sunt, sed dei ductu ignari in hostium potesta- | That dove's dung, though it be hotter than tem pervenerunt. Ergo iis parcendum est. ordinary, might in other respects be fitter Eandem hanc interpretationem etiam de for nourishment than other, as being made Wettius in vers. secutus est. Hic autem, of the best and purest grains, and having voci præmissum cum Gesenio Gr. ampl. some moisture in it, &c. Fourthly, That p. 754, min §. 122, 2, pro articulo habuisse this Hebrew word being of an obscure and videtur, nam ne verbulo quidem tetigit hanc doubtful signification, and no where else litteram, quum aliis in locis de mutata used, may be, and is by learned men, otherlectione soleat lectores admonere. Possitne wise rendered and understood; either, first vero per Patach ante & esse articulus, haud of the corn which is found in the crops of nihil ambigam. doves; or, secondly, of the guts and other inwards of doves; or rather, thirdly, of a

Ver. 23.


Au. Ver.-23 So the bands of Syria came sort of cicer [so Houb., Schulz., Dathe, no more into the land of Israel. Maurer, Clarke], or pease, which in the Arabic language (which is near akin to the Hebrew, and from which many words are explained) is called dove's dung; for this was a food much is use amongst the poorer Israelites, and was by all esteemed a very coarse food, and therefore fit to be joined with an ass's head; and a cab was the usual measure of all sorts of grains and fruits of that sort.

Bp. Horsley.-Pillaging parties. Gesen.. 1. An incision, cutting. 2. A troop, band of warriors, (pp. a cutting in,) so called from the figure as intended to cut or break in upon the enemy, like Lat. acies; mostly of light-armed troops engaged in plundering and predatory incursions. Ver. 25.

Bp. Patrick.-Fitches or lentiles.

Dr. A. Clarke.-The piece of silver was

וַיְהִי רָעָב גָּדוֹל בְּשֹׁמְרוֹן וְהִנֵּה צָרִים probably the drachm, worth about seren עָלֶיהָ עַד הֶיוֹת רֹאשׁ חֲמוֹר בִּשְׁמֹנִים Pence three farthings of our money ; the כֶּסֶף וְרָבַע הַקֶב חִרְיוֹנִים בַּחֲמִשָּׁה

whole amounting to about two pounds nine shillings. The cab was about a quart or three pints.-Dove's dung, . Whether καὶ ἐγένετο λιμὸς μέγας ἐν Σαμαρεία, καὶ, this means pigeon's dung literally, or a kind ἰδού περιεκάθηντο ἐπ ̓ αὐτὴν ἕως οὗ ἐγενήθη of pulse, has been variously disputed by κεφαλὴ ὄνου πεντήκοντα ἀργυρίου, καὶ τέταρτον | learned men. I shall content myself with τοῦ κάβου κόπρον περιστερῶν πέντε ἀργυρίου. asserting that it is probable a sort of pease

Au. Ver.-25 And there was a great are meant, which the Arabs to this day call famine in Samaria: and, behold, they be- by this name. "The garvanços, cicer, or sieged it, until an ass's head was sold for chick pea," says Dr. Shaw, "has been taken four-score pieces of silver, and the fourth for the pigeon's dung, mentioned in the part of a cab of dove's dung for five pieces siege of Samaria; and as the cicer is pointed of silver. at one end, and acquires an ash colour in parching, the first of which circumstances answers to the figure, the second to the usual colour of dove's dung, the supposition is by no means to be disregarded."

Pool.-Pieces of silver, supposed to be shekels; and the common shekel being valued at fifteen pence of English money, this amounts to five pounds [so Patrick]. A cab; a measure containing twenty-four I should not omit saying that dove's dung eggs [so Patrick]. Dove's dung; which is of great value in the East for its power in they used not for fire, (for he is speaking producing cucumbers, melons, &c., which has here only of the scarcity of food,) but for induced many learned men to take the food; which, if it seem incredible, it must words literally. Bochart has exhausted this be considered, first, That famine hath con- subject, and concludes that a kind of pulse is strained people to eat things as improper meant. Most learned men are of his and unfit for nourishment as this, as dry opinion. leather, and man's dung, as is implied Isaiah xxxvi. 12, and affirmed by grave historians. Secondly, that some creatures do usually eat the dung of others. Thirdly,

רביונים קרי

Ged., Booth. The fourth part of a kab of vetches at five shekels of silver.

