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tion announced that the question would home would deem impossible. So one be referred to the Disarmament Comwho has seen much of these things and mission of the League of Nations, has become alarmed at their rapid which could no doubt work out a satis- spread is constrained to risk all the factory solution. The League has since penalties of plain speaking in order to been working on an agreement between challenge this un-American movement the ABC countries, to stop the arma- — un-American although some of the ment race and ugly feeling started at finest men one can meet have been the Santiago meeting.
caught up in its onrush. These men Following the Santiago Conference, have often built good roads, established a movement has been launched in sanitary codes, and enforced peace. Buenos Aires, by influential university But these are not worth the surrender professors and students and other of American principles, the bowing beprominent men, for the establishment fore materialistic gods, the hatreds and of a Latin-American League. They are the sacrifice of the spiritual, which the publishing a paper and pushing their programme involves. Even if such a organization with all enthusiasm. programme should help Latin America,
The old idea of a Pan-Latin League the people of the United States cannot has also been revived, taking advantage go on destroying with impunity the of the growing distrust of the United sovereignty of other peoples, however States. While King Alfonso was visit weak, cutting across the principles ing the Pope recently, Mussolini and for which our fathers fought, without Primo de Rivera were planning a new the reaction being shown throughout entente between these two Latin our whole body politic. countries and Spanish America. Portu- Some day we shall realize that the gal also has been drawn into the move- whole rotten mess of investigation ment and the proposed visit of King now being played with at Washington Alfonso to South America is expected runs directly back to the mental atto contribute largely to it. France, titudes and the combinations involved always recognized as the inspiration of in the policy of 'cleaning up'our nextthe spiritual life of Latin America, is door neighbors — a phrase which may more active than ever in its promotion seem to have moral significance to the
average innocent citizen and official, VI
but which, for the privileged few,
takes on the more modern significance Altogether, this is a dark picture. of ‘cleaning out.' No one objects to It is a severe indictment of our imperi- legitimate business with our neighbors. alism — an imperialism which the au- On the contrary, it is vital to all conthor believes has not been developed cerned. But the continuance of this deliberately, but has stolen over us as dollar diplomacy, with its combination a part of the materialistic spirit of the of bonds and battleships, means the times. It is a departure from the ideals destruction of our nation just as surely of our fathers. The North American as it meant the destruction of Egypt visitor in the Caribbean these days, and Rome and Spain and Germany and sensitive to those ideals, often blushes all the other nations who came to with shame and suffers the deepest measure their greatness by their matehumiliation on beholding sights en- rial possessions rather than by their acted in the name of our fair America passion for justice and by the number - acts which his fellow citizens at of their friendly neighbors.
THE DIPLOMATIC WAR IN TURKEY
BY WILLIAM WORTH HALL
The main objective of all the diplo- strongly followed up, the Germans, matic skirmishing over the Turkish French, and British got a shoulder in. situation has been much obscured in According to the sentiment prevailthe confusion of the many side-issues ing in Germany, France, and England of this dramatic play. Behind the maze about 1912, petroleum was nearly of press dispatches and magazine worth the cost of a war. To Germany articles dealing with refugee move- and France, struggling under a rankments, technical treaty work, theoret- ling monopoly held by the Standard ical economic wealth, and desertion of Oil Company, an assured oil supply the harem by Turkish women, there meant industrial independence, while has been one main story running. to England fuel oil meant the turningThis is the story of the political antago- point in English naval supremacy. nism which arose between Great Brit. So 'catch-as-catch-can' rules were ain and France over the control of the resorted to in the diplomatic contest Mesopotamian oil lands.
