quod haud dubie factum fuisset, Benhadadi | ashamed, as apprehending that the prophet
morbum non futurum esse lethalem, sed eum suspected or discerned something extra-
moriturum esse vi oppressum ab Hasaële. ordinary and of an evil and shameful nature
Priora verba igitur hic ad illum referre in him. The Hebrew words are ambiguous,
debebat; posteriora autem huic prædicebant, and may indifferently be referred to either
quid esset eventurum.
of them; but they seem more properly to
belong to Hazael, because it follows, by way
of distinction, the man of God wept.

Maurer.-10] i, dic ei.

K'ri (ut Lev. xi. 21; 1 Sam. ii. 3; 2 Sam. xvi. 18, al. cf. ad Exod. xxi. 8), quod ipsum exhibent complures libri et versiones antiquæ.

Dr. A. Clarke.-He settled his countenance stedfastly.] Of whom does the author speak? Of Hazael, or of Elisha? Several apply this action to the prophet.

The Septuagint, as it stands in the Com


ita esse capiendum, nec tanquam negationem ad sequentia trahendum, cum ex eo patet, quod non infinitivo absoluto, seq. verb. fin., rarissime tantum præponitur (E plutensian and Antwerp Polyglots, makes Gr. min., p. 236, ex.), tum maxime col- the text very plain: Kai éσtŋ Ağaŋλ KATA ligitur ex comm. 14, ubi Hasael, Elisæ verba προσωπον αυτου, και παρεθηκεν ενώπιον αυτου Ex morbo (cf. δωρα, έως ᾔσχυνετο· και εκλαυσεν ὁ ἄνθρωπος no vs. 8, 9) utique evadere poteris, TOV Oeov, And Hazael stood before his face, morbus tibi minime letalis erit. Sed ostendit and he presented before him gifts till he was mihi Jova, eum certo moriturum esse. Vates, ashamed; and the man of God wept. divinitus edoctus, regem violenta morte moriturum esse (cf. vs. 15), ad quæstionem num ille ex morbo, quo laboret, evasurus sit, respondet, morbum minime letalem fore; præterea vero de suo addit, se certo scire, regem nihilo secius moriturum esse. Sua Ged., Booth. Then looking [Booth., havsponte intelligitur, regi non nisi priora verba ing looked] him steadfastly, and long, in the referenda fuisse. Schulzius sensum ita ex-face, the man of God wept.


The Codex Vaticanus, and the Codex Alexandrinus, are nearly as the Hebrew. The Aldine edition agrees in some respects with the Complutensian; but all the Versions follow the Hebrew.

הָיָה תִהְיֶה : referens dicit

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pedivit : Interrogas me nomine regis; Houb.—11 1 ", et firmavit vultum
equidem vero jam scio, quid ei responsi suum. Hæc de Hazael dicuntur, quomodò
daturus sis, sive vitam sive mortem præ- et hæc, o", et obstupuit diu multùm-
dixero. Meo illi nomine vitam promittere que. Sed 7, et flevit, pertinet ad Elisæum,
statutum est tecum. Mihi vero ostendit ut liquet. Non esset Hebr. consuetudinis,
Deus, eum certo moriturum esse." Ex hac ut tria verba de eodem homine acciperentur,
interpretatione verba liberius ita vertenda nominativo eorum ad finem rejecto. Ob-
essent per me licet eas renunciatum regi, stupuit Hazael in responso Elisæi, vel
eum ex morbo evasurum esse. Mihi vero stuporem simulavit, cùm celare vellet Eli-
ostendit cet.
sæum, sui regis mortem non sibi fore in-


Ver. 11.

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Ver. 12.

καὶ παρέστη τῷ προσώπῳ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔθηκεν ῥήξεις. ἕως αἰσχύνης· καὶ ἔκλαυσεν ὁ ἄνθρωπος τοῦ


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καὶ τὰς ἐν γαστρὶ ἐχούσας αὐτῶν ἀναῤ

Au. Ver.-12 And Hazael said, Why weepeth my lord? And he answered, Because I know the evil that thou wilt do unto the children of Israel: their strong holds wilt thou set on fire, and their young

Au. Ver.-11 And he settled his countenance stedfastly [and set it], until he was ashamed and the man of God wept.


Until he was ashamed. See notes on men wilt thou slay with the sword, and wilt ii. 17, p. 880. dash their children, and rip up their women with child.

Pool. He settled his countenance stedfastly; the prophet fixed his eyes upon Hazael. Until he was ashamed; either till the prophet was ashamed to look any longer upon him ; or till Hazael [so Patrick] was

Rip up their women with child. So Gesen. and most commentators.