(cacavit חָרָא .r) חַרְאֵי יוֹנִים for הֲרֵי יוֹנִים .Gesen

dove's dung [so Lee, Maurer], 2 K. vi. 25,

Cheth. This may be taken literally; since the man, an infidel, and an idolater, and a it is not incredible that persons oppressed by wicked man, and at this time in a great rage, severe famine should devour even the ex- as appears from ver. 31. Or, they may be crements of animals; comp. Celsii Hierobot. rendered thus, No; (as this Hebrew particle ii., p. 32. Rosenmüller ad Bocharti Hieroz. is sometimes used, as Job xx. 17; Psal. ii., p. 573. Still, it is not improbable, that xxxiv. 5; xli. 2; 1. 3; Prov. iii. 3, 25; some kind of vegetable food is to be here xxxi. 4;) let the Lord help thee. So it understood; just as the Arabs call the herb may be taken, either, first, As a direction : No; do not cry to me, but to God, for help: secondly, As a profane scoff: No, come not God help thee, for I cannot. Or rather, but go to him to whom Elisha directs

to me,

Kali, sparrows' dung, ¿hall; and as in Germ. asafœtida is called devils' dung; See Bochart Hieroz. ii., p. 580 sq. compared with Celsius 1. c. p. 233, who shows that Bochart was mistaken in affirming that among the Arabs, doves' or sparrows' dung is a common epithet for chick peas or vetches fried. In Keri 2 Kings 1. c. is a q. v. Prof. Lee.-, for, followed by □, kethiv, 2 Kings vi. 25, r., pigeons dung; which, it is probable enough, might have been sold as food during a close siege. Bochart, non minus probabile," says Gesenius,―imagined that this was the name he were so good as Elisha pretends; whence of some vegetable, Hieroz. ii., lib. i., p. 31; then shall I help thee? Out of the barnwhich Celsius, Hierob. ii. 30, seq. has shown to be groundless. It might have occurred both to Bochart and Gesenius, that it was not very likely to get any sort of vegetable in a closely besieged city.


ask of me corn or wine, which I want for floor, or out of the wine-press? Dost thou myself?

Houb.-, conjuncte. Quidam Co

juncte, cum uno. Porro inepte Masora

, quasi honestius id esset, quam, cum crederent significari stercus columbarum ; de quo non agitur, sed de ciceribus, ut multis probat Sam. Bochartus; qui ciceres vocabantur, stercus columbarum, quomodo nos Galli fungos quosdam agrestes nominamus, vesse de loup.

-con הריונים separate ; alii הרי יונים,dices

Ver. 27.

you; pray to the Lord: you see how ready he is to help you, by his suffering you to come to this extremity; wait upon God for relief, as Elisha adviseth me; but I will wait no longer for him, ver. 33, and I will take a course with Elisha for thus abusing both me and my people with vain hopes. Or thus, The Lord (on whom forsooth thou and I are commanded to wait for help) will not help thee, as he could easily do, and would do, if

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Houb.-Ille autem, Dominus non dat tibi salutem: unde ego tibi salutem afferam ?

27: Clericus, turbam sequens, ne te servet...Jehova, et in Commentario suo, hoc est, te perdat Jehova. Importunam mulierem, quam putabat à se victum petere, quem norat sibi non esse, ejusmodi imprecatione à se amoliebatur." Sapientior, meo judicio, Syrus, qui cùm legeret, ne, id prætermisit, ne regem induceret mulieri fame oppressæ importune maledicentem. Neque enim crediderim eum legisse, pro м, illi, quanquam habet, illi; quia rò 'N Tậ , non satis simile. Sed facile erat videre,

non, quod,אל scriptum fuisse אוֹשִׁיעֵךְ הַמִן־הַגְרֶן אוֹ מִן־הַיָּקֶב :

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καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ, μὴ σὲ σώσαι κύριος, πόθεν σώσω σε; μὴ ἀπὸ ἅλωνος ἢ ἀπὸ ληνοῦ ;

Au. Ver.-27 And he said, If the LORD do not help thee [or, let not the LORD save thee], whence shall I help thee? out of the barnfloor, or out of the winepress ?