for the 'favored-nation' pledge from It was just before the war, about Turkey and for the exclusive right to 1912, that the potential value of the exploration of petroleum-bearing lands petroleum-bearing regions in Asia Mi- under her dominion. Three years after nor was fully recognized. Immediately, the signing of the Chester grant by the the strongest European powers took Turkish Minister of Public Works, occasion to concern themselves in the Germany, France, and England had economic welfare of Turkey, and there secured later concessions duplicating was a rush to win concessions covering the privileges conceded to Mr. Chester these territories. Momentary dismay and placing in the hands of these reigned when it was found that European Powers practically all the terAmerican interests had, in 1910, al. ritory promised to American interests. ready obtained the enviable Chester The German project was the Berlinconcession, admitting railroad rights to-Bagdad railroad. The Turkish Govthrough all the valuable oil regions and ernment looked upon this with favor, including the privilege of mineral since it would open a main stream of development. However, satisfaction commerce between the European marran high again in Europe when it was kets and the productive agricultural seen that American capital hesitated districts of Mesopotamia. To the to enter a dubious oil-promotion ven- Germans the railroad meant control ture in so distant a field, particularly of the Mosul region — richest of the when production of petroleum at home oil regions. was so far exceeding consumption. French entry into the arena was And since the Chester rights were not effected through a railway concession
in northern Anatolia, duplicating in tamian field was evidenced when as part the lines proposed for construction early as 1916 she asked for the Syrian by the Chester grant. The concession mandate. The British continued to is dated 1913, and the French paid allow the Mesopotamian forces vast a considerable portion of a loan of extravagances. The opposing armies 500,000,000 francs to the Turkish Gov. in the East were pushed back; Palesernment to secure their rights.
tine, the Mosul, and Bagdad were won British capital made the most direct over, and a British mandate was set effort. The Turkish Petroleum Com- up over these territories. But this was pany was organized for the stated accomplished at a cost which made purpose of developing the Mesopota- all England indignant when the bills mian oil regions. The British Govern- were reckoned up after the Armiment itself held a controlling share in stice. Meanwhile, on the Western front, this Company. Turkey was much America carried the Allies to victory interested in the enterprise, and in 1913 'on a wave of oil.' the Turkish Petroleum people secured concessions from the Government covering the Mosul and all the productive Mesopotamian territories.
The Peace Conference opened. The So, at the beginning of the Great American people, now that the spectre War, German and British oil interests of a German victory had vanished, found themselves facing each other showed a pronounced unwillingness on the same ground, with France to lend counsel in any of the readjustedging her way in. Mesopotamia be- ments through which Europe was passcame one of the chief objectives of the ing beyond the advice of President fighting forces. Germany was ap- Wilson. This left France and England parently ready to place a considerable to settle things by themselves, with portion of her strength on this front possibly a little advice from south of to protect her cherished ‘Berlin-to the Alps. So these two saviors of civiBagdad' railroad, while the British lization coolly decided, it seems, to Foreign Office felt that the realization wring every possible advantage from of this project must be forestalled at the situation in Eastern Europe, and any cost. “To foil this scheme,' said to divide the proceeds into two portions Sir Charles Greenway, of the Anglo- only. And secretly, as evidenced by Persian Oil Company shortly after the later events, the English and French cessation of hostilities, 'was the sole leaders determined to yield no emolupurpose of the British army in Meso- ment to each other which could be potamia during the war.'
retained for one country alone. Even the imminent danger of At the conclusion of the Armistice, collapse of the Allies' Western front France pointed out that it was her did not divert the minds of the Euro- right to hold the mandate over Syria, pean nations from the problem of oil. both by right of her concessions in that Probably it was because of the con- territory gained from the Turkish stant reminder pressed by the hamper. Government before the War, and ing shortage of fuel oil and the depend through her operations in that field ence of the Allies' navies upon the during the conflict. This mandate was American oil companies. That France granted, Great Britain holding a was not overlooking the material ad- similar control over the adjoining vantages of occupation of the Mesopo- regions of Mesopotamia. The English
of this project moun this scheme, said
tonly. And see
ing shortander pressed by the the con- territ
were now in a somewhat disadvanta- and easy profit that much of the capital geous position, because the French originally ready to enter the support controlled nearly the entire coast. of the new French oil companies went The British army held the Mosul, to to buy blocks in the British companies be true, but there was no outlet for the instead. A little later the pound began oil, either from this region or from to drop and the franc to rise, as the Persia, where the Anglo-Persian Oil British had suspected it would. To Company was operating other valuable sell the English oil shares now meant concessions. Somehow there must be a loss for the French speculators. a link between the oil fields and the There was no turning them to profit Navy. It was necessary to secure the except by holding them and waiting coöperation of the French, and the for dividends. The franc rose steadily, British were afraid they would be and much of the stock was sold out at pinched and forced to pay dearly for a loss, recrossing the Channel to Engan outlet to the sea. So the British land. Thus the French brokers who Foreign Office set about to devise a still retained shares were forced to plan by which the French could be back the projects of the English commade to ensure safe passage of the panies to save their investments. British oil to points on the Mediter. This left insufficient capital to finance ranean, and at the same time prevent the visionary French-producing comFrance from profiting from the strate- panies, and the considerable French gic position she held.