Bp. Patrick.-12 This last expresses the highest degree of barbarous cruelty; for

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which there was no occasion, if he did but | And that this is the true sense, his immediate
kill the women with child, for the child in murder of his master on his return fully
the womb would die with them, without proves. "Our common version of these
ripping them up. Therefore, a late learned words of Hazael," as Mr. Patten observes,
man, looking on this as a thing unheard of, "has stood in the front of many a fine de-
will have the word haroth not to signify clamation utterly wide of his real sentiment.
women with child, but castles or fortified His exclamation was not the result of horror ;
places which he should demolish: though his expression has no tincture of it; but of
he cannot but acknowledge, that the cutting the unexpected glimpse of a crown! The
up women very naturally follows slaying prophet's answer is plainly calculated to
their young men, and dashing their children, satisfy the astonishment he had excited. A
which goes just before. And he should dog bears not, in Scripture, the character of
have taken notice, that the very first evil he a cruel, but of a despicable animal; nor does
mentions that Hazael should do to them, is he who is shocked with its barbarity call it a
setting their strongholds on fire (Gousset, GREAT deed.”—David Vindicated.
Comment. Linguæ Hebraicæ, p. 216).

Houb.-12, juvenes eorum. Id
vocabulum suo malè mutilatum. Codices diceret Latine, quàm Hebraicè.

et t prægnantes eorum, scriptum habent om, Codices Orat.


, והרתיהם sic, pro : בחוריהם,tres Orat

Ver. 13.

Houb.-13, servus tuus canis.
Nos, non canis, sed homuncio, ne canis plus

Ver. 14.

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μοι, Ζωῇ ζήσῃ.

Au. Ver.-So he departed from Elisha, and came to his master: who said to him,

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καὶ εἶπεν Αζαὴλ, Τίς ἐστιν ὁ δοῦλός σου, ὁ κύων swered, He told me that thou shouldest ὁ τεθνηκὼς, ὅτι ποιήσει τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο ; κ.τ.λ.

surely recover.

That thou shouldest surely recover. See notes on ver. 10.

Booth. That thou mayest assuredly recover.

Au. Ver.-13 And Hazael said, But what, is thy servant a dog, that he should do this great thing? And Elisha answered, The LORD hath shewed me that thou shalt be king over Syria.

Ver. 15.

Dr. A. Clarke.-But what, is thy servant

a dog, that he should do this great thing?] Ipu japan nga ninap iny


בַּמַּיִם וַיִּפְרָשׁ עַל־פָּנָיו וַיָּמֹת וַיִּמְלֹךְ believe this verse to be wrongly interpreted

חֲוָהאֵל תַּחְתָּיו :

by the general run of commentators. It is
generally understood that Hazael was struck
with horror at the prediction; that these καὶ ἐγένετο τῇ ἐπαύριον, καὶ ἔλαβε τὸ
cruelties were most alien from his mind; μαχβὰρ καὶ ἔβαψεν ἐν τῷ ὕδατι, καὶ περιέβαλεν
that he then felt distressed and offended at ἐπὶ τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἀπέθανε· καὶ
the imputation of such evils to him ; and yet, ἐβασίλευσεν ̓Αζαὴλ ἀντ ̓ αὐτοῦ.

Au. Ver.-15 And it came to pass on the
morrow, that he took a thick cloth, and
dipped it in water, and spread it on his
face, so that he died: and Hazael reigned
in his stead.

so little did he know his own heart, that when
he got power, and had opportunity, he did
the whole with a willing heart and a ready
hand. On the contrary, I think he was
delighted at the prospect; and his question
rather implies a doubt whether a person so
inconsiderable as he is shall ever have it in
his power to do such great, not such evil
things; for, in his sight, they had no turpi-
tude. The Hebrew text stands thus: "But In rendering this verse I have departed
what! thy servant, this dog! that he should from all the ancient versions, and most
do this great work!" Or, "Can such a modern interpreters. They ascribe this
poor worthless fellow, such a dead dog [ó action to Hazael, and make him smother the
kuwv ȧ Tedvηkws, Sept.] perform such mighty king. I am convinced that the text admits
actions? thou fillest me with surprise." of no such meaning. Ben-hadad, encouraged

Ged. But, on the next day, having taken
a fly-net dipped in water, and put it upon
his face, he died: and Hazael reigned in his

by the reported answer of Elishah, makes use

וּבִשְׁנַת חָמֵשׁ לְיוֹרָם בֶּן־אַחְאָב מֶלֶךְ of a violent rennedy to allay the heat of his יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוֹשָׁפָט מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה מָלַךְ -stops the perspiration ; and he dies in conse יְהוֹרָם בֶּן־יְהוֹשָׁפָט מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה :

fever; and claps on his face a wet net. This

quence. So Booth.