Maurer.] Interpretes recentiores ad unum omnes: ni Jova te servat, Pool. If the Lord do not help thee [so unde ego cet. Dolendum vero est, nunDathe], or, let not God help thee, as some quam significare nisi. Particula illa hic both ancient and late interpreters render the idem valet quod Gr. μǹ in propositionibus, words. So they are words of impatience, quas vocant, subjectivis, ut sensus sit: vereor and rage, and a formal curse, wishing that ut Deus te servet, μn σe σwσai kúpios LXX. God would not help her, as he could not, as Cf. Ps. xli. 3; L. 3; cxxi. 3; Cant. vii. 3, Josephus, amongst others, understand it; nisi mavis explicare: ne sc. me adeas prewhich agrees too well with the character of cibus tuis (cf. Ruth. i. 13)! Deus te servet! 5 Y



legit Vulgatus, nec non Chaldæus, qui as TPD, non te servat Dominus; nam parum fideliter Chaldæi Latinus Interpres, ni salvet te Dominus.

Sed prior ratio haud dubie preferenda. | Eliseus domi sedebat, et senes sedebant cum
Unde ego te potero servare? num ex area an eo, et misit virum a conspectu suo, antequam
e torculari? Postrema verba per acerbissi- veniret nuntius ad eum; ille autem dixit
mam ironiam addita sunt a rege ad incitas re- senibus... Ordinem fuisse turbatum lectori
dacto, cf. quæ sequuntur.
diligentius consideranti perspicuum erit, or-
dinemque eum esse restituendum, quem nos
in versione sequimur, ut postquam dixit
Joram, non stabit caput Elisæi super ipsum,

Ver. 31, 32.

31 וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה־יַעֲשֶׂה לִי אֱלֹהִים וְכֹה continuo subdatur, et misit a conspectu suo יוֹסֶף אִם־יַעֲמֹר רֹאשׁ אֱלִישָׁע בֶּן־שָׁפָט irum, nempe interfectorem. Quod si quis עָלָיו הַיּוֹם: 32 וֶאֱלִישָׁע יֹשֵׁב בְּבֵיתוֹ

וְשְׁבִים וַיִּשְׁלַח אִישׁ


ordinem, quem nunc habemus, tueri conabitur, ex eo quæro, quid hæc sibi velint, et misit virum a conspectu suo, antequam adveniret ad eum nuntius. Elisæum liquet non Quod si rex est, qui 31 καὶ εἶπε, Τάδε ποιήσαι μοι ὁ Θεὸς καὶ mittit, qui tandem mittere hominem dicitur, τάδε προσθείη, εἰ στήσεται ἡ κεφαλὴ ̔Ελισαιέ antequam ille homo, qui idem est nuntius, ἐπ ̓ αὐτῷ σήμερον. 32 καὶ Ἑλισαιὲ ἐκάθητο veniat ad Elisæum. Luce clarius est, τὸ ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ, καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι ἐκάθηντο | antequam pertinere ad Elisæum, qui sedebat μετ ̓ αὐτοῦ· καὶ ἀπέστειλεν ἄνδρα πρὸ προσ-domi, antequam nuntius a rege missus adώπου αὐτοῦ πρὶν ἐλθεῖν τὸν ἄγγελον πρὸς veniret; itaque illud antequam, post sedebat, αὐτὸν, καὶ αὐτὸς εἶπε πρὸς τοὺς πρεσβυτέρους, esse collocandum, et hæc, quæ intercedunt, misit hominem e conspectu suo, esse in superioribus locanda post, sive ante . Ordinis permiscendi occasionem habuerit scriba in vocabulis duobus et me, nonnihil similibus, ut poneret rn, et quæ sequuntur usque ad , ubi scribendum fuerat et duo verba subsequentia. Græci Intt. pro, legunt, ante se, quasi Joram ad Elisæum postea esset venturus; similiter Syrus, qui quidem, ut ordinem expediret, addidit conjunctionem ante 7, ut 1, esset, antequam autem, pertineretque ad ea, quæ subsequuntur; quomodo et apud Vulgatum. Verum non


32 But Elisha sat in his house, and the elders sat with him; and the king sent a man from before him but ere the messenger came to him, he said to the elders, See ye how this son of a murderer hath sent to take away mine head? look, when the messenger cometh, shut the door, and hold him fast at the door: is not the sound of his master's feet behind him? Bp. Horsley.-31, 32, "Then he said, quadrat in seriem, ubi sequitur TI God do so and more also to me, if the head, ille autem dixit... Quippe idem esset of Elisha the son of Shaphat shall stand on ac si Latine diceres, antequam autem veniret him this day. And he sent a man from nuntius, ille autem dixit.

before him. 32 But Elisha was sitting in

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.esse eum, qui mittat וְהוּא אָמַר אֶל־הַזְקֵנִים וגו'

Au. Ver.-31 Then he said, God do so and more also to me, if the head of Elisha the son of Shaphat shall stand on him this day.

his house, and the elders were sitting with

Ver. 33.

