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resources should be held by the Govern- discussion to two beliefs — not three. ment as trustee for the labor and capi. First: The greatest good of all tal involved. They concede that the springs naturally only from keeping actual development should be done by open the door of opportunity to the private parties, but insist that they individual. The parable of the talents shall work under lease and licence by condenses the whole of this philosophy which not only sovereignty but domi- into a few words. Possession and denation of procedure is retained by the velopment of property is a means by Federal Government.
which the individual expresses himself. President Roosevelt was the author Property is local. Government is local. of this theory and justified it by his If the essential character of both is assertion that the proper development recognized, the simplest method is and conservation of such resources found when the individual is allowed required large capital. He was dis- the greatest opportunity and when the posed to encourage large capital but nation is content to reflect the massed believed that the powers of government wealth and power of its citizens. should be employed to hold its charges Second: Natural resources are the and practices within reason. It was common endowment of all. Their incidentally, the operation of this very monopolization by individuals, states, plan — one might almost say the per- or nations, subverts the essential purfect exemplification of it - which led pose of creation. They should be held to the oil scandal of last winter. When in trust by those nearest to them, for this method of controlling our natural the benefit of the entire race, and should resources is proposed, one can imagine be so administered. how intense becomes the debate.
Thus we are confronted by a need The third school of thought embraces to choose only between private conthose who hold what are called the trol and ultimate internationalization. more extreme views. Their belief is That emphasizes Mr. Wilson's conthat natural resources are the common tention that our natural resources possession of all the people; that they should be considered as a primary should be owned by the Government, cause of war and should be so adminisand developed only by the Government tered as to remove the likelihood of war. in the interest of all of the owners. It Opposing his theory are those who is, I believe, no longer a secret that contend stoutly that our natural rethose who attacked the oil leases did so, sources should be used to promote the primarily, for the purpose of demon- power and the glory of the nation which strating to the public the correctness possesses them, through the indirect of their view that only public operation channel of the assured welfare of its should be permitted in future.
individual citizen. When we thus have, seemingly, While this battle is raging between three great beliefs supported by three the extremists, a third group suggests great groups of partisans, no possible that we modify the international point useful purpose can be served here by of view down to national supervision, espousing any one cause. Instead of and modify private control by introductrying it, I prefer to confine my en- ing Federal regulation. Their suggestion deavors to such a clarification of the is purely a compromise and leaves the real issues as will allow an approach to big question open. The real battle is the truth. The logic of everything that between private ownership and ultihas here been said reduces the whole mate internationalization.
THE CONTRIBUTORS' CLUB
generation at play for anticlimaxes 'THE HARDSHIP OF ANTICLIMAX
any more than young missionaries are JEAN KENYON MACKENZIE, in a paper, prepared. The climaxes — oh, yes! ‘Of Luxuries and Hardships,' tells these have been talked bare, worn graphically of the tangible difficulties smooth by many tongues. They have for which young missionaries are as- been explained and discussed. They siduously prepared by those who have been proscribed and prescribed, have preceded them, and those who diagnosed, and analyzed. Take scienhave not. 'But,' says the writer, 'the tifically dissected 'love, the original last thing such a one looks to see is a thriller. Anyone who has his second reed shaken by the wind. And yet teeth knows all about it, how it attacks there you are — the woods are full of and gets in its work even as the 'flu' them — reeds shaken by the wind! germ. But we are not so well instructed And this is the hardship of anti in regard to the time when it seems climax!
banished by the antitoxin of poverty or 'The hardship of anticlimax' is a worry, of temporary boredom or the phrase to conjure with. Or, rather, it 'desire to snap into something difdoes the conjuring, and will not quite ferent'— the anticlimax, when all the let one go. The words seem widely best one can do is to ‘sit tight' and applicable. They may describe most hang on. One wonders if any of us poignantly a problem faced by young know much about how to manage that, missionaries in foreign fields shut off even the all-knowing youth. largely from their own kind. Certainly There is teaching. Most earnest the words are also to be applied to most teachers do have dreams of accomof us wherever we be.
plishing something real. They leave Of all the explanations, from the normal schools keen for the children war to‘jazz,' of the younger generation who are their responsibility. Then, one and its apparently erratic behavior, Friday night, they are very apt to find what could be more smoothly said than that children cease to be children. that it can't stand 'the hardship of They have become, for the time being, anticlimax?' It simply must be leaping papers to mark, tests to prepare, from climax to climax like the tradi- attendance records to make out. The tional mountain goat. Unlike the human rapport is not. The high purmountain goat, it does not choose its pose on Friday night has become — an peaks with unerring discretion. It anticlimax. Methods, subject-matter, seldom measures the distance between theory and practice, they know in them. Dancing becomes anticlimactic. varying degrees, but this insidious Youth adds an after-dance supper, hiatus between them and accomplishthe much-talked-of after-supper auto- ment is not accounted for in any mobile ride, and then perhaps a coun- normal-school curriculum. Like entry-club breakfast at six-thirty, before gines, these teachers on this Friday it 'calls the night off.'
night have reached the dead centre, all Nobody ever prepared the younger unprepared.
