bad inimubsequent/

no violah

is this anyone's business. Human mo- 1925. Subsequently attacked as a tives are too mixed to admit of such "bad influence in the game in the reabsolute criteria. Surely it is no viola- port of the Amateur Rule Committee, tion of amateurism to play under a Tilden resigned as a member of the doctor's orders, or for the sake of keep- Olympic and Davis Cup squads. The ing one's boastful children in their resulting protest by both players and places, or to keep the Davis Cup from public forced the U. S. L. T. A. to wandering abroad, or for any other withdraw the interpretation, invite reason unconnected with money reward Tilden to play for the Davis Cup, and that seems good and sufficient to the appoint a Committee of Seven to replayer himself.

view the entire case on its merits. The English rule wisely avoids strew- Four members of that Committee ing the path of amateurism with such have been appointed by President silly obstacles. It deals solely with the Wightman of the U. S. L. T. A., two receiving of money or its equivalent, favoring the 'interpretation' and two directly or indirectly, for playing or opposed. The latter are Tilden himself teaching tennis. That is a first principle and the writer. to which we should return.

I am convinced that this dispute, Of four Acts of Disbarment in the like many others, arises from confusing U. S. L. T. A. roster, only one relates the definition of amateurism with regueven indirectly to the writing of articles lations governing tournament competion lawn tennis, the source of the pres- tions. The need for regulation is unient controversy. A player is disbarred versally admitted; but there is likewise for permitting the use of his name in need for discrimination. If a player is connection with articles which he did employed by a sporting-goods house to not write. The plain inference is that exploit his skill and fame for its benefit if he does write the articles appearing and his own, he violates every tenet under his name he is safe. Since none and tradition of amateurism; but if he of the men whose amateur status has enters that business just as he would go been thrust into danger lately could be into the selling of hardware or any proceeded against under this or any other commodity, I do not agree that other existing rule, those opposed to he should be cast out of amateur circles. ‘player-writers' passed last February The case for Tilden rests on the same what is called an 'interpretation of basis. His receipts come from writing, the amateur rule. This purports to link not from play, and they are a measure with another act of disbarment the not of his tennis skill but of his literary writing of articles on tennis for sub- skill and industry. He could go on stantial compensation. This ‘interpre- writing articles that would find a ready tation’ is really no part of the amateur market long after he ceased to play. In rule, albeit the present controversy fact his ability to write entertainingly rages around it.

and instructively on tennis will conAs is nearly always the case where tinue to hold his audience for many principles and personalities are equally years. Sam Hardy, one-time Pacific affected, the personal element has Coast champion, is still earning a subcrowded to the front. The direct issue stantial income by writing on tennis. was raised between the U.S.L.T. A. and If Tilden were to be physically incaChampion William T. Tilden, 2nd. It pacitated to-morrow his income would became evident that he would be bar- be more likely to go up than down, bered from competition after January 1, cause he would have more time in which to produce copy. If the champion were As an editor I judge that he, as interested only in money, he would writer, gets what his articles are worth, quit match play at once and put all his neither more nor less; there are other energy into books and articles, as he qualified tennis-writers, and supply and has more than once been urged to do by demand fixes prices, in the long run, of publishers. Yet that would be a dis- tennis articles as well as of tennis balls. tinct loss to the game, as he is unques- Tilden can safely rest his case on tionably the greatest match tennis- the right of an individual athlete to player that ever lived. The point is earn money in any calling he chooses, that he loves the game for its own sake, provided it is earned not by playing and sacrifices his financial well-being or teaching the game. every time he competes in a tourna If need be, Tilden's amateurism ment.

