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fully given - it was that, before this women's department. One woman exlaw could go into effect, there would plained to me that this was the boothave to be a jail and prison capacity in leggers' table and they would like to the city of Detroit three or four times ask me a few questions. Looking greater than that which it possesses. around, one could see that here was a
The Prohibition law has created a new type of criminal, manufactured by criminal class from formerly law-abide us with our Prohibition law. The ing citizens. Bootleggers abound and, huge gains to be made by selling liquor, in the majority of cases, go scot-free and the strong probability of not being with their ill-gotten gains. The law is caught, were two elements beyond the powerless to cope with the number of power of certain kinds of people to its infringers, while more and more of withstand. The question was, “Why the taxpayers' money is spent to in- are we here, when the judges on the crease the strength of the police. bench, the police, the rich in their
When one has been associated with a homes, the frequenters of high-priced prison he cannot but realize that we restaurants and hotels, are at large are beginning at the wrong end in try- while having and enjoying as much ing to diminish crime. We have never liquor as they see fit to buy?' taken the trouble to determine the This is a time-old question, merely causes, our one thought being to catch fitted to a new issue. There was only the offender and lock him up where he one answer, ‘Because you are poor, can no longer harm society.
without influence or power of any In the majority of cases he is set kind.' We may have gained in prohibifree again and if the same circum- tion but we have lost in temperance. stances prevail which deprived him of A very respectable class of persons who his liberty, with the added handicap of once regarded liquor as something to a prison sentence to his discredit, there be avoided now consider a social gathis little doubt but that he will offend ering incomplete without its exhilaratagain and frequently more seriously. ing accompaniment. Add to this the
There is rarely a reform in a prison. undermining of the public service and Locking up a man and taking away the demoralizing devices resorted to by everything in life that he desires is not the police to entrap makers of homeconducive to a frame of mind which brew in their homes, and we have will bring about a reformation.
a miserable spectacle in which mothers This being the case, is it not stupid are torn from their children and famion the part of society to deal with this lies completely disorganized. subject so superficially?
A law, to be successful, should be in We spend huge sums of money for accordance with the instinctive symthe isolation of disease germs and for pathy of the mass of the people. hygiene to ensure physical health, but In our prison we have a population we accept crime as an incomprehensible of entirely new criminals, bootleggers thing coming from no ascertainable and other liquor violators, while our cause, and show our helpless bewilder- disorderly drunken charges are not ment by our inability to cope with it. diminished.
bars is merely an acknowledgment of incurred by the government in its our weakness and lack of intelligence. efforts to enforce an unpopular law
I was invited recently to sit down at and the crimes of homicide and murder a long table in the Detroit prison in the which have followed in the wake of the bootlegger, and one is inclined to be many as is at all compatible with publieve that the 'cure' is worse in its lic safety. We should then get about effects than the disease.
the business of why we have criminals Often the criminal is insane or feeble- and try to remove the causes. The minded and should be put in an insti- criminologist, Ferri, in his book, The tution for such unfortunates, or he is Positive School of Crime, declares that the product of a social or economic crime has its root in 'anthropological, condition existing in the country where telluric, and social causes.' We may he has been reared. Legislating against not be able to change the first two, but crime will never do away with it. the last is one which should engross the Repressive measures only increase the attention of all criminologists. trouble. A doctor who treated a deep- As a matter of fact, the Detroit seated malady with outward applica- prison might easily be called the poortions alone would not stand well in his house. The man or woman with more profession. But that is exactly what than a few dollars to his credit is so the legislators are doing when they scarce that he is a curiosity. There pile up repressive laws for the cure of seems little doubt that poverty breeds criminals.
