outsider could judge, and the players wheel, he is Prime Minister of England; do not always see the game to the best yet at a “Victory Meeting,' held at advantage, Mr. Baldwin had the better the Albert Hall after his election, argument. He spoke with great sim- the proceeding commenced with the plicity and directness, but I believe, singing of the Marseillaise and conhad he consulted his own personal cluded with "The Red Rag.' This was wishes, he would have prayed to be let not a good beginning, but there is out of the difficulty of governing Eng- nothing so sobering as responsibility, land during these troublesome times. and the burden which rests upon Mr. Lloyd George on the other hand Mr. MacDonald is almost crushing. gave his hearers an hour's free enter- I believe that one thing that containment; he joshed his audience and tributed to Mr. Baldwin's defeat was jazzed the subject until all, except the unwise and improvident agreement the judicious, were convulsed with he reached with Mr. Mellon, our Secrelaughter.

tary of the Treasury, relative to the Since Labor came in not a word has English war debts. Mr. Baldwin came been heard of the most important to this country with the Governor of plank in its platform, the capital the Bank of England, and was hailed levy’; that is to say, Labor sought or as an astute financier. There was, was said to seek the confiscation by naturally, a contest between the group Government of an immense amount of representing England and the group the wealth of the nation. Asked how representing the United States. By a many times they intended to put this miracle it so happened that we were plan in operation, they said ‘once represented by a distinguished finanonly' — which was clever; for having cier and not a politician: the result was once done so what wealth was left that Mr. Mellon, holding all the cards, would have flown away. Listen to Mr. was able to freeze into concrete form Lloyd George's rhetoric on this sub- our claims against England for the ject: ‘At the mere possibility of a La- sums that we advanced her during the bor Government, the western skies war, and also the money that through become black with the flight of capital her we loaned to France and Italy. seeking safety beyond the Atlantic. These obligations were given a due The fright is real: there has been noth- date and at a fixed rate of interest: ing like it since horror filled the streets look at the result: due to the fall in exof Rome at the approval of Attila.' change, after paying us some hundreds What actually happened was that the of millions, England now finds herself ‘5% War Loan,' the premier security owing us a greater sum than she owed of England, went off about three before she paid us a penny. It is heartpoints at the possibility of Mr. Ramsay breaking for her to contemplate, but MacDonald's election, and promptly heroically she makes no complaint. recovered them upon his coming into She is the only country that will make

any real effort to pay us, and she may During the war, Mr. MacDonald break her back in an effort to do so — was a 'passivist,' a 'conscientious ob- which would be almost as unfortunate jector,' and an 'internationalist.' He for us as for her. The debts of France made what trouble for the Government and Italy occasion these countries just he could: a passport was denied him as much concern as you would feel, when he sought to visit his friends in dear reader, if Mr. Rockefeller had an Russia. Now, by a turn of the political outlawed claim against you for a hundred million dollars. Politicians cannot longer is the Elephant in the suburbs: say these things, but there is no good it is now a great public house in one of reason why a book-collector should not. the most densely populated districts in Mr. MacDonald, Socialist, Laborite, south London, a centre as crowded as call him what you will, is to-day the Piccadilly Circus, but very different in

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and here I shall venture to make a Walking through the magnificence of prophecy. Due to world conditions Whitehall, stopping to look at the with which we are all familiar, England Abbey and the Houses of Parliament will, within ten years, have a protective as they rose out of the mist, over Westtariff: she may, she probably will, call minster Bridge, skirting, almost, Lamit something else; no doubt she will be beth Palace, the official residence of the told it is something else, and the man Archbishop of Canterbury, I passed likely to do the telling is that verbal from splendor to scenes of poverty and acrobat — Mr. Lloyd George.

misery almost beyond belief. Lloyd George! What a man he is! The streets of London are probably An actor rather than a statesman. If safer than the streets of any other large he had chanced to adopt the stage as city in the world: the police are not a profession — but hold! he has: all ‘in politics, as with us, and although the world 's a stage, and he has been many were drinking and a few were performing on a large one.