Ver. 16.

abe abe

Booth.According to Josephus, this king Ἐν ἔτει πέμπτω τῷ Ἰωρὰμ υἱῷ Αχαὰβ βασιλεῖ was greatly beloved by his subjects; and Ἰσραὴλ, καὶ ̓Ιωσαφὰτ βασιλεῖ Ἰούδα, ἐβασίλHazael had murdered him, would he have ευσεν Ἰωρὰμ υἱὸς Ἰωσαφὰτ βασιλεὺς Ἰούδα.


been raised to the throne? We are not in-
formed that Ben-hadad had any children;
and Hazael might succeed him by the choice
of the people.
Gesen. m. (r. 2 no. 1) coarse cloth,
i. e., of a coarse texture, perh. hair cloth,
cilicium, 2 Kings viii. 15.-The idea of wvw-
Telov, fly-net, proposed by J. D. Michaëlis,
does not seem adapted to the context.

Au. Ver.-16 And in the fifth year of
Joram the son of Ahab king of Israel,
Jehoshaphat being then king of Judah, Je-
horam the son of Jehoshaphat king of
Judah began to reign [Heb., reigned. 892.
Began to reign in consort with his father].

See notes on ver. 17, and on i. 17.

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Bp. Patrick.-16 All the seeming contradictions between this verse and chap. i. 17, and chap.iii. 1, are thus briefly reconciled by

Prof. Lee.-, carpet, or other coarse cloth. We find a similar thing recorded in Huetius:-Jehoram beginning to reign with the Persian history, entitled, Kholasat El his father Jehoshaphat in his seventeenth year, Akhbar. (In my copy, p. 162, verso). and Joram king of Israel in his eighteenth, The words are these, The Malik ordered that the first year of Joram king of Israel will fall they should place a carpet on Abdallah's out in the second year of Jehoram, king of mouth, so that his life was cut off. Judah whose father dying in the twentysecond year of his reign, Jehoram, king of Judah, began to reign alone in the fifth year of Joram king of Israel (see Demonstr. Evang. propos. iv. p. 2014).


et sumsit Hasael velum culicare (sec. al. stragulum), immersit in aquam, et expandit in ejus (regis) faciem cet. h. e., tum Hasael ope reticuli (straguli) madefacti regem suffocavit. Ita Ken.-16 This verse, when exactly reninterpretes numero plurimi. "At, inquit dered, is, And in the fifth year of Joram, Schulzius, falso parricidii reus agitur Hasael, the son of Ahab, king of Israel, and of qui certe sub commatis nostri initium Sub- Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, Jehoram, the jectum propositionis neutiquam esse potest, son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, began to alias enim nomen ejus non sub finem, sed reign. In my General Dissertation, p. 44, sub initium versus nostri ponendum fuisset notice was taken of the confusion here inneque etiam patet ratio, cur stragulam troduced (as Vignoles, Jackson, and other (orpoμa vertit Theodoretus Hebræum chronologers have remarked) by the interveteribus interpretibus usus) aquis intingi et polation of three Hebrew words, signifying et madefieri oportuisset, si Hasael ejus injectu Jehosaphati regis Judæ. "Tis certain, that suffocandi regis consilium cepisset." Verum Jehoshaphat reigned twenty-five years; and enim vero, qui sub finem commatis 14 sub- that Jehoram his son reigned but eight years; jectum est, is utique etiam sub initium (1 Kings xxii. 42; 2 Kings viii. 17; 2 Chron. commatis 15, subjectum esse poterit! Atqui xx. 31; and xxi. 5;) so that he could not subjectum verbi vs. 14. est Hasal. have reigned during his father's life, without Quod autem attinet ad reticulum (stragu- being king twenty years and eight years. I lum?) madefactum, notissima res est, pannos also specified several copies of the Vulgate, aqua intinctos multo solidiores et aëri im- both written and printed, which are free pervios fieri. Ex quo intelligitur, argu- from this interpolation. It was observed e diverso allata nullius esse likewise, that these words are wanting in Ceterum Schulzius hanc nobis two Heb. MSS.; and lastly, that the proposuit interpretationem: postridie vero Hexaplar Syr. MS., above 1000 years old, rex læto Hasaelis nuntio confirmatus stragu- made from the Greek (now preserved at lam sumtam aquis intinxit et faciei sua Paris), has not these words, though they are maxime sine dubio sudanti obvelavit, ut re- found in the Vat. and Alexand. MSS. So frigerio levaretur, ita vero evaporatione Luther, Dathe, Bp. Horsley, Clarke, Ged., nimis cito impedita mortuus est. Booth., Maurer.