crime. Housed in squalor, crowded in We have made a beginning toward tenements, ignorant and often disbetter things with the psychopathic eased, these victims of economic maladclinic which examines the patient' as justment live by their wits and in the to his mentality. But this science is majority of cases end in the clutches of hardly a science as yet. It is too stereo- the law. typed and inflexible. The human brain The improvement of economic conis not a mere machine, and the so-called ditions, by which a man can be fairly ‘tests' are absurdly inadequate. Be certain of a livelihood and not be the sides, if a criminal is reported as seven football of fluctuating markets which years of age, mentally, the law takes throw him out of a job at a moment's no note of that. He must still pay the notice, would be a big factor in stabilizpenalty imposed upon a full-grown ing the character of men and keeping man. There will have to be radical them from crimes against property. changes in the law before the psycho- In spite of ignorance and lack of adpathic examinations will be followed by vantages generally, the average person scientific treatment of the patient. in prison realizes the terrible gulf of
inequality which separates the rich and II
the poor. He knows that justice is not
blindfolded, as the courts would have It would seem that our only hope, him believe, but fully awake to the until we have become more intelligent, individual with whom it is dealing. He is to keep from further entanglements knows that a great number of laws are through ever-increasing laws in an made to protect the rich and that to effort to solve our problem on the him that hath shall be given. He outside.
knows that if he had been able to emIn other words, there is little hope of ploy an expensive lawyer he would improving society by locking men in probably have been free, or that if he prison.
had had influential political friends We should endeavor to arrest as many strings might have been pulled few as possible; to parole and put on in his behalf. Knowing all this, he probation — a serious warning — as believes himself a victim, rather than a culprit. He justifies his lawless act, with a view to ascertaining the causes whatever it may have been. If he is underlying the particular varieties from strong he determines to 'get even' which we are suffering? when he is freed, if he is weak he de- Why could not a committee of psyscends to self-pity and becomes more chologists, economists, and sociologists and more demoralized. Any effort at be appointed who would diagnose inreformation on the part of prison offi- telligently the reason for the increasing cials he secretly regards with contempt. number of bandits, bootleggers, narAny form of punishment is merely add- cotic violators, and so forth? ing fuel to his flaming grudge against Let an epidemic of any sort appear society. There is no doubt but that the among the hogs of our nation, let an world has advanced in this last re insect pest attack our grain — there spect, though punishments and some is quick action on the part of Washforms of torture still exist.
ington to safeguard our food supAt present we are reaping the after- ply and, incidentally, the profits of the math of war in the crime wave of packers and the grain dealers. banditry which has swept the country. Why, then, should we be indifferent Training hundreds of thousands of to the disease of crime and remain conyoung men to kill and applauding them tent with the antiquated methods of as heroes in war would naturally lead the classic school in its treatment? to the lawlessness and disregard of Why should we continue to follow human life which we are now obliged to the line of least resistance — manuendure. Having sown the wind we facturing laws galore, adding to police should not be aghast at the whirlwind forces, employing more and more which follows. Add to this the lawless- judges, building more and more jails ness resulting from the Prohibition and prisons, creating more and more amendment and we understand certain criminals, spending the taxpayers' phases of our condition to-day. money for repressive rather than con
What, then, can be done by way of structive measures, when we know that betterment?
we are in a vicious and ever-widening Why could not the government circle which ends nowhere and, therescientifically study this matter of crime fore, accomplishes nothing?
BY WILL C. BARNES
On the top of a small prairie mountain 'There's what ole Blue Jay's lookin'at. dotted with half a dozen wide-spread. Beats all how quick a hoss will catch ing cedar trees, a man armed with a sight of anything a-movin'. That's pair of field glasses eagerly scanned the either a “dust-devil” or the smoke from country below him. A short distance a bunch of runnin' hosses.' A minute's away his horse stood close to a tree close study of the distant bit of yelas if to screen him from sight. For all lowish dust; then — 'No, 't ain't a the interest the animal took in his dust-devil, for it strings along the tops surroundings he might have been a of them trees 'stead of risin' straight graven image. His closed eyes, the up. Hosses all right, an' I reckon it's pendulous lower lip lying loosely back Bill, hazin' old Baldy along after a from his teeth, the flopping ears, indi- bunch of broom-tails. cated very clearly that he was sound He turned to the horse. Come alive, asleep.