There is also the boy home from the times, seem such a full schedule of front — the World Climax. Training bottles, such a scant schedule of sleep. camps made him ready for it. Govern- Rapture becomes daily care, close to ments equipped him for it. Continents the round of other daily cares. At cleared their tracks, and oceans were times it is even — an anticlimax. This, swept free, that he might reach it. He in spite of the fact that what old maids did. Then he returned. There is know about infants to-day mothers waiting for him a wire cage in a bank, a never knew in the world before. job in a garage, a field to plough. After Maiden ladies read of the latest Yalethe home-coming is over, he is for lock safety-pin in the newspaper adgotten in the round of daily living. vertisements at breakfast. Bachelors, Over there they are lighting the fuse of smoking late into the night, learn all the Ruhr, and putting Greece and about “buttonless undershirts for the Italy in the ring like a couple of game- newcomer' from the same source. cocks — without him. Over here they What a mother must know is encycloare canning peaches in the kitchen and pædic; but that a baby can descend to putting new gutters on the porch roof the daily norm of existence, and even — without him. He is nothing — who pull on her nerves like a telephone bell was the Hope of the World. He does that won't stop ringing, seems to be a not face an anticlimax. He is one. No fact for which she is totally unarmored. one ever drilled him for this. 'Strange There is no one who welcomes these that young men are so restless these periods of anticlimax unless it be he days!'
who has been battered and shaken and There are young women at work, yes, bruised out of his senses by some real millions of them. Youth and hope and tragedy. For a time he may lie gasping coquetry, loyalty and instability, be-' in relief at any cessation of necessary hind counters, operating typewriters, reactions. But just let him stagger to doing an endless number of things. his feet, and his taut nerves will clamor
for their work, or they could not hold acter, but above all one that is big positions. But the end of a clamorous enough to fill his enlarged capacity for day, the night in a small room, board. living. ing-house meals, — an endless number Of all the anticlimaxes, old age seems of nights in a small room, of boarding- the most cruel and complete. Millions house meals, — no one has nerved of recipes have been given for winning them for these. “The temptations they the battles of maturity, but very few lead to’ — what we don't know of for enduring the long bivouac that them! Literature is infested with them, follows. Preparation, college and prowith directions for and against. But fessional training, is planned for work the quality of anticlimax which these in the world, none for the time when things are is a factor little known. The that work is no longer possible. I have young women meet it in the dark. known one or two people, and these
Even motherhood and fatherhood earth's wisest, who have so consistently do not seem exempt. 'Holt' will tell schooled themselves in vital introjust how to feed a baby and will spective possibilities that, when physianswer all known questions; but one is cal limitations inevitably set in, they told that even Holt cannot always could fill the vacuum with richness. On maintain the morale of parenthood. the whole, man shrinks like a whipped Life's immortal fulfillment does, at dog from the lessening of his powers.
The hardships everyone, a one left me to mu
The hardships of many an anti- 'Styles or discussions?' said I. climax lie before everyone, a long ‘Both,' said the Wise Person, and gray road. Like most roads, you can left me to mull over the matter at my walk it better if you know it is there. leisure. Doughboys say they have walked roads But I believe I have made a discovthey could not feel beneath their feet — ery in regard to Carlyle's style: and so gone were they for sleep. They oh, the difference to me! Until I made stumbled over every rut. Awake, they it, I found the French Revolution very could have swung along jauntily. uphill reading, mountain-climbing readPerhaps a sign for youth, for all, 'The ing. But since, being able now to Road is There - Wake Up!' might adjust my mind to what I conceive to help. And if that long straight pull be Carlyle's purpose, I progress rapidly were stressed more and the climactic and with some enjoyment. hills given less publicity, the results Here is the secret: Carlyle is a would, at least, be interesting.
