want – a second chance. Then Jonah, happen to the city after all, an' prove jest back from the blackness down to the people he was a regular prophet. there at the bottom o’the sea, jest back Jonah was so darn human. from cryin' an' prayin', Jonah grabs off ‘But Jehovah was n't through with his second chance jest like I want to do Jonah. He made a plant with big an' jest like yo’-all want to do an' Jonah leaves sprout up an' grow mighty fast beats it, hot foot, fo' Nineveh. An' so that next day, which was a hot one, he parades up an' down Main Street it shaded Jonah. And Jonah liked it. shoutin' to them foreign sinners that "Now I ain't argufyin' about a plant they is on their last laigs, an' that in growin' that fast. I admit it was right fo'ty days they 'll be plum destroyed quick maturin'. That ain't it. The

'Jonah had done his job this time an' plant growin' all out o'proportion ain't done it good an' plenty, but he did n't neither here nor there. It's Jonah that reckon nobody would pay no attention, I believe in; not the big fish and not an' he had a sneakin'idea he 'd like to the fast growin' plant-only Jonah. see the grand finish when the fo’ty days But Jehovah ain't through with Jonah was up accordin' to his prophesyin'; yet. A cut-worm got busy, so that next an' he kep a-thinkin', “What 's the day the plant that made a comfortable use o' bein' a phophet if nothin' hap- shade fo’ Jonah wilted right down in pens when yo'-all prophesy?” Fire an' the hot sun flat as a flannel cake. Then brimstone in forty days accordin' to Jonah got peeved again, an' did the schedule was his way o' thinkin'. baby-act an' said he wanted to die same

‘But the Nineveh folks surprised as befo'. Brave one minute, childish Jonah by listenin' to him an' quit bein' the next, an'allus thinkin' too much o' rotten. They covered themselves with what the Nineveh folks might think. potato sackin' an' ashes accordin' to 'Then Jehovah asks Jonah has he their idea o' repentin'an’ wantin' to do any honest-to-god excuse fo' bein' better. Yo' see they wanted a second peeved. An' Jonah let on he had; an’ chance jest like Jonah did when he was then Jehovah said, “Yo’-all can make down an' out. They was like Jonah, a great fuss about that weed that grew an' me, an' yo'-all.

up in the night without yo' doin' a 'An' Jehovah give them a second hand's turn to make it grow – jest a chance jest as he did to Jonah. Did weed, that's all; an' yo'-all can get that make Jonah glad? No, he got mighty peeved about it dyin'. How peevish. It spoiled him as a prophet. about me an' all them people in NinHe had told them the finish was set fo' eveh — all so poor an’ ignorant? How fo’ty days, an' now accordin' to the new about all them, Jonah?” ruling it was all off.

'I reckon Jehovah was right, givin' "Jonah turned on Jehovah an' said, Jonah a second chance; an' I reckon he “I told yo’so. I knew yo’-all would n't was right givin' them Nineveh cusses a do nothin' to them Nineveh folks. second chance; an' I hope he gives me Here I've prophesied destruction in a second chance. An' as fer Jonah, I fo'ty days an' now there's nothin' doin'. believe in him, pesky mean as he was, I'm through. I wish I was dead.” because he's so darn human. Now

'Just the same he went outside the friends, do yo’-all believe in Jonah?' city to a safe distance, in case there 'Sure, sure,' came from the crowd. might be fireworks, an' made him a The southern farmer who looked like comfortable seat. He figured he'd Uncle Sam turned to find his soap-box watch an' see if somethin' would n't orator but he was not there.

hories and as die as he was



It is difficult to follow the expansion of years, the author believes that it bodes America in the Caribbean without feeling more evil than any other tendency on that it will go farther. Utter recklessness the American continent to-day. and incompetency have characterized the

In these smaller countries of the management of every one of these pseudo- South. controlled by our soldiers, our states which the preoccupations of the real nations have temporarily abandoned to

bankers, and our oil kings, we are independence. It was a matter of chance

of chance developing our Irelands, our Egypts,

developing which one of the dancers should first pay and our Indias. So far they are weak the piper, but all have danced and all must and we have been able to hide them pay. To the independence party Central from others. But at the rate the world America is its own little world. To the is moving they can hardly be expected imperialistic party it is but a pawn on the to remain always powerless and isomighty chessboard of world empire. The lated. Our North American Christian United States plays the vaster game, must civilization will find its final test in the play it and play it well, for the stake is its

way we treat our next-door neighbors. existence. We have learned subtler ways of winning, more varied ways of ruling.