might be favorably compared to that of Another element worth considering other tennis-players actively interested is that Tilden made more money selling in the manufacture of tennis equipinsurance than he does writing tennis- ment. articles. He quit the former pursuit for But why make odious comparisons reasons honorable to his sporting in- on false reasoning? It is sheer fallacy stinct, because he disliked the work and to assume that all profits from the because it was the baldest recognition sport violate amateurism. Once we of his tennis fame. The latter gave him start upon that boggy road we invite inentrée to offices when other solicitors evitable breakdown. Is the financial cooled their heels in antechambers; big head of a sporting-goods house, ipso business men bought insurance from facto, a professional player? Are his him and then settled back in their clerks and stenographers professionals chairs to talk of tennis. On the other even though they may not even physihand, he likes to write, and likes also to cally touch tennis goods? Is he who interpret the intricacies of a beloved makes the cloth covering of tennis balls sport to the countless thousands of dev- less an amateur than he who builds otees remote from the large centres ships? And what, in turn, is the status who never see important matches. He of these purveyors of tennis materials relishes the thought that he is assisting – wool growers and buyers, steel manin the development of countless young ufacturers, Amazon rubber gatherers, players and in broadening the demo- varnish makers, flax growers, and cratic basis of a clean and zestful sport. hosts of others who profit legitimately Lack of unearned income is surely no by meeting the wants of two million fault of his and no obstacle to good tennis-players? No; revenue from tenrepute in America. Why, then, should nis, as such, is not enough to destroy he not earn his way in the work which amateur status. appeals most to his nature and for Even the most excited advocates of which he is singularly well fitted, espe- drastic tennis-legislation admit that cially when it is clear that he is paid for lawn tennis is overwhelmingly amawork and not for play?

That is the nub of the whole argu- main so; therefore they have taken, ment. Actually it is of small moment tentatively, a step utterly without precwhether Tilden earns much or little by edent. No other tennis governing writing, or whether he puts in only a body ever has seriously proposed to few hours or all his spare time at his prohibit the writing of articles on tendesk.

nis for money. Some have regulated


fullpteur standing

such writing, properly enough, as a job without playing in a single tournamatter of discipline. For instance, the ment, and if the former could sell his Australian Davis Cup players, now in articles exactly as well if he broke his this country, have been forbidden to leg in June and could do no more cable stories of matches but — let Til- than hobble till October, how could the den's critics note this well — they are amateur standing of either be successspecifically urged to send newspaper fully attacked? stories back to Australia by mail. The gist of the matter is: 'Are Til

There might be an excuse for expel- den's writings on tennis worth what he ling the greatest match-player of all receives for them, regardless of any time from amateur ranks if his pay for playing he does?' As the editor of a writing articles on tennis depended on tennis magazine I am both qualified his playing in certain tournaments or and compelled to answer with a cateon his being champion of the United gorical, “Yes.' And as long as truth States, just as the employee of a sport- rightfully compels me to make that ing-goods house might be barred if his answer, it also compels me to fight for chief contribution to the business con- Tilden's amateur status against all sisted of goods sold through tennis combinations of men, circumstances, play. But if the latter could hold his and sophistries.

There might Australia by me wspaper



In an article on ‘Woman and Civiliza- tend toward the abstract and individual tion' in the Atlantic Monthly of Sep virtues, the women toward the social tember 1923, the suggestion was made and practical. We are then justified that woman's genius lies in organiza- in speaking of a 'man's culture' or tion, administration, and social effort, a 'woman's culture' according as the while man's is rather individual, ab- social organization of a country enstract, and imaginative. This view is courages one of these directions at not by any means new; many students, the expense of the other. Whichever both of mind and of body, hold that direction the culture may take will be some such distinction between the shared in by both sexes to the dissexes can reasonably be made, bearing advantage of one of them. The ideal always in mind the degree to which culture would be one in which the two men and women share in each other's tendencies were evenly balanced, but characteristics. We may put it that we know that such a balance is rarely there is a common stock of human attained and then held only for a short nature from which individual men and time. women vary; the men on the whole On this continent of North America

there can be little doubt which culture of science, art, and religion, each of we possess at present. We pride our them a well-recognized activity with a selves upon the practical qualities of bearing upon the other two. our civilization. We ‘get things done, Abstract science, pure research, is often with good results, often without valued by farseeing men in America; sufficient consideration of what the it is even endowed by rich ones, but results will be.

