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the right of all peoples to independence of England, the king of Spain, the and self-government, are really impe- president of France, and other distinrialists at heart. They believe in the guished Europeans have in the past right and manifest destiny of the been selected by Latin America as United States to expand by over- arbitrators in the many cases Latin running its weaker neighbors. They America has settled by arbitration. appeal to a spirit of patriotism that But the United States Government is sees no object, holds no ideals, and now using its great power to eliminate acknowledges no rights or duties but all this. At the Santiago Conference the national welfare and aggrandize there was a steady drive by the Northment. In the name of that principle American delegation to eliminate all Germany sinned and fell. The ideas of European participation in arbitrations these American imperialists are less and all other American matters. grandiose, but at bottom they differ One of the first acts of Mr. Hughes little from hers. According to that view as Secretary of State was to settle a Central and South America are a game dispute between Panama and Costa preserve, from which poachers are Rica, sending military forces to emexcluded but where the proprietor may phasize his settlement. Both these hunt as he pleases. Naturally the nations were members of the League of proprietor is anxious not only to keep Nations, whose Covenant required away the poachers but to oppose game that it extend its good offices to any laws that would interfere with his own members in controversy. But the
League was not allowed to use its good During the last few years the United offices. In the same way the Tacna and States has pursued a steady policy of Arica dispute between Peru and Chile eliminating European poachers. The was first brought before the League of first way is by American Government Nations for settlement. But the Monand American banks 'funding,' that is, roe Doctrine did not allow the League combining together all the various to touch it, and it is now before the international obligations of a nation, President of the United States. after which one big loan to care for it The third way in which we are all is floated in the United States. The eliminating Europe from America is foreign creditors are then paid off and seen in the naval mission to Brazil. eliminated. Then the United States The principal reason for sending that Government, in seeing that such a loan mission was the one which is given is paid, is protecting only its own for every imperialistic act from Santo citizens. This funding process was first Domingo to Honduras: 'If we don't, carried out in Santo Domingo in 1905. Europe will.' For a century England, It has been extended now to about France, Germany, Belgium, and Italy half the Latin-American States. As the have sent military or naval missions Department of Commerce has recently to Latin America. But that policy stated: “Our great interest in Latin must be stopped. So when England America is largely a growth of the last was about to send a naval mission to ten years. Yet our investments now Brazil, we substituted our own. If the include $610,000,000 in public securi- Government that called the Disarties and $3,150,000,000 in industries.' mament Conference in Washington had
The next step in this elimination of sought, when this matter of a mission Europe is in the matter of arbitrations. came up, an agreement among all The president of Switzerland, the king interested parties that no more mis
Winternal affairs of a interfering with
these nercial and manging to plain
been avoitth America,
sions should be requested or sent; and wise would have been 'interfering with if it had then lent its good offices in the the internal affairs of a sister nation'! Santiago Conference to bring about an Will not someone kindly explain agreement on disarmament instead of why, when we are arranging to direct standing off, as a disinterested specta- the financial and military affairs of tor, the terrible race for armament, these nations, we should not with now beginning in South America, equal propriety arrange to direct their could have been avoided. But to educational systems? At least it might Argentina's appeal against the mission, have the advantage of economy. For as a movement that would generate what the United States Government suspicions and augment naval expendi- paid for the Pershing expedition into tures, the State Department replies: Mexico it could have built and ‘We play no favorites, we are ready to equipped in every town of Mexico, of send you a mission also. In fact, we over four thousand population, a high have another mission in Peru.
school, a hospital, and a social centre, In one of the recent proposals made and in addition presented each one of by the State Department to Santo these towns with an endowment of Domingo it put as one of the conditions $700,000 with which to conduct these of withdrawing the marines that we be institutions. Yet a proposal for the requested to send them a military establishment of a North American mission. In the last few years our college in Mexico City, advocated by government has sold arms to different the most distinguished educators of the Latin-American countries. Of course, United States and Mexico for the last our arms-manufacturers are contin- ten years, has languished because a ually in the business, one recent order beginning cannot be made on furnishbeing for ten submarines made for ing the five million dollars finally Brazil, another the reconditioning of needed. the two dreadnoughts owned by Here we have then, briefly stated, Argentina. We have just established a the programme of economic imperialfurther military precedent, which is ism and isolation from Europe which likely to have a far-reaching influence, the United States is fostering to-day by our Government selling arms to the in Latin America. Mexican Government to suppress an armed revolution against it.