capital invested in English companies It was first necessary to prevent the exerted no great influence there. oil interests of France becoming es- France would still have to ask favors tranged from those of England. There from her Ally. had been much talk in France, just T his was the occasion on which the after the war, of floating new oil com- British industrialists made their offer panies. France held rights in the oil to France. France wanted oil, and lands of Russia, Rumania, and Meso- France had insufficient unemployed potamia, as well as potential fields in capital to produce oil herself. So her African colonies. She wished to be through the British Foreign Office the come, independent in regard to the following proposals were presented to problem of fuel. British capitalists Clemenceau: that Great Britain and determined to divert this interest of France undertake the mutual exploitaFrench capital in oil, and a clever tion of all oil lands formerly belonging scheme was hit upon which won the to enemy powers; that British capital support of French capital for the be allowed to develop the oil resources English oil companies.
of the French colonies and of the Early in 1919 when the pound was French mandate in Syria; that England rising and the franc dropping, English grant to France twenty-five per cent of bankers commenced to flood France all the oil produced in Mesopotamia with shares of the Royal Dutch, Shell through the Government exploitation, Transport, and other English-con- or, in the event that exploitation trolled companies. French capital ac- should be carried out by a private cepted these eagerly, since the shares company, that the French should be could be bought at a fair figure, and allowed a twenty-five per cent particithen sold at a considerable profit as pation in the same; that in return for the franc dropped. The French brokers this 'gift' of the oil so produced, France were so interested in this speculation should coöperate with England to the
extent of guaranteeing the security The British forces united in action with of pipe-lines across Syria from the the French in Syria, and the Arabs Mosul and Persian oil fields to Mediter. were subdued in their restless moveranean ports.
ments, though again at enormous exThese proposals seemed to the pense. Then a second secret pact was French to be fairly conceived. The signed, definitely assigning to France guarantee of twenty-five per cent of the old provinces of Syria and Lebanon. the oil produced in Mesopotamia was The conclusion of these pacts was folan important consideration. Still, the lowed by the signing on August 10, less impetuous French statesmen were 1920, of the Treaty of Sèvres with reluctant to enter so binding an agree- Turkey, by which the feeble Turkish ment. There were many influencing Government sanctioned vast concescircumstances, however. The Arabs sions to the Turkish Petroleum Comhad begun to grow uneasy under the pany, in accordance with the plan of French dominion in Syria, and under the Anglo-French exploitation of the the leadership of the native king, oil in Russia, Rumania, and MesopoFeisal, commenced to resist the au. tamia, as well as northern Africa. thority of the French troops. A campaign against Damascus was initiated,
III and the situation demanded the support of Great Britain's military forces Now came a turn in French opinion. in Mesopotamia. Lord Curzon said. The more conservative and skeptical ‘Sign the Mesopotamian oil agreement, political elements began to point out and we will help you secure Syria. that the officers of the nation had If our military interests should be naïvely delivered to the British every coördinated, so also should be our advantage in Asia Minor. The poscommercial interests, and we must session of the twenty-five-per-cent share have a contract of coöperation.' Yet in the Turkish Petroleum Company the French diplomats hesitated. gave France little influence in deter
Then came the question of whether mining the tactics of this organization, France should have the left bank of and the control of the entire oil busithe Rhine. Lloyd George said, 'Cer- ness centred in London. On their part, tainly our old Ally shall have it; but the French were guaranteeing a British if we are willing to rest in accord with pipe-line across their territory, a priviFrance in the attaining of so important lege for which England could have an object, France should be willing to been made to pay dearly, if properly grant us the favor of her coöperation ‘sold, since it was the only outlet for in the project of the Mesopotamian oil the Persian and Mosul oil fields. Pubdevelopment.' Clemenceau was eager lic addresses were made by Barthou, to see French troops in control of Briand, and Tardieu, condemning in the left bank of the Rhine, and quickly the severest terms Clemenceau's hasty granted the 'favor.' So the secret Pact action in entering the San Remo Pact. of San Remo was signed on April 24, To increase the excitement of the 1920, confirming the propositions pre- French, the Arab forces under Emir viously presented by the British For. Feisal continued to threaten the ineign Office; and on the same day a vasion of Syria, and the British retwenty-five per cent holding in the fused to put more men into that field. Turkish Petroleum Company was trans- The Paris periodicals shouted that ferred to the French Government. Curzon intended France to be pushed
granted the "faf the Rhine, andntrol of Briand