usually upon the assumption that the Abstract science, the fine arts, and practical applications of science can religion are indeed valued by thought be reached only through pure research. ful men, but they are on the whole We are continually hearing that wirevalued for their practical and social less telegraphy rose almost incidentally worth, not as things in themselves. out of purely scientific investigations, They are valued for their effect on the and so scientific study is commended as community, not for their effect on the a means to a practical end, as an inindividual. It is indeed rare to hear strument for some world-wide reform, any theory of reform or of social not as a thing good in itself. Our amelioration put forward which is not Utopias of to-day are applied-science based upon organized action by one paradises. part of the community upon another In the same way the fine arts are to part. The individual tends to be be encouraged for their elevating social ignored. Indeed the extensive schemes qualities, or for their effect in adding to of reform which are from time to time our reputation as a wealthy and culforced, or threatened, upon us are all tured people. This was the old Roman based upon the idea that men who live idea, and we are very like the old in a virtuous community will be virtu- Romans in many ways. To possess ous. Action is therefore aimed at the great museums and picture galleries is entire community, both good and bad. one of the marks of a great nation; Our habits are to be controlled or every Rembrandt or Velasquez brought altered because they are supposed to across the Atlantic gives a thrill of have an ultimately bad effect upon the patriotic pride. It is true that the community, not because they are bad masterpiece may merely pass from one in themselves. We are to ‘set a good private collection to another. It may, example.' The opposite idea, that a as is rumored of certain Shakespeare virtuous community is one composed of folios, merely pass into a millionaire's virtuous individuals, is rarely heard. cellar; but such purchases create an The reformer insists that the individual atmosphere of connoisseurship. We must suffer for the good of the com- cannot say that our leading citizens are munity; the individual may well answer indifferent to art, or that art has no that reforms which make the individual value. Some art evidently has a very suffer are themselves bad for the com- large value. If that value accrues to munity.

the art-dealer rather than to the artist, Our purpose at present is to show we have long ago agreed that the disthat the abstract and individual life, tributor is more worthy than the prothe life of the man, has a value in ducer. itself, and that this value is largely It would be absurd to assert that the ignored in the cultural life of North social value of art is not a very real America.

thing; it would be absurd to ignore It is convenient to consider this entirely its financial value. The point abstract life under the three divisions to be made is that the fine arts have an inherent value which is neither of course, that the day of small business social nor commercial, but rather in- is over, that economically the little dividual. A great country produces man must give way to or be absorbed great artists rather than great cols in the great organization. So long as lections.

size — impersonal, unindividual size – Religion is similarly valued because is our ideal this must be so. If our ideal we consider that it tends to make peo- gave more value to the individual and ple act rightly toward one another. less to the organization, it would not So we find that the churches lay great be so. The question is not whether stress upon philanthropy, upon social such business is more or less efficient, endeavor and organization, and upon not whether it produces more goods reform. We would all agree that a at a less cost — but: Would we as religion which did not tend to make its individuals be happier, would we have people morally better was a very poor more scope for development if we paid religion; we would agree, too, that our less attention to efficiency and more own religion does, in the main, have to living, less attention to 'getting this effect. A very great number of together' and more to individuality? church adherents frankly support the Professor Mavor, of Toronto, in his churches upon social grounds, holding recently published memoirs, says, that their main value is that they are "To the Scot's mind not “getting a steadying influence for good in a together” but getting decisively sepasociety which is all too easily disrupt rate on fundamental contradictions is ed. This is all true, nor would one the right plan.' We need occasionally attempt to minimize its importance, to be reminded of the advantages of but it is only one half of the truth. separation, and to realize that union Religion has a value to the individual is not always strength — it is often which is quite apart from its social merely a symptom of weakness. Sheep value.

flock together.

Man is not a solitary animal, but

neither is he a flock animal. He needs Now let us turn from these abstract both organizations. To me the social elements of life to the preëminent type appears essentially that of the activity of the modern American world. woman, the individual that of the man;

The conduct of commercial life is and I venture to think that the case supposed to be the peculiar province of for the man's culture has not been the man. America leads in 'big busi- sufficiently brought forward. But ness'; the ambition of the American whose fault is that? Certainly not young man, if we are to judge by the woman's. fiction, literature, and the advertise We cannot blame active, publicment column, is to become an employ- spirited, and capable women if they do ee in big business. The ‘highly paid things their own way. They have executive,' the trusted servant of a captured our elementary education, great corporation, at an equivalent our art, and our intellectual culture. salary — these are the ideals of success. Where they do not actually practise Yet there was a time when most men these things they influence them. longed for a business of their own, even Meanwhile our men play politics or a small business. It was perhaps the poker or golf in the intervals of combetter loved because it was small and merce, and submit their intellectual private and struggling. We are told, and emotional lives to the rule of their

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