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wives. The traditional picture of the proximation to the structure of nature. American Family in Europe has the He does not even know whether there foundation of truth usual in carica- is any such thing as ultimate truth or tures; so have the adventures of Mr. ultimate reality. As a scientist he Jiggs. Woman is the culturally active works on 'verifiable hypotheses with member of American civilization, and an extending fringe of theory,' to be she drags man, feebly protesting, in her verified in its turn. So at any moment wake.
he may say, 'This, which I have hithBut now, as to the value of pure erto believed to be true, I now find is science, art, and religion, that is, their only partially so. Accordingly I change value apart from their practical or my belief.' social uses.
The whole idea of unchangeable Scientific work is disinterested; it is truth and of pure dogma is, in fact, concerned only with the discovery of unscientific. Recently, for instance, truth and the increase of knowledge, our ideas upon the constitution of matnot in any way with its effect upon ter and the 'law of gravitation' have society. The value of science lies in been subjected to severe revision. this disinterested quality, and in its Popular protests were actually pubinsistence upon accuracy, so far as that lished against Professor Einstein on the can be attained. Pure science has no ground that he was wrong (apparently respect for old established traditions, morally wrong) to disturb the Newbeliefs, or superstitions, except in so tonian law; but every scientific man far as they can stand the test of ac- knew that Newton's ‘law'was as much curate investigation; it insists upon subject to revision as any other sohonest thought. Science is therefore called 'law' of nature. These ‘laws' cathartic; it cleanses our thought from are only human approximations to an sloppy, half-realized ideas and beliefs. unknowable reality. Science can have The first essential of the scientific no dogmas. But such a condition of attitude is that our thoughts and our flux in belief is very unpleasant to beliefs, whatever may be their nature, many men. They demand nice clear shall be perfectly clear and definite; the facts! “This is true, that is false; this is second is that they shall not be in good, that is bad.' And these values conflict with facts, so far as we know are to be the same forever. One functhem. As a consequence we must tion of pure science is to destroy this never fear a new truth because it simple attitude, and to substitute for it appears to be in conflict with a former the divine curiosity, the endless desire belief. We need more men who will to know, by which alone the mind can insist upon truth though the heavens develop fall.
Science insists that there is no But what is truth? This is an im-' opinion which may not be subject to portant point upon which the practical criticism; even more, that every opinion mind attacks science.
must be subjected to the severest critiNo scientific man ever supposes that cism, provided only that the criticism he will or can attain to ultimate truth. is sincere. It is by continual critiThat is a question for metaphysics cism that our knowledge is increased. rather than for natural science. The Yet how many men to-day are willmost that the scientist can do is to ing to submit their political opinions to attain to a slightly more accurate radical criticism, or to consider raddescription of and a slightly closer ap ical opinions as worthy of rational
icadical crimit theinen to-das increastiti
criticism. Most of us make efforts him to sincerity. For the one social toward a more scientific attitude of crime which the artist can commit is mind, and we know how difficult is the insincerity, and sentimental art is the scientific attitute toward a 'cherished only real immoral art. The artist is the opinion. But we know also how great man who feels deeply and sincerely, is the reward when we persist in such and who can convey these feelings to an attitude. It is firm ground beneath others; and if he is to do his best work our feet.
he must be concerned with no other end The scientific attitude is more than than art. Art for art's sake does not the investigation of nature: it is the mean art abstracted from life, but art attitude of moral and intellectual valuable as itself, independent of utility, honesty.
economy, or morality. And such art We value the artist to-day less than should pervade life, making for honest the scientist, because it is more difficult workmanship and honest design in to find a practical use for him. We have everything we have or use. We can already indicated some of the uses feel rightly about even the shape of a commonly assigned to art, and a little spoon or a chair, just as we can feel rationalizing will produce further prac- rightly about the destiny of a nation. tical virtues even in the fine arts. So In this view ‘old masters' cease to long as department stores and banks have any very great value. They were find a commercial value in imposing once the fresh vision of a prophet, they buildings, so long will the architect are still interesting and beautiful be allowed to be, or to hire, an artist. expressions of eternal humanity, but So long as well-drawn advertisements they are not of that intense and imare considered to be profitable, so long mediate importance to us which is will commercial artists be supported; possessed by the artistic vision of and so long as the possession of pictures to-day. is looked upon as a social asset, so long The ordinary man, however, in so will ‘art-lovers' who cannot afford old far as he thinks about the matter at masters make a virtue of buying the all, prefers to rest content with those products of to-day. There are and will visions of beauty which satisfied his always be a few to whom art is a part of great-grandmother. So, when a painter life; but, in the main, art, literature, and or a writer produces work which has an music are to-day regarded as embel- immediate bearing upon present-day lishments to be rated according to life, particularly if it exposes some their commercial or social value. comfortable emotion inherited from his
But just as science frees the intellect, great-grandmother, or if it considers so art frees and cleanses the emotions. life from some point of view unseen by The artist is the emotional expert that lady, the average man is flicked in whose function is to expose false or the raw. A fresh vision in art is even outworn emotions, passions, and prej- more irritating than a fresh knowledge udices, to show what is noble and what in science. Fresh views in anything are is base in life without regard for the indeed usually branded as 'immoral.' feelings of any man. All fine and Art is the cleanser of emotion, noble art is as cathartic emotionally science is that of intellect; what place as science is intellectually.