Dr. A. Clarke.-These words, And of Je- | verba omittantur; quanquam non difficile hoshaphat, king of Judah, are wanting in fuit, ut tria verba, quæ lineâ inferiore rethree of Kennicott's and De Rossi's MSS., currunt, oculo Scribæ aberrante, fuerint Superest expliin the Complutensian and Aldine editions of iterata in linea superiore. the Septuagint, in the Peshito Syriac, in the candum, quomodo Joram, filius Achab, regParisian Heptaplar Syriac, the Arabic, and naverit annis quinque, antequam regnaret in many copies of the Vulgate, collated by Joram, filius Josaphat. Edm. Calmet, turDr. Kennicott and De Rossi, both printed bam sequens, ita interpretatur, regnavit annis and manuscript; to which may be added quinque, antequàm Joram, filius Josaphat, two MSS. in my own library, one of the solus regnaret, existimans, fuisse Joram, fourteenth, the other of the eleventh century, filium Josaphat, in regni societatem vocatum, and in what I judge to be the Editio Princeps de qua societate altum silet pagina sacra, ut of the Vulgate. And it is worthy of remark mirum sit eam adhiberi, annis regnorum that in this latter work, after the fifteenth computandis. Sed neque, si Joram cum verse, ending with Quo mortuo regnavit patre Josaphat regnavit, nodus solvitur. Azahel pro eo, the following words are Nam si fuit Joram rex factus anno patris in a smaller character, Anno quinto Joram Josaphat decimo sexto, ut credit Edm. filii Achab regis Israel, regnavit Joram filius Josa- Calmet, nec sic quidem demonstratur, quoWe have modo Joram, filius Achab, regnaverit, antephat rex Juda, Triginta, &c. already seen that it is supposed that Jeho- quam Joram, filius Josaphat, regnaret solus, shaphat associated his son with him in the annis tantum quinque. Quippe Josaphat kingdom; and that the fifth year in this regnavit viginti quinque annos. place only regards Joram king of Israel, and decimo sexto regni Josaphat, usque ad annum not Jehoshaphat king of Judah. See the ejusdem vigesimum quintum, intercedunt notes on chap. i. 17. Ergo regnaverit Joram, filius Josaphat, comite patre, Utitur Edm. Calmet his annis novem, ut explicet, quomodo Joram, filius Achab, regnaverit anno secundo regni Joram, filii

Ab anno

anni novem.

annos novem.

Houb. -16 Anno quinto Joram, filii Achab, in Israel regnantis, regnavit in Judam rex Joram, filius Josaphat, regis Juda. 16, et Josaphat, regis Juda. Hæc omittunt Syrus et Arabs, et Josaphat, ut cap. i. 17, narratur. Nempe, Græci Intt. in Editione Complutensi, inquit, regnavit filius Achab, anno secundo multi etiam Latini Codices. Certe habet postquam Joram, filius Josaphat, fuerat in id manifestam repugnantiam, ut annus regnandi societatem vocatus, sive anno dequintus regni Joram, filii Achab, fuerit idem cimo octavo regni Josaphat; nec videt se in annus quintus regni Josaphat. Capite iii. alios induci laqueos. Nunc enim quomodo versu 1, dictum est illum Joram initium planum faciet, filium Achab regnasse annis regnandi fecisse anno regni Josaphat decimo quinque, antequam filius Josaphat, solus octavo, et ipsa ex historia perspicuum est, regnaret? Nam ab anno Josaphat regnantis Josaphat regem multo ante, quam illum decimo octavo, usque ad vicesimum quintum Joram, regnare cœpisse. Vim faciunt ver- quo Joram, filius Josaphat, solus regnavit, bis sacris, qui sic convertunt, anno quinto intercedunt anni septem, non autem quinque. Joram, filii Achab, regnaverat autem Josa- Ergo hæc male consociantur, et facilius est phat in Judam, regnavit Joram, filius Josa-errasse Scribas, quam Sacrum Scriptorem phat. Nam talis scribendi forma peregrina computasse annos, nunc ab eo, tempore, quo est, et sine altero exemplo. Quod si con- filius Josaphat solus regnavit, nunc ab eo, vertas, regnabat etiam Josaphat in Judam, quo, patre consorte, regnavit, ubi præsertim vel dum regnabat Josaphat, regnavit Joram, de isto regni consortio nihil quidquam mequasi Josaphat filium suum Joram fecisset morant Sacri Scriptores. Vide quæ diximus regni socium, non minus vim facies his ad caput i. 17. Vide etiam præfationem de verbis, o, quæ significant, et regnandi initio utroque Joram filii Achab, Josaphat regis Juda, non autem, Josaphat et Joram, filii Josaphat. regnabat in Judam. Ergo sapientius hæc verba omittuntur ex autoritate Codicum multorum. Nos tamen tollimus tantum Au. Ver.-17 Thirty and two years old nomen, legimusque, reg- was he when he began to reign; and he navit in Judam, ne sine necessitate hæc duo reigned eight years in Jerusalem.