We are piling up hatreds, suspicions, Never was our frontier more alive than it

records for exploitation and destruction is to-day. Not one American in a hundred of sovereignty in Latin America, such realizes that we have a protectorate over as have never failed in all history to Haiti and that our control is creeping out react in war, suffering, and defeat of through all these southern seas. If he knew, high moral and spiritual ideals. How his only reaction would probably be a can the United States expect to be the slightly increased complacency. The door one exception to the rule? is thus opened wide for a government,

Run your eyes rapidly down the map embarrassed by the mischievous irresponsi

and note the countries where the bility of these petty make-believe states, to take refuge in an ever-broadening imperi

United States is now in practical conalism. — H. H. POWERS, in 'America

trol. And remember that this control among the Nations...

always brings resentment and enmity

among the people, though their officials This bold statement of North Ameri- may approve it. Here is the list: — ca's imperialism in the Caribbean may C uba, where the United States has shock some readers, but the fact of its a navy base, with marines often found rapid development cannot be denied. in the interior of the country, with It is the outstanding development in the threat of intervention always held the international policy of the United over the Cuban Government, which States, as interpreted by its Govern can make no loan nor dispose of any ment and its financial interests. After territory without the consent of the watching it rather closely for several United States, whose representative at Havana largely controls the political tained one hundred marines since 1912, and financial policies of a land whose keeping in control a government which economic life is determined by absentee - according to the United States landlords and bankers living in the Admiral in charge — is opposed by United States.

eighty per cent of the Nicaraguans, Haiti, where two thousand United but which is favorable to American States marines direct and 'protect' bankers, who, with the approval of the Haitian Government, elected under the State Department, collect the custheir supervision; where an American toms and own the national bank and financial adviser exercises absolute con- the railroad — such a complete control trol over finances, collecting customs that the country is known throughout and making loans which the United Latin America by the name of the States Government guarantees, thus bankers who hold these privileges. assuring its continued occupancy of Honduras, where the American Haiti, and where, moreover, the na- minister and two American corporation's constitution was rewritten to tions have long been the controlling permit the acquisition of land by powers, and where recently marines United States' companies.

have been landed for protection of Santo Domingo, where for the first American life and property'— the time in the history of republics, one same formula under which they have republic, without declaring war on entered and remained in the other another, landed an army, dismissed the countries mentioned. president and congress, and for seven Here then are six republics where years ruled entirely, without even a the United States' economic control is semblance of national government, backed by military forces on the by military decrees enforced by a ground. foreign military governor, backed by Next we come to the countries 2500 marines. Recent promises to where North American financial retire the military governor are con- advisers directing the fiscal policy of ditioned on the Dominicans' ratification the governments have not yet brought of all the acts of the military govern- military forces, but following precedent ment and agreement to allow the in the above named republics, they United States to continue to collect may at any time bring those forces the customs and administer the finan- which are always handy on the battle ces of the country.

cruisers that continuously patrol the Panama, where, as President Roose Caribbean. These countries are as velt said, 'I took Panama,' since which follows:time it has been under control of the Salvador, where a loan at eight United States, with an “agreement' per cent — plus extra charges — has providing for the disbanding of the been recently made by New York Panamanian army, the taking over at bankers, which loan is guaranteed any time of further Panamanian terri- by seventy per cent of the customs tory considered necessary for protec- receipts, collected by the bankers, with tion of the Canal, and carrying out any the agreement made by the Secretary other measures which might be covered of State of the United States that if under the general formula of 'main. any differences arise between Salvador taining the independence of the Repub- and the bankers, he - the Secretary of lic of Panama.

State — will refer the question to the Nicaragua, where we have main- Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, whose word shall be We must now retrace our steps on final.

the map and look at the third class of Colombia, where an American fi- countries. These are the ones dominancial mission has just outlined a nated by North American capitalists, reorganization of the fiscal system of though not having Americans officially the republic, especially advising as appointed to direct their fiscal proto the expenditure of the $25,000,000 gramme. the United States is now paying to They number three as follows:Colombia - officially because of the Guatemala, where American bankers Panama Canal Zone, but, according to control the business, American money the explanation of Messrs. Lodge and is the medium of circulation, and the Fall in arguing for the treaty which United Fruit Company and other they had before so bitterly condemned, American financial interests have sebecause we needed Colombia's friend- cured control of the railroads, which ship in order to favor American now become a part of the International petroleum companies and secure other Railways of Central America — the concessions.