We have invited a number of LatinAmerican countries, as a special work What does the rest of the world of friendship, to send their officers to think about this programme? West Point for further training. Our In no country has the military occuGovernment has never sent an educa- pation of Santo Domingo and Haiti tional mission to Latin America, nor been more discussed than in Japan, offered scholarships in her scientific or where the Government has formed now cultural institutions to Latin Ameri- its own Monroe Doctrine of the Orient, cans. Where unofficial educational by which it justified its recent Twentymissions — like the one recently going one Demands on China, and its imperito Peru — and official educational advi- alism in Korea. sers, like the one that went to Nica- The press of France is filled with ragua — have met with difficulties, it comment on the matter, running from has let them go down in defeat and sarcastic slurs on the United States as withdraw in ignominy. To do other the good Samaritan of the New World
to the defense of France's policy in What occurred in Santiago, and the infinancing the Little Entente, in buy- exact, the incomplete, exaggeratedly optiing arms, and in the occupation of
mistic report made to the Government of the Ruhr for the alleged collection of
the United States, demand a rectification
in the interest of Pan Americanism which debts.
to-day is facing a profound crisis. ... The Manchester Guardian, in an The Conference has perturbed the tranarticle recently reprinted in more than
quillity of the situation in general and a dozen different countries, has clearly especially among certain groups like the told the story. The press of Spain, of Rio de la Plata group (Argentina, Uruguay, course, finds here its favorite theme. Brazil). In the question of disarmament Italy, Egypt, India, Ireland, and the part of the United States was scarcely Russia find here proof texts, alike for welcome, since they, being the initiators of preachments favoring radicalism and
the movement for universal disarmament, reaction.
and authors of that subject on the proAs for Latin America, the situation is
gramme of the Santiago Conference, then
abandoned this attitude at Santiago. ... tragic. Since the Santiago Conference
Do the good people of the United States a resurgence of opposition against know these things, which so profoundly the United States has made the old affect their interests? ... The United campaigns of Ugarte and Blanco Fom- States has a great mission in favor of Panbona seem as nothing. During the American friendship, but they must reorlast year at least two papers have ganize their work on another basis, taking been founded in Argentina and one in into account the discontent which exists in Honduras, backed by some of the most the greater part of the Latin-American distinguished men of Latin America,
countries. The lack of diplomacy, of exact whose whole purpose is opposition to
information, and of coördination among
the various officials of the United States the United States. In practically every
Government, in regard to Pan-Americanism, one of the prominent Spanish-Ameri
is blocking its development. can magazines it is now the custom to carry in each issue one or more articles
No one who visits these countries, against the United States. Formerly
mixes on equality with the people in friends of the United States in those general, reads their literature, and countries combated such attacks. But attends their theatres and lecture halls, scarcely ever do we find defenders now. can fail to realize the truth of the Old friends have either changed or following, written by an Argentina they do not care to oppose the tide.
he tide professor — a friend who laments the Latin-American government officials. fact he describes as much as does any of course, are still outwardly friendly. American: — They have to be. This is probably why As is well known, up until the present, our State Department has recently whenever reference is made to closer relaexpressed its opinion that never before tions between the two Americas the intenhave our relations with Latin America sification of economic relations between been so cordial. But if the Department
them is the usual method advocated. This thinks that, it is living in a fool's
a fool's attitude, in which many eminent personalparadise.
ities have taken part, has not been able to
accomplish the desired results. It is La Prensa of Buenos Aires sharply
certainly true that in Latin America the challenged the optimistic report made
conviction seems to have grown largely to the Secretary of State by the United that the egotistic motive is the one that States delegation to the Santiago guides the United States in its relations Conference, saying:
with these countries and the materialistic VOL. 134 — NO. 1
Today this has tweeniethem
conception of the North-American civiliza- man power humanity has ever seen. tion has been more largely confirmed in To quote Secretary Olney, “Its fiat is recent time. The current of sympathy law upon the subjects to which it toward his country which Wilson succeeded
confines its interposition.' in arousing during the war, and which
But can we be sure that always we caused Ricardo Rojas to say that the legend of a ruddy and cannibalistic Yankee had
shall be strong enough to ignore the disappeared and that the United States teening of Latin America and all other was displaying a magnificent spirit, has potential enemies seeking their alligradually disappeared. For people in ance? Already there are three combigeneral once again the North-American nations forming which may some day civilization is considered as barbaric, and become strong enough to challenge automatically moved only by a utilitarian effectually this ever increasing domiobjective.
