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out, rather than spoken; the accents weak, and interrupted, sighs breaking into the middle of sentences and words.
Despair, as in a condemned criminal, or one who has lost all hope of salvation, bends the eyebrows downward; clouds the forehead; rolls the eyes round frightfully; opens the mouth towards the ears; bites the lips; widens the nostrils; gnashes with the teeth, like a fierce wild beast. The heart is too much hardened to suffer tears to flow ; yet the eyeballs will be red and inflamed like those of an animal in a rabid state. The head is hung down upon the breast. The arms are bended at the elbows; the fists are clenched hard; the veins and muscles swelled; the skin livid; and the whole body strained and violently agitated; groans, expressive of inward torture, more frequently u tered than words. If any words, they are few, and expressed with a sullen, eager bitterness; the tone of voice often loud and furious. As it often drives people to distraction, and self murder, it can hardly be overacted by one, who would represent it.
Fear, violent and sudden, opens very wide the eyes and mouth; shortens the nose; draws down the eyebrows; gives the countenance an air of wildness; covers it with a deadly paleness; draws back the elbows parallel with the sides; lifts up the open hands, the fingers together, to the height of the breast, so that the palms face the dreadful object, as shields opposed against it. One foot is drawn back behind the other, so that the body seems shrinking from the danger, and putting itself in a posture for flight. The heart beats violently; the breath is fetched quick and short; the whole body is thrown into a general tremor. The voice is weak and trembling; the sentences are short, and the meaning confused and incoherent. Imminent danger, real or fancied, produces in timorous persons, as women and children, violent shrieks without any articulate sound of words; and sometimes irrecoverably confounds the understanding: produces fainting, which is sometimes followed by death.
Shame, or a sense of one's appearing to a disadvantage, before one's fellow creatures; turns away the face from the beholders; covers it with blushes; hangs the head; casts down the eyes; draws down the eyebrows; either strikes the person dumb, or, if he attempts to say any thing in his own defence, causes his tongue to faulter, and confounds his utterance; and puts him upon making a thousand gestures
and grimaces, to keep himself in countenance; all of which only heighten the confusion of his appearance.
Remorse, or a painful sense of guilt, casts down the countenance, and clouds it with anxiety; hangs down the head, draws the eyebrows down upon the eyes. The right hand beats the breast. The teeth gnash with anguish. The whole body is strained and violently agitated. If this strong remorse is succeeded by the more gracious disposition of penitence, or contrition; then the eyes are raised (but with great appearance of doubting and fear) to the throne of heavenly mercy; and immediately cast down again to the earth. Then floods of tears are seen to flow. The knees are bended; or the body prostrated on the ground. The arms are spread in a suppliant posture, and the voice of deprecation is uttered with sighs, groans, timidity, hesitation, and trembling.
Courage, steady and cool, opens the countenance, gives the whole form an erect and graceful air. The accents are strong, fullmouthed and articulate; the voice firm and even. Boasting, or affected courage, is loud, blustering, threatening. The eyes stare; the eyebrows drawn down; the face red and bloated; the mouth pouts out; the voice hollow and thundering; the arms are set akimbo; the head often nodding in a menacing manner; and the right fist, clenched, is brandished, from time to time, at the person threatened. The right foot is often stamped upon the ground, and the legs take such large strides, and the steps are so heavy, that the earth seems to tremble under them.
Pride, assumes a lofty look, bordering upon the aspect and attitude of anger. The eyes open, but with the eyebrows considerably drawn down; the mouth pouting out, mostly shut, and the lips pinched close. The words walk out astrut, with a slow, stiff, bombastic affectation of importance. The arms generally akimbo, and the legs at a distance from one another, taking large tragedy strides.
Obstinacy, adds to the aspect of pride, a dogged sourness, like that of malice. See Malice.
Authority, opens the countenance; but draws down the eyebrows a little, so far as to give the look of gravity. See Gravity.
Commanding, requires an air a little more peremptory, with a look a little severe or stern. The hand is held out, and moved toward the person, to whom the order is given, with the palm upwards, and the head nods toward him.
Forbidding, on the contrary, draws the head backwards, and pushes the hand from one with the palm downward, as if going to lay it upon the person, to hold him down immoveable, that he may not do what is forbidden him.
Affirming, especially with a judicial oath, is expressed by lifting the open right hand, and eyes, toward heaven; or, if conscience is appealed to, by laying the right hand upon the breast.
Denying, is expressed by pushing the open right hand from one; and turning the face the contrary way. See Aversion.
Differing, in sentiment, may be expressed as refusing. See Refusing.
Agreeing in opinion, or conviction, as granting. See Granting.
Exhorting, as by a general at the head of his army, requires a kind, complacent look; unless matter of offence has passed, as neglect of duty, or the like.
Judging, demands a grave, steady look, with deep attention, the countenance altogether clear from any appearance of either disgust or favour. The accents slow, distinct, emphatical, accompanied with little action, and that very grave.