largest American-owned railway enterEcuador, where the government has prise outside of the United States. recently engaged an American finan- Costa Rica, where, after thirty cial adviser, where an American presi- years' peace, American oil and banana dent of the principal railroad owns interests recently fomented a revolumost of the stock, and where American tion against a reform government and interests recently blocked an English at present largely control the economic loan.

life of the country and often act as Peru, where an American financial brokers for the government. adviser directs the fiscal policies of the Mexico, where Americans own one government, and a loan is pending by third of the $2,500,000,000 of the American bankers which would be nation's wealth, with seventy-three per guaranteed by the customs, collected cent of the oil lands and much the by Americans.

largest part of the 54,874,557 acres of Bolivia, where the hardest bargain land owned by foreigners (an area of all has been driven, with a loan of equal to France, Spain, Portugal, and 324,000,000 floated, which is guaran- Switzerland), and where American finanteed by the country's customs, by the cial representatives are the most imporstock in the government bank, by a tant plenipotentiaries received by the government railroad, and finally by all Mexican Government. the internal revenues of the country, which may be augmented at any time to suit the commission of the American bankers — which commission now as To recapitulate: Out of the twenty sumes complete control of Bolivia's Latin-American republics, eleven of finances including practically the power them now have their financial policies to dictate what Bolivia's tariffs and directed by North Americans officially taxes shall be.

appointed. Six of these ten have the Here are five more countries where financial agents backed by American Americans have been called to direct military forces on the ground. (This the fiscal policy of the governments, includes Cuba, which has no official making a total of eleven. But this is financial adviser; but General Crowder only official direction.

has so acted during recent financial


d concessions, genitalists.

time will

let him go to jail, $

Paraguay, and the circle of While

is to hapepartment

readjustments.) Four of the remaining we forbid it. So it happens that, as half of these Southern countries have with a fond parent, who at one time their economic and fiscal life closely will insist on making all decisions for tied to the United States through large his son, at another will throw him loans and concessions, giving special entirely on his own resources, at one advantages to American capitalists. time will pay the forged check, at

This leaves the six countries of another will let him go to jail, so it is Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, with these little countries — pawns on Paraguay, and Venezuela as the only the international chessboard as Mr. ones outside the circle of North Powers says — who never know what American financial control. While is to happen to them. Usually the Americans have recently made large State Department seems hesitant loans or secured extensive concessions about making suggestions to one of from these last-named countries they these smaller governments concerning have, so far as the author knows, not improvement in a national educational yet acquired such a preponderant programme, lest this be considered as influence as to dictate their fiscal interference in internal affairs. But it policies. But these six countries are is always sure of the right to do anytrembling in their boots, wondering thing that comes under the formula: how long before the inevitable must ‘protection of American lives and arrive!

property.' Since American lives seldom Along with this economic and mili- are in danger, American property tary dominance goes a dominance in naturally gets first place. In fact it is the internal affairs of Latin America. only in countries where American In the Caribbean countries especially, property interests are paramount that the word of the American Minister is this tutelage is employed. the most important factor for any government to consider. It is impos

III sible for anyone who has not come into close contacts with these countries to This recent economic dominance in realize how completely their govern- Latin America is directly connected ments are held in the hollow of the with the recent resurgent policy of hand of the State Department at isolation from Europe. We stay out of Washington. In fact the government Europe; we go into Latin America. officials of these countries are so far The corollary - Europe must stay out accustomed to doing Washington's of Latin America; Latin America must will that the State Department fre- stay out of Europe. ‘Business first.' quently finds it necessary to refuse to 'Why take a mandate for Armenia,' do things related to internal order that asked one of our Senators, ‘since there native officials, often indebted to their are no oil fields there?' The greatest oil Big Brother for their position, request deposits in the world are in Latin it to do. This creates a strong in- America, so we 'll take our mandates consistency in the policy of the State there, and we will write our own terms. Department from time to time. What To be sure that these terms are to our one official refused to do as interference liking, we are recently giving the with internal order, another will do, Monroe Doctrine a new application, and even the same official will judge isolating Europe from Latin America. differently at different times. At one As President Lowell says: 'Some time we allow a revolution, at another Americans, while professing a fa:ith in

ese coung Washine fre- stay take

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