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Pool. A man from before him, or, one of them who stood before his face, one of his guard, or some other officer, to take away his ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος μετ ̓ αὐτῶν, καὶ, ἰδοὺ, head, as it follows. ἄγγελος κατέβη πρὸς αὐτὸν, καὶ εἶπεν, Ιδοὺ,

Houb.-31 Dixit autem rex, Propetius sit αὕτη ἡ κακία παρὰ Κυρίου· τί ὑπομείνω τῷ mihi Deus, caput Elisai, filii Saphat, hoc Kupių ěti ;

ipso die super eum non stabit. 32 Simul Au. Ver. 33 And while he yet talked
misit hominem qui sibi adstabat. Interea with them, behold, the messenger came
domi sedebat Elisaus, sedebantque una down unto him: and he said, Behold, this
seniores, antequam satelles ad eum veniret. evil is of the LORD; what should I wait for
Tum senioribus dixit, &c.
the LORD any longer?

32...: Sic habet hod. Contextus:

Ged. While he was yet talking with

them, lo! the king himself came down to
him, and said: "Since from the Lord is all
this evil, what have I, henceforth, to expect
from the Lord ?"

King. All the copies and versions have messenger but it is an evident corruption, to me at least; and the true reading is king. So the author of Commentaries and Essays.

Dathe, Booth.-33 And while he was yet talking with them, the messenger came, and

from him. To which the king replied, And what else can I expect from the Lord, unless it be such plagues? No, saith Elisha in the very next words, ye shall have plenty here to-morrow.

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, ויאמר et אליו quaedam perierunt quae inter

esse subsecutum, apparet partim ex sequen-
tibus verbis, quæ non possunt esse nisi ipsius
regis, partim ex sequentis capitis septimi
versu 17 et 18.-Dathe.

καὶ ἀπεκρίθη ὁ τριστάτης, ἐφ ̓ ὃν ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐπανεπαύετο ἐπὶ τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ, τῷ ̔Ελισαιέ, Houb.-33", et dixit, T, nuntius. Kai einev, idoù, toiýσeɩ kúpios KATAPÁKTAS ÉV (Quid amplius Dominum expectem.) Εx οὐρανῷ, μὴ ἔσται τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο ; καὶ ̔Ελισαιὲ quibus verbis, colligere licet antea dixisse εἶπεν, ἰδοὺ, σὺ ὄψει τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς σου, καὶ Elisæum, expectate Dominum, aut quid ékeilev où þáyn.

simile. Nescio cur Syri Latinus Interpres, Au. Ver.-2 Then a lord [Heb., a lord dixit Elisaus, addito Elisaus; neque enim which belonged to the king leaning upon his hæc verba conveniunt in Elisæum. Con-hand, ch. v. 18] on whose hand the king venirent potius in regem, quam ejus in leaned, answered the man of God, and satellitem, . Atque haud scio an le- said, Behold, if the LORD would make wingendum, rex. Nam cum mox dixerit dows in heaven, might this thing be? And Elisæus, en sonitus pedum ejus post eum, he said, Behold, thou shalt see it with thine apparet regem venisse ad Elisæum. Forte eyes, but shalt not eat thereof.

Lord. See notes on Exod. xiv. 7, vol. i., p. 267.

The king, &c.

Houb.-, Regi. Legen, Rex. ut scriptum fuit manu priori in Codice Orat. Aliter careret suo nominativo verbum

olim legerentur, quæque docerent, venisse ad
Elisæum, post satellitem, ipsum regem, ut
infra narratur vii. 17. Jusserat Elisæus, ne
sinerent satellitem intrare; sic ut non vi-
deatur, satellitem potuisse adire ad Elisæum. 42,
Bp. Patrick.-33 Some imagine that the, innitebatur. Series Hebraica est talis:
messenger being come, spake these words in Tribunus cujus rex innitebatur super manum
the king's name; but it seems more reason- ejus, affixo posito, de more, post relativum.
able to think the king, who was also come, Ita legunt Græci Intt. qui ó Baotλeùs, Rex,
spake them himself [so Bp. Horsley], in a..., en tu. Infrà TM, versu ultimo, ut
fit of raging despair. He could not but fuerat hic scribendum. Littera finalis
acknowledge that the Lord had brought circulo superno castigatur in Codicibus.
them into this distress. Upon which Elisha Maurer.] et respondit præ-
exhorted him to wait till he would please fectus triariorum, cujus manui rex inniti
(who only could do it) to deliver them. solebat.
But he impatiently answered, he had waited
so long in vain, that he had no hope left,
since they were driven to such extremity
that women ate their own children. Or
these words may be thus interpreted (taking
the former part of them to be spoken by the
prophet, and the latter by the king), And he
said (that is, the prophet said). Acknowledge

