreover, about thirty of the object being to put herself in a favorboats comprising it will date from the able position strategically before the post-Treaty period. In view of Ad negotiations began. Admiral Nomura miral Nomura's contention that Japan denounces this statement as 'diamethas strictly adhered to the spirit of the rically opposed to actual facts' and Treaty — which was framed to pro- as “a canard pure and simple.' But the mote limitation of naval armaments information on which it was founded and, above all, to discourage the con- came from the Japanese press, which struction of new fighting ships — the appears to have made no secret of the following table is instructive. It shows matter. Several of its newspapers the number of auxiliary vessels of each published an account – reproduced in type which the three leading Powers the Japan Chronicle — of festivities have begun and authorized since the which were held at the Bonins in Treaty was signed in February 1922: — December 1921, to celebrate the comUNITED BRITISH

pletion of the fortifications there. STATES EMPIRE

Seeing that the Washington Conference Cruisers ........

was in session at this time, and that Destroyers ......

when the fortification plan was first Submarines........

adopted it was scheduled for completion by the end of 1922, it was a

justifiable inference that the work had Confronted with these arresting figures, been expedited in order to strengthen the apologists for Japan will find it Japan's hands at the Conference. Such, difficult to sustain their argument as at least, was the conclusion reached by to her loyal observance of the spirit of newspapers in that country. Admiral the Treaty.

Nomura suggests that the writer's In the Atlantic paper referred to, views ‘are instrumental in provoking mention was made of the haste with distrust of Japan, if not actually which the fortification of the Bonin intended to do so.' The obvious retort 1 Eight U. S. cruisers are projected but not yet

is that nations, like individuals, are to authorized

be judged by their actions rather than 2 Includes five ships authorized by the British by their words. The actions of Japan Government, two ships by the Australian Gov since the Washington Conference form ernment, and one cruiser-minelayer begun in

a striking contrast to the lofty language

a striking conti 1922.

3 One or more of these U. S. submarines may in which her statesmen profess their have been commenced previous to the Treaty. devotion to peace and disarmament.

APAN

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THE CHIMERA OF MONOPOLY

BY AMBROSE PARÉ WINSTON

“THROUGH control of government, monopoly has steadily extended its absolute dominion to every basic industry. In violation of law, monopoly has crushed competition, stifled private initiative and independent enterprise, and without fear of punishment now exacts extortionate profits upon every necessity of life consumed by the public.' — ROBERT M. LA FOLLETTE

* We oppose the artificial supports of privilege and monopoly because they are both unjust and uneconomic.' — CALVIN COOLIDGE

‘We offer ... a belief ... in the suppression of private monopoly as a thing indefensible and intolerable.' — JOHN W. Davis

In the great sea-fight at Actium when tory of ancient Rome: 'What is more the combined fleets of Mark Antony violent than the sea and the winds? and Cleopatra contended for the em- What greater work of art than a ship? pire with the forces of Octavian, An- Yet one little fish can hold back all tony's ship, it is said, unaccountably their fury and can hold back all these slackened speed and then, in defiance when they all strain the same way. of the wind in its spreading sails, in The winds may blow, the waves may defiance of hundreds of slaves bending rage, but this small creature controls to their oars, stood still. A diver, their fury and stops a vessel when examining the hull, brought up a little chains and anchors would not hold fish of a variety which, according to her, and that it does, not by hard general belief at that time, by attach- labor, but merely by adhering to her.' ing itself to a hull could hold the largest A fable, so out of keeping with modship motionless on the water. Even to ern thought that no one would now this day, in fact, it is a well-known believe it, found at that time no one to species with a remnant of its ancient deny it, because in that age there was fame still perpetuated in the diction- a universal failure to understand that aries by the name of remora (delayer) physical energy is quantitative and and in the zoologies by the specific measurable — that the great force of name of naucrates or conqueror of a large body is not to be controlled by ships. This belief was not confined to a little thing and feeble, ‘merely by the ignorant populace; it was enter- adhering to' it. In contemplating the tained by the best intellects of that physical universe we have made appretime, by Lucan in his Pharsalia and by ciable advance, but it is possible that Pliny the Elder, himself commander of after some centuries the record of our a fleet as well as the most noted ob- thinking on social phenomena will be server of animal life in the whole his- treated by the historian of science in

the same chapter as Pliny's Historia what do we find? An Assistant United Naturalis.

States District Attorney, who went out For a series of years ending in 1917 from Chicago and recommended that the powers of the American govern- it be closed, described its operations. ment — legislative, executive, and ju- From January 6 to June 16, 1917, it dicial — were exerted toward destroy- met once a week with average attending a reputed agency of oppression, a ance of four traders and average sales plunderer of the people, which had its of 51 tubs of butter. From the first of seat in the town of Elgin, Illinois, west August to the first of November all the of Chicago, and which was said to sales, with two exceptions, were made reach out its strangling tentacles to by a man named Moles and a man the extremities of the nation. That named Christian. For example, Autown had years before been the centre gust 4, Christian sold Moles 25 tubs at of trade in dairy products for the rich 381 cents. August 11, Christian sold farming-country round about; an or- Moles 50 tubs at 40 cents. August 25, ganized market in butter had grown Christian bid 41 cents for 100 tubs, no up there and become widely famous offers and no sales. September 1, no and its quotation of prices was recog. sales. For years Elgin had ceased to be nized in all the butter markets of the a butter market of importance; the nation. In time it quite lost impor- meetings and the publication of prices tance as a butter market but still seem to have been continued because continued to be, even more than most some people in the neighboring terrimarkets for farm products, an object tory, and also from Baltimore south, of denunciation on the ground that its preferred the quotations from force of Butter Board 'fixed the price of but- habit. The committee was substanter.' Congressmen, farm papers, and tially a statistical board to furnish miscellaneous editors thundered to information as to market conditions. right and to left of it. It gave occupa- As a source of information it was untion to Federal Grand Juries and, in satisfactory and might have been misApril 27, 1914, a decree of the United leading, but its suppression was exStates District Court in Chicago con- plained and justified on other grounds. demned the officers and members of The Board was prosecuted, not for the Elgin Board of Trade on the ground fraud, not, for example, on a charge that they ‘heretofore formed, and at of using the mails to defraud, but for the time of the filing of the petition exercising, or at least threatening, a were parties to, a combination and dominant influence over prices to the conspiracy to restrain interstate trade injury of the consuming public. and commerce. The officers and mem- The New York Times an organ not bers of the Board were accordingly inferior in intelligence to the average forbidden to engage in the said citizen — announced in a telegram conspiracy by fixing and publishing from a Chicago correspondent that prices, unless these prices grew out of this formidable agency 'practically bona fide sales of butter.

fixed the price of butter for the United In 1917, at the request of the Food States.' That is to say, the great curAdministration, the Elgin Board ceased rents of trade in that commodity, as operations. If we explore the depths to it moved to the central markets and find out what manner of organization out again to the consumers, urged on this is that fixes the prices of a com- by the imperious necessity of the promodity so widely bought and sold, ducers to sell, drawn by the desire of

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