is then left for religion? This is a value of pure art, yet even The churches to-day are devoted to with this value the artist is not con- social endeavor, a most necessary and cerned except in so far as it compels useful work, and they are full of activity. They perform a very neces- To many of us the churches to-day sary part in our social organization; appear to be chiefly instruments of yet it is notorious that scientific men moral compulsion. Every faddist who and artists do not attend their services chooses to denounce woman's clothes, very regularly. For this the churches the way she cuts her hair, dancing, naturally blame the scientists and smoking, literature, sculpture, painting, artists — regarding them as “irreli- evolution, any form of social or moral gious. The scientists and artists say freedom, finds support in the churches. very little about it; they seem to find This view may be very unfair, but their lives complete without the aid of until some decisive body of church the churches. Yet they are probably opinion speaks out boldly on behalf of a very highly religious body of men. freedom, of the right of the individual For religion is not belief in any body of man to choose right or wrong, and to be dogma, it is effort of man to bring him responsible for his own choice, such a self into sympathy with the universe. judgment will be made. The churches It is therefore intensely personal. at present raise a chorus of denunci
It seems a pity that the beauty of ation, the ordinary man meekly acour own religion should be obscured by cepts their expert opinion, and then quarrels regarding the historic truth of pays no further attention to what he this or that narrative. Historic truth regards merely as a professional declais a matter for scientific inquiry ending mation. in a verdict of proved or not proved. Yet religion is a necessity for manIt should be kept apart from religion. kind not because it gives a supernatural
'The kingdom of God is within sanction to some code of morals, but you.' 'But rather seek ye the kingdom because it binds man and the universe of God and all these things shall be in sympathy. Coercion and repression added unto you.'
are police functions and no proper part Whoever seeks sincerely and faith- of religion. Indeed these coercive fully that which he believes to be true moral measures are simply confessions and right; whoever schools his intellect of failure. The reformer must needs in the sharp discipline of science, and regard his fellow creatures as either too his emotions in the equally sharp dis- weak or too wicked to lead decent lives, cipline of art, is not far from the king- so he must forbid every natural pleasdom. Not only is there no opposition ure lest it might be turned to evil. between science, art, and religion, but But there is no need to pursue the I would venture to assert that no man ‘reformer' further, though he is one of can be deeply religious who is not in the saddest results of our over-socialsympathy with science and art. It ized society. He is one result of thinkcannot be contrary to religion to seek ing only in terms of the community and a further knowledge of nature or a ignoring the individual, and he is at further insight into human emotion. present doing infinite harm, for, by his Science and art are deeply religious in insistence on evil, he is breaking down themselves; for the better we know the barriers between real evil and good. ourselves and the universe of which we He is a negative creature. are a part the nearer we shall be to God. This is perhaps mysticism, nowadays
III rather out of fashion, yet many have questioned whether religion can exist Science is the cleanser of thought, without mysticism.
art is the cleanser of emotion, and
religion is the effort of man to bring Meanwhile of course the first reform himself into unity with the universe. required is that boys should be eduWe cannot live without all three, and cated by men, not by underpaid girls. in all three there is a common feature. The Boy Scout movement is in the Their reward is not in the end ac- right direction in that it is at any rate complished, but in the effort. The an effort by men to influence boys. scientist's work is unending—as he But the virtues inculcated in the Boy attains one step the next is before him. Scouts are the general human virtues When the artist has completed a work it such as bravery, endurance, kindness, has to him no further value; he looks and courtesy. Perhaps young boys are forward to a finer view. Religion is hardly capable of learning the manly without end, and must deepen in har- virtues of abstract science and art, or mony with a deeper appreciation of the necessity of doing their own thinkthe Universe. To this deeper apprecia- ing. I am afraid, too, that boys are tion both science and art must con- sometimes taught to be docile, and that tribute.
is not a virtue at all. However, they To all men the joy of work should be rarely learn. the joy of life, work without regard to The next step is possibly to get a economics or efficiency or organization; good deal of the prevailing utilitarianfor, if we have the right attitude to our ism out of our universities. At present work, a sufficiency of these things will these are mostly technical schools, very be added to it. At present our humanity useful and necessary institutions, but is in danger of being choked by efficien- of very little help to the active mind. cy, and work is too often a thing to be But the only reform which will ever endured for the sake of its end instead do any permanent good is a change in of loved for its own sake.
public opinion. When the thinker, the It is the business of the men to set scientist, the artist, and the mystic are these things right, and to bring back respected regardless of their wealth or into our lives some measure of the of their economic value — then our abstract and disinterested virtues. I civilization may hope to match even sincerely hope that women may in that of war-scarred Europe. time be successful in business and in These reforms will not be brought administration, and that they may in about, if ever they come, by organipart drive out men from these occupa- zations or by campaigns or by slogans, tions, compelling them at last to attend but by a stirring in each man's mind to those important matters which they impelling him to seek freedom. This is are best able to undertake. Then per a man's business. But the men seem to haps we may have a revaluation. be all asleep.
DEAD MAN'S BROW
BY WILFRID GIBSON
As for the first time over Dead Man's Brow
With arms well-nigh out of their sockets jerked
At length I lifted a huge slab that lay
With knee-joints drawn up to its jowl, it clasped
Upon its fleckless teeth of flawless white
Forgetful of the wind that flicked my blood