Reproving, puts on a stern aspect, roughens the voice, and is accompanied with gestures not much different from those of threatening, but not so lively.
Acquitting, is performed with a benevolent, tranquil countenance, and tone of voice; the right hand, if not both, open, waved gently toward the person acquitted, expressing dismission. See Dismissing.
Condemning, assumes a severe look, but mixed with pity. The sentence is to be expressed as with reluctance.
Teaching, explaining, inculcating, or giving orders to an inferior, requires an air of superiority to be assumed. The features are to be composed to an authoritative gravity. The eye steady, and open, the eyebrows a little drawn down over it; but not so much as to look surly or dogmatical. The tone of voice varying according as the emphasis requires, of which a good deal is necessary in expressing matter of this sort. The pitch of the voice to be strong and clear; the articulation distinct; the utterance slow, and the manner peremptory. This is the proper manner of pronouncing the commandments in the communion office. But (I am sorry to say it) they are too commonly spoken
in the same manner as the prayers, than which nothing can be more unnatural.
Pardoning, differs from acquitting, in that the latter means clearing a person after a trial of guilt: whereas the former supposes guilt, and signifies merely delivering the guilty person from punishment. Pardoning requires some degree of severity of aspect and tone of voice, because the pardoned person is not an object of entire unmixed approbation, otherwise its expression is much the same as granting. See Granting.
Arguing, requires a cool, sedate, attentive aspect, and a clear, slow, emphatical accent, with much demonstration by the hand. It differs from teaching (see Teaching) in that the look of authority is not wanted in arguing.
Dismissing, with approbation, is done with a kind aspect and tone of voice; the right hand open, gently waved toward the person; with displeasure, besides the look and tone of voice which suit displeasure, the hand is hastily thrown out toward the person dismissed, the back part toward him, the countenance at the same time turned away from him.
Refusing, when accompanied with displeasure, is expressed nearly in the same way. Without displeasure, it is done with a visible reluctance, which occasions the bringing out the words slowly, with such a shake of the head, and shrug of the shoulders, as is natural upon hearing of somewhat, which gives us concern.
Granting, when done with unreserved good will, is accompanied with a benevolent aspect, and tone of voice; the right hand pressed to the left breast, to signify how heartily the favour is granted, and the benefactor's joy in conferring it.
Dependence. See Modesty.
Veneration, or worshipping, comprehends several articles, as ascription, confession, remorse, intercession, thanksgiving, deprecation, petition, &c. Ascription of honour and praise to the peerless supreme Majesty of heaven, and confession and deprecation, are to be uttered with all that humility of looks and gesture, which can exhibit the most profound self abasement and annihilation, before One, whose superiority is infinite. The head is a little raised, but with the most apparent timidity and dread; the eye is lifted, but immediately cast down again or closed for a moment; the eyebrows are drawn down in the most respectful manner; the features, and the whole body and limbs, are all compos
ed to the most profound gravity; one posture continuing, without considerable change, during the whole performance of the duty. The knees bended, or the whole body prostrate, or if the posture be standing, which scripture does not disallow, bending forward, as ready to prostrate itself. The arms spread out, but modestly, as high as the breast; the hands open. The tone of the voice will be submissive, timid, equal, trembling, weak, suppliant. The words will be brought out with a visible anxiety and diffidence, approaching to hesitation; few and slow; nothing of vain repetition, harangue, flowers of rhetoric, or affected figures of speech; all simplicity, humility, and lowliness, such as becomes a reptile of the dust, when presuming to addresss Him, whose greatness is tremendous beyond all created conception. In intercession for our fellow creatures which is prescribed in the scriptures, and in thanksgiv ing, the countenance will naturally assume a small degree of cheerfulness, beyond what it was clothed with in confession of sin, and deprecation of punishment. But all affected ornament of speech or gesture in devotion, deserves the severest censure, as being somewhat much worse than absurd.
Respect, for a superior, puts on the looks and gesture of modesty. See Modesty.
Hope, brightens the countenance; arches the eyebrows; gives the eyes an eager, wishful look; opens the mouth to a half smile; bends the body a little forward, the feet equal; spreads the arms, with the hands open, as to receive the object of its longings. The tone of the voice is eager, and unevenly inclining to that of joy; but curbed by a degree of doubt and anxiety. Desire differs from hope as to expression, in this particular, that there is more appearance of doubt and anxiety in the former, than in the latter. For it is one thing to desire what is agreeable, and another to have a prospect of actually obtaining it.
Desire, expresses itself by bending the body forward, and stretching the arms toward the object as to grasp it. The countenance smiling, but eager and wishful; the eye wide open, and eyebrows raised; the mouth open, tone of voice suppliant, but lively and cheerful, unless there be distress as well as desire; the expression fluent and copious; if no words are used, sighs instead of them; but this is chiefly in distress.
Love, (successful) lights up the countenance into smiles. The forehead is smoothed and enlarged; the eyebrows are