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master in the the Arab energies
seemed very, podle
gradually out of Asia Minor, and that army, on the plea that their mainLondon would soon be holding domin- tenance was too expensive. The specion over Syria. It was going to be an- tacle of the combined French and other situation like that of India, they British forces had been sufficient to said. The resentment against the quell the restless movements of the British Foreign Office and its alleged Arabs; but now that one half of this underhand tactics became intense. strength had disappeared, insurrection
Consequently, France herself initi- again loomed up as imminent. The ated a little arch-conspiracy, and determined attitude of the Turks in proved herself past-master in the their newly acquired territory turned Machiavellian arts. France wished first the Arab energies upon Mesopotamia. to protect herself in Syria and next to The British hold seemed very preextract herself from the San Remo carious. Lloyd George bitterly dePact. So she tried to pass the Arab nounced these acts of France in a pubmenace on to the British in Mesopota- lic address delivered on November mia, and at the same time make the 24, 1921, saying that it was a pure case newly signed Pact untenable for Eng- of ‘one power stealing a march on land. This she accomplished in one the other. move. Secret negotiations were entered British diplomats saw only one upon with Turkey, which resulted in solution of the difficulty. In August the signing in London, on March 9, 1921, England recognized Emir Feisal 1921, of the preliminary articles of a as King of Iraq, or Mesopotamia, and treaty through which France returned by the treaty of October 10, 1922, Mr. to Turkey a portion of her Syrian Lloyd George's Government guaranmandate, consisting of Cilicia and a teed the new country financial and long narrow strip running just south military protection for twenty years. of England's Mosul holdings, which It was no more than recognition of formed a kind of barrier between the naturally asserted nationality, the French and British mandates. In re- English maintained in accordance with turn, France was promised first con- the catch-phrase of the year. In fact, sideration in the granting of all con- the English felt that Iraq was destined cessions by the Turkish Government. to become a more consolidated nation
This treaty was concluded without than Turkey, and consequently faany consultation of Great Britain or vored the dismembering of the latter the League of Nations. Now the country and the corresponding growth French had the Turks on their side to of Iraq. Needless to say, King Feisal throw back the Arabs, who, meeting was immeasurably grateful, and willing this new barrier, would probably turn to grant the British limitless concestheir energies upon Mesopotamia. Con- sions of any nature. cerning the San Remo Pact, if the Again the French felt themselves Anglo-Persian Oil or Turkish Petro- being outwitted. If Great Britain's leum Company wished to run pipe- Near East policy were realized, Feisal lines through to the sea, the guaranties would be the dominating authority of the San Remo agreement were not in Asia Minor. The young kingdom sufficient, since Turkey's consent must of Iraq seemed ready to burst its be obtained to cross this strip of bounds and take in Syria. The Paris northern Syria.
periodicals shrieked that England was As a sequel, the French withdrew trying to deny France her share of the 50,000 soldiers from the Anatolian oil in Mesopotamia, and that Great
Neag outwitted ench
, the guar pipe
Britain was deliberately forcing France whispered a little counsel in the ear of to give up the mandate of the League his old acquaintance, Mustapha Kemal, of Nations in Syria. Obviously it was telling him that France considered to France's advantage to see that the Turkey had done well enough with Turkish dominion should be extended her show of armed force, and that as widely as possible.