nance. These combinations are The We would even venture to say, at least
League of Nations, the proposed Latinin reference to Argentina, that she finds
American League and the Pan-Latin herself further removed from the United States to-day than she was in the sixth and
Movement. seventh decade of the past century. At
Suppose the League of Nations that time, at least, our people were in already comprising three fourths of the fluenced by the fervid enthusiasm for population of the world should some North-American democracy, felt by day feel itself strong enough to accept Sarmiento and Alberdi. Certainly with the request of one or more of its LatinFrance and England the United States had American members and mediate becaptured our sympathy. To-day this has tween them, as its covenant provides all been modified. While France continues
that it shall. Can we look forward captivating us by the excellencies of her
with complacency to the question of literature, and Great Britain continues attracting our thinkers as the country of
deciding as to whether we shall flatly free institutions and good political sense,
oppose the moral consciousness of the United States presents herself to us as
the world or whether we shall back principally concerned in the conquest of down under pressure? Suppose that our markets.
some day in the future we repeat
in some Latin-American country, Only in the United States do the member of the League, a landing of press and the people ignore how our marines and seizing of the sovereconomic imperialism is eliminating eignty of the country as we did in friendships and fostering suspicions. Santo Domingo and Haiti, and the With our accustomed optimism and League feels itself strong enough to assurance of our altruistic motives protest — as it did in the case of Italy we continue as the trombonist, who and Corfu? Can we look forward claimed he was the greatest trombone- with pleasure to such a challenge? player in the world. When someone Certainly we cannot be entirely sure told him he would have to prove it, he that the League will not grow more replied, 'I don't have to prove it, I powerful, and more disposed to carry admit it.' And, should all the world out its agreements with its American challenge our idealism in relation to members. Latin America, we might go on One of the outstanding opponents of serenely; for this is the greatest nation the World Court in the United States on the face of the earth, owning one Senate recently said to a friend that third of the wealth of the world and one strong reason for his opposition to possessing the largest force of efficient our entering the Court was that some of the Caribbean countries now under understanding they have advocated for our control might then challenge this years. And the Europeans have not occupancy before the World Court. hesitated to give Latin America the
Col. Roosevelt even before the forma- leading honors in the League. Two of tion of a League of Nations said of the four presidents of the annual the proposed treaty with Colombia:- assemblies of the League have been
Latin Americans. Two out of the six If succeeding administrations can act as
elected members of the Council are Wilson's is now acting in reference to mine, then unquestionably there is far heavier
Latin Americans. Two out of the claims for reparation against the United eleven judges of the World Court, States ... by Santo Domingo and Haiti elected from all nations of the world, for her invasion and overthrow of their are Latin Americans. Some of the most government by armed forces without important heads of committees come declaration of war, while Costa Rica, from Latin America, and the LatinNicaragua, and Guatemala, all have similar American section of the League at grievances and in the case of one (I think
Geneva is a section of great influence. Costa Rica) the International Court of the
While the Latin Americans are beIsthmus has actually decided we are to
coming more engrossed in the League, blame.
they are becoming more indifferent to Certainly, so far as a combined Latin the Pan-American Union. At the last America is concerned, no one will Pan-American Conference at Santiago question the fact that these nations are the United States told Latin America growing stronger every day, and at the that the Monroe Doctrine was none of end of this century will have come to its affair; that we are interested in be foes worthy of consideration. Our commercial agreements, but that we recent restrictive immigration law will should have nothing to do with an be a considerable factor in the growth American League of Nations where of these southern lands.
all American countries could sit at a With the present policy continued, Round Table to discuss their problems; then we shall find ourselves more iso- and that we were opposed to a reorganlated than the fondest nationalist ever ization of the Pan-American Union, so dared desire. Then we shall find that that the dominance of the United States the profits on oil and bananas and should be less apparent — a dominance sugar, which went into the pockets of so marked at Santiago that even the a few, were not worth the price of Director of the Union figured as a memenmities developed in our Southern ber of the United States delegation. neighbors against our whole nation. While the Conference did some useful
things, the United States delegation pushed nothing but commercial and
health questions, and fought every This isolation forced on Latin Amer- move which would put Latin America ica is already bringing its counter on an equal basis with the United movements. While we are talking of States in determining inter-American how we are protecting Latin America questions. As a promoter of good feelfrom Europe, the Latin Americans are ing between the Amerioas, the Conbetaking themselves as fast as they can ference was a distinct disappointment. to Europe for protection against us. On the adjournment of the ConferIn the League of Nations they have ence without effecting any agreement found exactly the kind of international on disarmament, the Brazilian delega