drunk, there was no disorder. My thoughts led me to Albert Chevalier, that great music-hall artist who died

not long ago, and of his cycle of songs: In no city in the world does poverty 'The Future Mrs. 'Awkins,' 'The so impinge upon wealth as in London. Cradle Song,' 'The Little Nipper,' — The rewards for eminence in any busi- a masterpiece, — ‘Knocked 'em in the ness or profession in England are im- Old Kent Road,' — which everyone mense, but mediocrity has a hard time sings, -and the really pathetic song of of it, and failure is punished severely. “My Old Dutch,' sung by Chevalier as One is constantly impressed with the an infirm old man to his wife of forty magnificence of the fashionable dis- years. For Chevalier's sake, from The tricts and the misery of the slums, and Elephant I hoofed it through the New they exist almost side by side. "The Kent to the Old Kent Road, 'knockin' rich man in his castle, the poor man at 'em’ as I went (and not badly either, his gate' — with a vengeance.

for I learned my songs in a good school). One cold, raw Saturday night in Listen to this bit from 'The Little December, I put on a cap and a heavy Nipper': coat and tramped from my little flat near Piccadilly to the Elephant and (Spoken) ‘Only last night me an' the Castle, 'in the south suburbs,' where, missus took ’im out for a walk — I should says Shakespeare. is best to lodge' say 'e took us out. As we was a comin' Three or four centuries ago elephants

'ome I says to the old gal, “Let's pop into

the Helephant and ’ave a drop o' beer.” were always represented with pagodas

She did n't raise no objection, so in we goes or castles on their backs, and such a followed by 'is nibs — I'd forgotten all tavern sign must once have hung before about "im a tiny tavern at a place where a num- 'I goes to the bar and calls for two pots ber of roads met leading to important of four 'alf. Suddenly I feels 'im a-tuggin' towns in Kent and Surrey. But no at my coat.

actiny taxon matti police, where a

““Wot's up?" sez I.

proper dinner with a bottle of burgundy «“Wot did yer call for?” sez 'e.

of just the right temperature, or‘a large «“Two pots of four ’alf," sez I.

cold bottle and a small hot bird’ after ““Oh,” sez 'e, “ain't mother goin' to

the theatre, because some farmer in ’ave none?”

South or West conceives that a beef(Sung) ‘Well 'e 's a little champion

steak smothered in onions, with hashed Do me proud well 'e 's a knock out,

brown potatoes, washed down with “Drink up,” sez 'e. “Three pots, miss, it's my iced water, is a feast for Lucullus? I am call.”

— without a doubt. What profiteth I sez, “Now Jacky, Jacky,"

it me if my gardener can no longer get a 'E sez, "and a screw of baccy," And 'e only stands about so 'igh, that's all!' drink of decent whiskey for fifteen

cents, if my daughter can go to a party The hero of this song is supposed to with a young man in a Ford coupe have reached the ripe age of seven. (not coupé, mind you), chaperoned by

Returning home I took the Tower a bottle of raw spirits? Bridge Road, past that historic pile On the other hand: I spent a week in with its thousand years of history; Liverpool, on a Gilbert and Sullivan through Billingsgate Market to St. pilgrimage, staying at the best hotel Paul's, the Strand, Piccadilly again, in England, the Adelphia, built for the ‘and so to bed,' almost in a bee line. American trade just before the war My meditation was upon prohibition. came and diverted all the traffic to We at least have made an effort to Southampton, where they rob you and deal with the question of drink, which give you nothing. The poverty, the some people consider the curse of Eng- squalor, the misery, the wretchedness, land, where the liquor interest seems the vice of Liverpool — largely due to more strongly intrenched than the drink — is something beyond words. Crown.

“But it is a seaport,' they tell you; Democracy just naturally makes for “seaports are always like that.' Two hypocrisy; no man holding office can weeks later I spent a few days in Marspeak his honest opinion; our politicians seilles — also a seaport: everyone sober,

the Constitution what should have been We are just where we set out, dear a police or, at best, a state regulation. Reader. “They order this matter better Am I to be deprived of the pleasure of a in France.'



