– וַיִּמְלֶךְ אֲבַיָּם בְּכָוֹ תַּחְתָּיו :

And these terms may have been applied to God commanded Rehoboam and his people them, as persons who had consecrated them- not to go to fight with Israel: and they selves to the lewd service of some impure obeyed his voice. But this is easily satisfied, Deity; which was common practice by observing that the Jews were commanded anong the idolatrous nations. The ancient not to make war upon the Israelites; but versions give no countenance to our calling they are not commanded not to defend themthis a sodomite. Nor do I see any grounds selves, if the Israelites made war upon them. for charging the Israelites with being so And this was their case ; the Israelites frequently, and so notoriously guilty of vexed them with continual incursions and sodomitical practices.

depredations; though the house of David Dr. A. Clarke.—OPPTP, consecrated per- did not assault them, but only repelled their sons; persons who had devoted themselves, violence; or, perhaps, upon the borders, in practices of the greatest impurity, to the they were continually endeavouring to get service of the most impure idols.

ground one of another; though they never Gesen.—277, m. adj. pp. sacreil, con- came to a set battle. secrated. Hence

Ver. 31. 1. Spec. masc. UTP, a male prostitute, a catamite, sodomite, kivaidos so called as con- :– secrated to the service of Astarte or Venus; και εβασίλευσεν 'Αβιού ο υιός αυτού αντ' Deut. xxiii. 18; 1 Kings xiv. 24; xv. 12; aŭtoð. xxii. 47; 2 Kings xxiii. 7; Job xxxvi. 14.

Au. Ver.--31 And Rehoboam slept with These wretched beings were priests or rather his fathers, and was buried with his fathers temple servants (iepódov oi) of Astarte at in the city of David. And his mother's Hierapolis in Syria; and having been emas- name was Naamah an Ammonitess. And culated and wearing a female dress, they Abijam [2 Chron. xii. 16, Abijah] his son wandered about through the cities and reigned in his stead. villages begging and bearing with them an

Ged. And his mother's name was Naama, image of the goddess. They were courted

an Ammonitess. So the present text with by females, and gave themselves up to un- Chald., Vulg., Arab. But it appears to be an natural lusts. See especially Lucian Luc. interpolation, and is wanting in Sep. and § 35 sq. Id. de Dea Syra, $ 27, 51. Jerome

Syr. ad Hos. iv. 14. Spencer de Legg. rit. ii. 35.

Abijam. Movers Phænizier i., p. 678.

Ken.—Among the various corruptions, to Prof. Lee.-UP , m. pl. OPPT? , fem. TYTT, which ancient MSS. have been liable, none pl. nið7. (a) A Catamite ; or, probably, a have happened more easily than the corpriest of Baal-Peor.

(b) Fem. A prosti- ruptions of numbers and proper names : and tute.

yet, as no words are of greater consequence And they did.

to the sense, proportionable care should be Houb.24 1099, fecerunt. Nos, nam taken for the correction of such mistakes. fecerunt ; quippe legendum 1879, non omissâ The name of this king of Judah is now exconjunctione, quam legunt, præter Chal- pressed three ways. Here, and in four dæum, omnes veteres.

other places, it is Abijam or Abim ; in two Ver. 25-29.

other places it is Abihu; but in eleven other Houb.25 puit, Sesac. Rectè Masora places it is Abiah--as it is expressed by St. prw. Sic lego in Codice Orat. uno, eoque Matthew, at i. 7-Poßoay eyevige TOV · antiquissimo, et sic legitur 2 Par. xi. 2.

ABIA. It is remarkable that in this first 29 0'2173 1797 157, non-ne hæc scripta sunt. instance, Abijam is Abiah in our oldest Meliùs disy duo Codices Orat. Habet 1957, Heb. Ms., supported by ten other copies. non interrogationem nudam, sed, in formâ Note also, that it is here Abiah in the interrogationis, rei evidentiam, aut cognitam Greek and Syriac versions; and though veritatem, ut alibi sæpe.

the printed Vulgate has Abiam, yet it is Ver. 30.