Angora must look for further support from Paris only through a diplomatic conference. So the informal Turkish
conquest ceased, and Franklin Bouillon The dramatic scenes of the Turkish advised the world that he considered defiance before Great Britain followed. himself one of the greatest peaceSmyrna was burned in September makers of history. 1922, and the forces of Mustapha Then the sessions of a new Lausanne Kemal swept up the Anatolian coast Conference opened, on November 20, and confronted Constantinople. The 1922. On this occasion the representaBritish threatened to chastise the tives from Angora spoke as often and as audacious participants in this disre- loudly as those of any government. spectful disorder; but the Turks, far Turkey had suddenly become a power, from yielding, continued to advance not a pawn. France, too, gazed with their forces and increase their demands. some wonder and chagrin upon her In London there was a tense situation determined protégé. She had reason between the aggressive and pacifist for dismay, because the promises of parties, which eventually resulted in preference in the way of concessions, the resignation of Lloyd George; and specifically stated in the Bouillon finally the London Government agreed Treaty, were now ignored by the new to 'compromise' with the Turks — Angora Government. This time the which meant almost a complete ac- cat’s-paw scratched the cat. Angora quiescence with the Turkish demands. was skeptical — commercial agree
It cannot be asserted with any de- ments offered too much opportunity gree of conviction that the Paris en- for political intervention. So the Govvoys coolly proposed the Turkish ernment determined to repudiate unventure. However, the British were equivocally all the old English and uncertain of the support of the French French agreements. At the same time in the event of armed conflict, and it it wished to keep the good-will of was this doubt that lent the Turkish France — so much depended on keepposition its strength. A new balance ing the two Allies estranged in their of power' was being effected. The Near East policies and on preventing Turks persisted in a mode of conduct united opposition to Turkey's growth. which assaulted the dignity of England, The Government's problem was to but the British exhibited the greatest escape from the binding conditions of self-control evidenced in centuries and the Treaty of Sèvres — through which extracted themselves from the arena such sweeping concessions were placed without a tussle. When the dismay in the hands of the Turkish Petroleum of Europe was at its height, France Company as practically to give this sent Franklin Bouillon to treat with corporation control of the industrial the rowdy Turks, who were ready to future of the country — and also to fight anyone. This gentleman and evade the obligations to France specidiplomat, who had so nicely arranged fied in the Bouillon and previous the Bouillon Treaty of 1921, now treaties, without embittering Paris.
The way out was the Chester con- a new page in her economic and politicessions, old, never ratified, antedating cal history. The successful termination and embracing all the later concessions of the Lausanne Conference has congranted to the British and French. firmed the return to Turkey of the In April 1923, a thrill ran through the territories given her by France through diplomatic world when it was broad- the Bouillon Treaty. Equality of all casted that Turkey had recognized nations in commercial matters is without reservations the validity of guaranteed. Apparently the diplothe Chester grant. This meant that matic bout of Great Britain and France the exclusive right to exploit the valu- over Asia Minor has failed because able oil regions of Asia Minor was neither nation now holds advantage in placed in American hands, and that the dominions of the Angora Governthe British claims to the earliest con- ment, while Iraq may soon pass under cessions in these petroleum-bearing the control of the League of Nations. lands were discredited beyond dispute. We cannot, however, expect this The French raised a disturbance on state of equilibrium to remain undisthe ground that the Chester conces- turbed long, since in politics as well as sion included privileges granted to the in athletics a neutral victory means
advanced a large loan to the Turkish Government. However, the validity of the Chester claims was held not to be affected by these French objections, and American capital possessed an ab
Notwithstanding, remarkably little fuss was stirred up through diplomatic channels over the recognition of the Chester grant. The feeling in England and France was that the exclusive rights given American interests would never be exerted, because the widely proclaimed policy of the 'open door,'
new uneasiness in the air. A corporation backed by French capital has recently obtained the promise of concessions duplicating the annulled Chester grant. British commercial enterprises are stubbornly combating this project on the same ground. Turkey's prosperity still depends in large degree in continuing her game of playing France and England against each other, and she will endeavor to sustain the hopes of each in the success of their Near East programme. The 'eternal triangle' means that Turkey is safe
would permit no such inconsistency. courting her favors. Angora will keep This sentiment was verified when, on flirting with London and Paris. on May 2, Mr. Grew, the American Other events in Europe are not Minister to Switzerland, announced drawing France and England more officially that the United States would closely together, and it seems a safe not support any claim against the ac- wager that the diplomatic war in quired rights of other nations. This Turkey is not yet concluded. The oil sounded the death knell for the lies in the Mosul, and in the recently Chester programme, since without the signed Lausanne Treaty it was left support of Washington, American capi- in abeyance whether these valuable tal was afraid to embark upon the petroleum regions should be included enterprise. The Chester concessions in Iraq or Turkey. Here lies the prize were annulled in December.
for which the French and English So Turkey cleaned the sheet in the leaders have dared so much. How way of concessions. She is now starting much further will they dare?