cinematographer. What I mean is Crises one meets with the sum total that his method is the moving-picture of one's fibre, nerved and, to a degree, method. The French Revolution is a exhilarated by the newness of the glorified scenario. experience. The daily lack of crises I find him, and it, cinematographic in wears out that fibre unless one is four respects. First, in form; second, in geared for the pull. One wonders where treatment of related incidents; third, the mechanician in human adjustments in treatment of character; and fourth, is, who can help with the gearing in re/titling. Probably that goes back primarily to Philosophers have puzzled over Carone's self. Not one's job, one's friends, lyle's form. Explained cinematographone's room or country- or boarding- ically, it is quite simple. There are a house — one's self. Possibly it consists quantity of minute pictures following in the cultivation of one's own personal one another in such logical order that interests, so that they can be spread the whole thing, run off rapidly, gives out, however thinly, along the monoto- the effect of motion, smoothness, and nous places of living. This cultivation unity. Would it be stretching the could hardly be for cultivation's sake simile' too far — or seem a case of lèse or art's sake, or society's, but simply majesté — to say that each book is a toward the definite end of making it reel? At any rate one 'may safely say possible for the individual consciously that each chapter, each paragraph, each to see that he is ready for a clearly sentence almost, is an individual picrealized difficulty — 'the hardship of ture. And the pictures are interspersed anticlimax.'
with appropriate comment; but of that - more later.
What masterpieces of picture-makCARLYLE, CINEMATOGRAPHER
ing art are the scenes of Louis XV's ‘Of all the innocent diversions known death, the procession of the elected of to cultured humankind,' remarked a France, the attack on Versailles, and Wise Person once to me, “the most the King's going to Paris! What dangerous is a discussion of Carlyle's stirring drama in the trial scenes! style.'
I remarked that these incidents were 'Why?' I asked.
arranged in logical order. That does ‘Because,' replied the Wise Person, not necessarily mean chronological 'there are so many of them.'
order. No! Carlyle is too great an
artist to follow slavishly the exact with Bonfire'; 'Arrears and Aristohistorical sequence of events. Being a crats'; 'The Day of Poniards'; 'The cinematographer, he understands and Night of Spurs'; 'The Gods Are uses to advantage the device known as Athirst'; 'Lion Sprawling Its Last' — the 'flash' or 'cut-back. At the time what moving-picture artist of the of the taking of the National Oath, he present day, titling thrillers, could do flashes back suddenly to the Oath of better? the Tennis Court. In the trial of Marie There are advantages in this cineAntoinette, he cuts-back to her depar- matographic method of writing. It is, ture from Vienna.
I think, the best way that has yet been Another device — for depicting char- invented for saying a variety of things acter, and for heightening and vivifying in a variety of ways. But there are also the picture — is that known tech- disadvantages. Suppose the reader is a nically as the 'close-up.' In this Car- patient, plodding, and somewhat dull lyle excels. See how skillfully he brings animal, and not an imaginative, rethe individual out from the group, sponsive creature like me. What then, describes him, characterizes him, fore Carlyle? Ah, then your fine words go casts and recapitulates, and then sinks all for naught: which is a shame. him back into his group — all in a So I am passing on my discovery to moment. Thus we meet and know, not whom it may concern. For I like once but often, where opportunity best Carlyle and his picture-play, and I offers — as in the Procession and in the should hate to see him neglected. National Assembly — the features of Necker, of Mirabeau, of Danton,
1, THE PERSONALITY OF A PAIN Desmoulins, Robespierre, Cazales, Lafayette, Bailly, and Dr. Guillotin. It was an elusive creature enough,
And now I come to that which I winged rather than possessed of ordiconsider the summit of Carlyle's excel- nary feet, the first time that it came. lence — his mastery of the fine art of It Airted lightly by once or twice and titling. His pictures stand alone, are brought hardly the consciousness of a comprehensible in and by themselves; presence. It was even pleasant to but it is the author's comment, the realize it; comfort is more comfortable titles, which unites them into a work of when it is flecked with pain. art. Titles should illumine, not explain; The second time it had achieved and this distinction is admirably substance: it was cloud instead of achieved by Carlyle. His titles - vapor. But still it was impossible to which I separate into two varieties: think that an actual enemy, and an philosophic comment and chapter enemy vigorous enough to be formidaheadings — are brief, to the point, and ble, could be embodied in the owner packed with meaning.
of such brushing footsteps. As an example of the first, here is his After that it gained personality with comment on the King's going to Paris: every visit. It was as moody as a – ‘Poor Monarchy! But what save woman, and as cruel. I grew to watch foulest defeat can await that man who for it, to anticipate its whim of the day wills, and yet wills not!'
by the feel of the air that whisked about All Hamlet in one sentence.
it as it drew near. I waited for it with As examples of the second type, I dread ridiculously tinged by interest; list a few of the chapter headings: the fact that it was endowed with the ‘Astrea Redux without Cash'; ‘Burial always redeeming virtue of incon