old skate, for if I'm not mistaken you Suddenly he raised his head in a got a regular job cut out for you. If
distance, cocked first one ear, then the wild ones headed by that renegade other, in the direction his eyes were gray hoss what got away from the taking, as horses always do when they schoolmarm last fall, it'll take some discover some moving object coming ridin' to head 'em into a corral.' suddenly into view. The change from Rapidly he loosened the cinches, recomplete indifference to an attitude of set his saddle, threw the long reins over keen interest was remarkable. The the horse's neck, and swung on to his rattling of the long chains on the back. Still keeping close to the trees heavy Spanish bit in the animal's as if to hide his presence, he scanned mouth caught the man's ear. He the point in the distance where he glanced toward him.
expected the bunch of wild horses to What you see, old fellow?' he emerge from the shelter of the trees into queried. 'I have n't been able to get the open prairie. Soon the leaders my eyes on a single movin' thing since broke into sight, swinging along on a we came up here exceptin' that skulkin' smooth, sweeping run, dropping at coyote down there on the flat watchin' intervals into a fast trot, with necks for a dinner of fat prairie-dog. What outstretched, manes and tails flying in you wigglin' them ears for?'
the wind. Twenty-seven grown anTaking a position before the horse, imals he counted, all dark colors except the man trained the field glasses in line the leader, a gray which he knew to with the pointing ears. 'H-m-m, be the notorious escaped saddle-horse shucks!' he said, beneath his breath. 'Steeldust,' the animal every cowboy
on that range would gladly give a prevailed. A huge hole, where some month's wages to capture.
hungry badger had dug out a good The man smiled as he recalled the dinner of prairie-dogs, yawned under dramatic incident of Steeldust's escape the horse's feet. She gave a sharp pull from civilization. Caught three years on the reins. The next moment she before from a band of wild horses, went flying over his head to the bare broken, and fairly domesticated, the ground of the dog town. When she gray had been a gift from his captor to recovered consciousness it was past a young woman who came to the little midday, and there was absolutely hamlet in the valley to teach the dozen nothing in sight but a saucy prairie-dog or more sons and daughters of the that sat atop of his family mound, local stockmen their three R's, plus a scolding angrily at her for daring to little respect for discipline. She was an intrude on his privacy. adventurous girl and one day riding Except for a cut on her forehead alone, far out on the range, she saw a from a sharp rock, she was unhurt. band of wild horses coming down the Late that evening she was discovered trail to water at a little prairie lake, by a cowboy who took her up in front and gave chase for the pure love of a of him on his saddle and carried her wild, reckless ride.
back to town, little the worse for her From that first jump, her horse experience. strained every nerve to overtake his from that time on, every cowformer companions of the open ranges. puncher in the region wasted more than For a mile or so she tore after them like his share of perfectly good horseflesh mad. Steeldust, named after a noted in efforts to find her lost horse. ForTexas race stallion, needed no touch of tunately she was able to point out spur or quirt. Twice the girl kept the almost the exact spot where she had band from reaching the shelter of a fallen. She recalled that as she went deep 'cedar brake' in which they over the horse's head she had felt her would have buried themselves safe from saddle turn on his side and swing underpursuit. Her mount was too fast for neath his round belly. Not being used them, and as she swung out to one side to carrying a saddle on that part of and waved her hat, the leader changed his anatomy, the horse had probably his course and raced away in the oppo- stampeded, incidentally kicking the site direction, only to dash again for the saddle to bits. Half a mile from where cedars when she fell back a little. she fell they began to pick up pieces
Suddenly one of the band stumbled, of the wreck: here a broken stirruplost its footing, and went headlong to leather; there a pair of saddle pockets; the ground, rolled clear over, lay still her saddle rope; the quirt Sandy Bowfor a moment, then was up on its feet, ers plaited for her that was hanging on and with wild neighings raced after the the horn; her slicker that was tied on rest. Almost on the instant, the girl the cantle; and finally the saddletree realized the cause of its fall, for she itself, a mere wreck of its former found herself in the midst of a prairie beauty, the broken latigo showing how dog village, the open holes dangerous the horse had finally rid himself of it. pitfalls for a horse.
Minus this embarrassment, Steeldust, Her cowboy friends had always told to quote one of the boys, 'surely quit her never to try to guide her mount the flats and went yonderly, headed for through such a place — to give him his his old wild bunch.' head and trust to luck.' But instinct One of the girl's last gifts from an