Ver. 17.

See notes on ver. 16.

And to his children.

Bp. Patrick.-17 Part of which was his Houb.-19 i v 15 nn, ut daret ei lu-
father, as I now observe, and the rest by cernam in filiis suis, vel per filios suos. Hæc
himself. Dr. Lightfoot observing three oratio recte procedit. Tamen plerique
dates of the beginning of his reign gives Veteres, 2, et filiis ejus, quæ etiam scrip-
this account of it:-The first was when he tura bona est; itaque eam habent tres
was made viceroy with his father, at the Codices Orat. nec non alii duo, manu tantum
time he went out of the land for the reco- priori.
very of Ramoth-gilead. The second was Dathe.-Pro ? oi ó, Vulgatus, Chaldæus
when his father went upon his expedition et quadraginta fere codd. Kennicotti habent
with Jehoram, king of Israel, against Moab. Hanc igitur lectionem tot testibus
(chap. iii. of this book), from which time, he probatam sum secutus.
thinks, the beginning of his reign is fixed
19 Plurimi libri et nonnulli
here, and in 2 Chron. xxi. 20. For after veterum pro " exhibent, quod reci-
this time, Jehoshaphat was little at Jeru- piendum duxerunt Schulzius, Dathius, alii.
salem, but abroad either in his own land Nihil muto. ? cum appositione co-
(which he perambulated that he might hæret, nisi est: apud filios ejus. Ceterum
reduce the people to the true religion), or in cf. ad 1 Reg. xi. 36.

Moab, to bring them into subjection (2 Chr.
xix. 20). And lastly, at his father's death

xxi. 1 (see Harm. of the Evang. Prolegom.,
sect. 6). So that the clearest solution of the
difficulty mentioned in the foregoing verse
is this (as Dr. Alix, a great man in this
learning, and all others, hath observed to
me), that Jehoram had three beginnings of
his reign. One in the seventeenth year of
Jehoshaphat, when his father designed him
to be king; the second in the twenty-third
year of his father, when he was crowned;
and the last when his father (after he had
reigned five-and-twenty years) died; and he
reigned alone a little more than four years.
Thus Solomon was made king before his
father died, and again after his death, as
Abarbinel observes (see 1 Kings ii. 12).

Dr. A. Clarke.—He reigned eight years in

עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה אָז תִּפְשַׁע לִבְנָה .he was coinmpletely king of Judah 2 Chron

of Joram, king of Israel. He reigned three
years with Jehoshaphat his father, and five
years alone; i. e., from A.M. 3112 to 3119,
according to Archbishop Usher.

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Ver. 22.

אַחְאָב מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל מָלַךְ אֲחַזְיָהוּ בֶּן־ Jerusalem.] Beginning with the fifth year

יְהוֹרָם מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה:

ἕως τῆς ἡμέρας ταύτης· τότε ἠθέτησε Aoßvà èv tậ kaip@ ékeivą.

Au. Ver.-23 Yet Edom revolted from

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under the hand of Judah [and so fulfilled, Gen. xxvii. 40] unto this day. Then Libnah revolted at the same time.

Then. Houb.-22 IN 1, eo die, tunc... Crediderim, fuisse ex malè iteratum. Nam excluditur per hæc verba eo tempore; verius tamen legatur rebellavit; posito, pro TM.

Ver. 25.

ozish nje nowy-ovny hựa



ἐν ἔτει δωδεκάτῳ τῷ Ἰωρὰμ υἱῷ ̓Αχαὰβ βασιλεῖ Ἰσραὴλ ἐβασίλευσεν ̓Οχοζίας υἱὸς Ιωράμ.

Au. Ver.-25 In the twelfth year of Joram the son of Ahab king of Israel did Ahaziah [called Azariah, 2 Chron. xxii. 6, and Jehoahaz, 2 Chron. xxi. 17, and xxv. 23] the son of Jehoram king of Judah begin to reign.

In the twelfth year of Joram.

Pool.-Object. It was in the eleventh year of Joram, chap. ix. 29. Answ. Either, first, He began to reign in the confines of Joram's eleventh and twelfth year, in the very end of his eleventh year, or towards the beginning

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