gendum puto, quam scripturam exhi-
bent plures et scripti et editi libri; dubito
enim, num possit lamed in hoc tali contextu
ante Nominativum poni. cf. Comm. ampl. in
Jos. p. 114, ubi locos, quos afferunt eruditi,
expedivi omnes. Ceterum illi hujus commatis
explicandi modo, quem 1. 1. sequutus sum
(et respondit præf. triar. regis, qui illius

the hand of God in this evil, which comes manui innitebatur), præter locum parallelum

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: non ning -Kai épréσwμev eis Thy пapeμßodny Eupias ἐὰν ζωογονήσωσιν ἡμᾶς, καὶ ζησόμεθα· καὶ ἐὰν θανατώσωσιν ἡμᾶς, καὶ ἀποθανούμεθα. Au. Ver.-4 · Now therefore come, and let us fall into the host of the Syrians; if they save us alive, we shall live; and if they kill us, we shall but die.

Houb.-4 DN, si nos vivificabunt. Lege, ut scriptum lego in Codice Orat. 42. Rectè ad nomen D, adjungitur numerus pluralis, quia nomen est nationale. Sic anteà vi. 9, 'n o, Syri sunt in insidiis. Itaque in fine versùs legendum

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Ver. 6.

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Au. Ver.-6 For the LORD had made the
host of the Syrians to hear a noise of
chariots, and a noise of horses, even the
noise of a great host: and they said one to
another, Lo, the king of Israel hath hired
against us the kings of the Hittites, and the
kings of the Egyptians to come upon us.
The Lord.

Houb., Booth.-Jehovah.

6 Potiùs T, Dominus, ut habet Codex Orat. 56. Quippe Historicus sacer nomen Adonai non solet usurpare, cùm ipse narrat. Est Adonai eorum tantùm, qui loquentes inducuntur. Prætereà rò in "N, vel est affixum, vel statûs constructi nota; quæ duæ res hìc non habent locum. Circulo animadvertunt Codices, quo significant, esse

præter scribendi morem consuetum. The kings of the Hittites.

Bp. Patrick.-Those people of the land of Canaan called Hittites, who dwelt about Hebron and Beer-sheba, were rooted out by the Israelites. But either some of them fled, and settled themselves in some neighbouring country, and there grew very populous; or else, we are to understand by the kings of the Hittites (as Josephus doth), the kings Tv vowv, of the isles, lib. ix. Antiq.

cap. 2.

As if chittim was the same with cetim, as all isles, he saith, are called. Every one of which had a king; as Egypt itself was then divided into several kingdoms; whose help the Syrians thought, the king of Israel had procured.

Gesen. Dan, 2 Kings vii. 6, spoken of all the Canaanitish kings.

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Gesen.-. 1. breath.

2. The vital spirit, vxn, anima, through bibi abip which the body lives, i. e., the principle of

וַאֲדֹנָי הִשְׁמִיעַוּ אֶת־מַחֲנֵה אֲרָם קוֹל גָּדוֹל וַיֹּאמְרוּ רֶכֶב וְקוֹל .life manifested in the breath, comp. I, Lat אִישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו הִנֵּה שָׂכַר עָלֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ

anima, also Gr. äveμos. Hence, life, vital

principle, animal spirit. Hence it is very καὶ κύριος ἀκουστὴν ἐποίησε παρεμβολὴν τὴν frequent in phrases which have respect to Συρίας φωνὴν ἅρματος καὶ φωνὴν ἵππου, the losing or preserving of life: a) egy Pwvηv dvváμews μeɣádŋs' kai eiñеv ȧvηp πрòs for life, i. e., in order to save one's life, τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, Νῦν ἐμισθώσατο ἐφ ̓ ἡμᾶς 1 Kings xix. 3; 2 Kings vii. 7. Comp. ὁ Βασιλεὺς Ἰσραὴλ τοὺς βασιλέας τῶν Χετ- Gr. τρέχειν περὶ ψυχῆς Od. 9, 423. Valk. ταίων, κ.τ.λ. ad Hdot. vii. 56; ix. 36; and so (of a hare)

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