BY H. H. POWERS
the dische lare me ex
At a time when the American Congress ning with the trivial, rise in overseems incapable of mustering a major whelming crescendo, to the momenity on any subject, it has with practical tous. The first is a diplomatic episode; unanimity passed upon an issue prob- the second is the problem of race disably the most momentous upon which crimination; the third, the problem of it has ever taken action. By majorities exclusion. Let us give to each of these of five to one in the House and ten to an attention somewhat proportioned one in the Senate, Congress has voted to its merits. the practical exclusion of foreigners and
Ι the total exclusion of Asiatics from settlement in the United States. This The diplomatic episode looms large action may have been wise; indeed I in the discussion of the moment and am inclined to think it fundamentally obscures the larger issues. Its details right and inevitable. But it is not so are familiar. The exclusion of the clear that the actors were wise or that Japanese, long a recognized policy of the manner and motive of their action our government, has for some years were justifiable. The avowed reason for been effected without law or treaty by this action, at least in individual cases, the so-called 'Gentleman's Agreement,' was a trivial diplomatic incident, a pledge on the part of the Japanese capable, perhaps, of the construction Government not to grant passports to placed upon it, but equally capable of Japanese settlers and a perfectly cora different construction had such been rect refusal of our Government to desired. The real reason was a political admit them without. This considerate and economic situation superficially method of exclusion, so passionately perceived and little understood, and desired by Japanese sensibilities, was the compelling cause a vast, cosmic unsatisfactory to the radical elements pressure of which political discussion of the Pacific Coast, apparently not has as yet betrayed no consciousness. because it was ineffectual, but because This action, considered in its immediate it was too gentlemanly. The stigma international reactions, in its relation which the Japanese sought to avoid is to our traditional policy, and in the precisely the thing which certain eleimmeasurable scope of the forces which ments desire to affix, race competition it challenges connotes a crisis, not only having long since engendered race in our national life but in the life of the antipathy. The minor issue in the world, compared with which our strug- immigration bill was, therefore, begles for national union and for the tween the Gentleman's Agreement and abolition of slavery are of but second- a flat law of exclusion. ary importance.
As a compromise it was suggested The action in question presents that the Gentleman's Agreement be three distinct problems which, begin- itself enacted into law, thus ensuring greater sanction and perhaps greater possibility of war was excluded. Thus stability. It was in support of this the Chinese boycott of Japanese goods measure that Ambassador Hanihara following the episode of 'the twentyaddressed to Secretary Hughes his one points' was certainly a grave conletter in which he made the unfortu- sequence. Nor is it too much to say nate allusion to 'grave consequences. that the situation already created by This letter was sent by Secretary the action of Congress is to be thus Hughes, a pronounced supporter of the characterized. proposed compromise, to the Senate, It is clear, therefore, that these apparently with the thought that it words, whether used technically or would further the desired end.
popularly, did not necessarily imply a The effect was the reverse. The threat of war or of other unfriendly Senate chose to construe the letter as a action on the part of the Japanese threat and found in it a reason or a Government. They did imply, of pretext for the overwhelming rejection course, deep resentment on the part of of the compromise.
the Japanese people with whatever of Need the Senate have taken this inconvenience and loss that might attitude in deference to our national entail. That was a foregone conclusion. interests? The expression, 'grave con- Whether it meant more than this was sequences,' is one of a series including: to be inferred from the situation. ‘would regard as an unfriendly act,' Now the situation was to a remark‘could not view with indifference,' and able degree reassuring. There has, so forth — which, in the euphemistic undoubtedly, long been a party in language of diplomacy, have acquired Japan which looks forward to the necesa more or less technical meaning. I sity, possibly even the desirability of think, however, that no one experi- eventual war with the United States; enced in diplomatic usage will claim but there is reason to believe that this that these expressions are equivalent. party has steadily lost ground in recent To 'regard as an unfriendly act' is a years. The Washington Conference direct threat of war and must be fol- with its cancellation of the Anglolowed by a declaration of war if the Japanese Alliance and other measures other country persists in the objection- greatly lessened the power of Japan for able course. A statement that we such an offensive. On top of this came 'could not view with indifference' the earthquake, which for a considermeans a very strong protest with war able time virtually paralyzes Japan as as a possibility, but it hardly necessi- a military nation. These, one and all, tates an immediate declaration of war do not preclude the possibility of war as an alternative or precludes another between Japan and the United States, settlement. An allusion to 'grave con- but they do postpone that possibility sequences,' though serious, is a much for a considerable period. Economic milder term and by no means implies a relations, in turn, amounting to little threat of war.
less than dependence, preclude any Not only is this term milder and rational resort to other forms of more vague, but it can hardly be said hostility. that this technical meaning debars the If Ambassador Hanihara, therefore, phrase from use in the looser, popular intended his message as a threat, it was sense. It is obvious that very many peculiarly ill-timed and foolish. Japarelations between nations might be nese statesmen have rarely been open characterized as grave even when the to this charge. In astuteness, ability to