JUDGE GAYNOR, speaking in Tammany least nine lives is characteristic of the Hall immediately after his election as larger members of the feline family, mayor of New York City in 1909, de- the symbol fits. No other political lighted his audience with his opening organization in America has been sentence, 'So this is Tammany Hall!' killed so often, yet none enjoys better Thus he recorded a fresh impression health to-day. with ironic humor. It was his first view The Society of Saint Tammany was of the interior of the famous Wigwam founded on May 12, 1789, two weeks on Fourteenth Street. All his adult life after the establishment of the United Tammany had been a power in his en- States Government. Within the one vironment and it had just pushed him hundred and thirty-five years of its un-. to the peak of his career. Nevertheless, interrupted existence it has received as a busy New Yorker and a resident of both the adulation and the contempt of home-keeping Brooklyn, he knew not the populace. It has shared in some of the sacred precincts and inner workings the purest aspirations and yet has vioof the organization that, more than any lated nearly every canon of decency. other force, had been dominating the At times it has attracted public servmetropolis throughout his lifetime. ants of unselfish patriotism and at

Tammany is a power known by name other times its agents have acted with to all Americans; but to most of them it sordid disregard of right. But, good is merely a name of sinister connota- and bad, Tammany lives on. Again tion. For that matter few of those who and again in its long history, it has been support Tammany consistently know forsaken by the people, only to be reits background; just as few of its thou- turned to power within an incredibly sands of district workers know what is brief space. In truth the alternation of going on in Tammany's inner circle. Tammany and reform governments in Moreover, the inner circle often is not New York City has had almost an astaken entirely into the confidence of tronomical quality. A mathematician, the 'big boss,' so completely does Tam- by charting Tammany's orbit, might many accept authority. Consequently predict its appearances and its periods it is no wonder that Tammany must be of eclipse with the assurance that as the thoroughly explained in order to be earth moves about the sun, or as the comprehended as a vital and appar moon waxes and wanes, so, after a seaently enduring element in the Ameri- son of exile and hunger, Tammany will can political system.

once more be joyfully enthroned in the Since the days of Nast the cartoon, hearts of the people. ists' symbol for Tammany Hall has Nor is this a reflection on the intellibeen the tiger. If the possession of at gence or morals of those who live on

Manhattan Island, New York City has researches are valuable indeed. He has a large undigested alien population, as, digested and made available vast numincidentally, have many of the larger bers of public reports. Everyone who American cities; but it is still to be would understand the development of proved that the strangers within our Tammany is his debtor. His history, gates have taught any guile to the however, is essentially a compilation of hard-headed Yankees they found upon sins. But as the poor are not always the the scene. New Yorkers are neither miserable, despite the imaginings of the better nor worse than their fellow pathetic school of novelists, so Tamcountrymen. New York is merely the many's history is by no means all briblargest and the richest community in ery and corruption. It is historically the New World and in consequence its untrue to portray Tammany as the politics, like its business, have been complete villain in the metropolitan conducted in the grand manner. Tam- melodrama. many is conspicuous by the enormity of This brief incursion into the territory its sins and the magnitude and con- of the famous ‘Braves' of New York's tinuance of its successes; but what has Wigwam is to ascertain why, despite happened on Manhattan Island has in the sins which have been so adequately varying degrees been repeated in most chronicled, the decent people of New American communities. From a purely York City tolerate Tammany. The political standpoint, Tammany is ese question can be the more easily sentially like the dominant political answered if this political tiger is aporganizations of other American cities. proached as a biologist would pursue William Marcy Tweed, the ‘Boss' a problem in natural history – openTweed of an evil chapter in municipal eyed and without confusing preconcephistory, admitted that Philadelphia tions. taught New York the fine art of

II ‘repeating' — fraudulent voting. The Tammany purposes and methods have The explanation of Tammany's perbeen typical of the political develop- sistent strength is simple. Tammany ment of the United States; for good and Hall has never been radical, but esfor evil its leaders have been charac- pouses popular causes. Moreover, teristically American, whatever their since the early decades of the nineplace or origin.

teenth century it has been the professed An open and unprejudiced mind, friend of aliens in a city constantly behowever, is needed if Tammany is to be ing resettled by immigrants. It has had seen in perspective. Nothing is gained singularly attractive social and chariby denying its faults or ignoring its table features and its leaders, from one virtues. Grant it a blanket indulgence; generation to another, have understood its opponents, including all the great the average man. The ‘human equametropolitan dailies, offset this with a tion' has had few mysteries for them. blanket indictment. Both methods Most important of all, Tammany has lead nowhere. Tammany is neither all made a business of politics. The men pure gold nor all sinful black, but who have advanced in the organization striped with both colors, like the tiger have worked systematically and init has chosen for a symbol.

telligently. They have taken their The most important book on the politics as seriously as other men take subject is Gustavus Myerss History of their profession or business. TamTammany Hall. Mr. Myers's scholarly many's record as a pioneer of move

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