Abia in the only Latin MS. consulted on Au. Ver.-30 And there was war between this occasion. Rehoboam and Jeroboam all their days. Dr. A. Clarke-Dr. Kennicott observes that

Bishop Patrick.-30 This doth not seem the name of this king of Judah is now exagree with what we read xii. 22, where pressed three ways: here and in four other


places it is Abijam or Abim; in two others she is called, 2 Chron. xi. 21. And because it is Abihu ; but in eleven other places it is he is here mentioned as a known person, Abiah, as it is expressed by St. Mat. i. 7, without any addition of his kindred or Poßoay eyevvnge tov ABIA ; and this is the quality, some conceive that this was Absareading of thirteen of Kennicott's and De lom's daughter, called properly Tamar, Rossi's MSS., and of thirteen respectable 2 Sam. xiv. 27, and from her royal grandeditions of the Hebrew Bible. The Syriac mother, 2 Sam. iii. 3, Maachah; and that is the same. The Septuagint in the London she is called Michaiah (which differs not Polyglot has Aßlov, Abihu ; but in the Com- much from Maachah) the daughter of Uriel, plutensian and Antwerp Polyglots it is Abia, 2 Chron. xiii. 2, because she was first married Abiah. Though the common printed Vulgate to Uriel, as Josephus affirms, Antiq. viii. 3, has Abiam, yet the Editio Princeps of the and afterwards to Rehoboam. Others think Vulgate, some MSS., and the text in the this was another person, and that both she Complutensian and Antwerp Polyglots have and her father had each of them several Abia : which without doubt is the reading names, which was not unusual among the that should in all cases be followed.


Ver. 5.
Chap. XV.1, 2.

Au. Ver.-5 Because David did that Au. Ver.--1 Now in the eighteenth year which was right in the eyes of the Lord, and of King Jeroboam the son of Nebat reigned turned not aside from any thing that he Abijam over Judah.

commanded him all the days of his life, save 2 Three years reigned he in Jerusalem. only in the matter of Uriah the Hittite. And his mother's name was Maachah, Pool.-Quest. How is this true, seeing [2 Chron. xiii. 2, Michaia the daughter of David sinned in the matter of Nabal, Uriel,] the daughter of Abishalom [2 Chron. 1 Sam. xxv., and Achish, chap. xxvii., and xi. 21, Absalom].

Mephibosheth, and his indulgence to his In the eighteenth year:

children, Adonijah, Amnon, and Absalom, Bp. Patrick.1. This seems to disagree and in the numbering of the people ? Answ. with what is said below (ver. 9) concerning This and the like phrases are not to be underAsa, that he began to reign the twentieth stood as exclusive of every sinful action, but year of Jeroboam, and Abijam reigned three only of a sinful course or state, or of an habitual years. But it is usual both in Scripture and and continued apostacy from God, or from in other authors to reckon part of a year for his ways, as the very phrase of turning aside a whole year. So Abijam began to reign from God, or from his commands, doth in some part of Jeroboam's eighteenth year, constantly imply, as appears from Exod. and continued his reign the whole nineteenth xxxii. 8; Deut. ix. 12, 16; 1 Sam. viii. 3; and died in the twentieth: and so was Psal. Ixxviii. 57; Isa. xliv. 20; 1 Tim. i. 6; reckoned to have reigned three years (so v. 15, &c. And thus it is most true. For Pool], as it here follows.

David's other sins were either sudden and His mother's name was Maachah, the transient acts, proceeding from human indaughter of Abishalom.] A barbinel fancies firmity, and extraordinary temptations, and she was the daughter of Absalom (as he soon repented of and blotted out; whereas is called (2 Chron. xi. 21), who rebelled that which concerned Uriah’s wife was a against his father David.

She is called by designed and studied sin, long continued in, another name, 2 Chron. xiii. 2, viz., Michaiah defended with a succession of other sins, the daughter of Uriel. But he thinks that presumptuous, and scandalous to his gois the name of the family, and this her vernment and to the true religion, which he proper name.

Others think this is a mere so eminently professed. fancy, and with great reason ; for Abishalom Commentaries and Essays.—"Save only is a different name from Absalom, as David's in the matter of Uriah.” I much suspect son is always called. And they think he had this clause to be an interpolation. Ist. two names as his daughter also had. But Because the Greek version hath not this Pellicanus seems to me to have given the saving clause. 2dly, Because it is contrary plainest account of this, that Maachah was to fact. The first part of the verse, that his grandmother, and Michaiah his mother. “ David did what was right in the eyes of

Pool.--Of Abishalom, or, of Absalom, as Jehovah, and turned not aside from any


thing that he commanded him," is most | be thus rendered, Yet there was war, &c., probably genuine, and is true with respect to i. e., although God was pleased to show so the public character of David, as a king, much respect to David, as for his sake to and his administration of the laws and statutes continue the succession to the kingdom in of Jehovah relating to the church and state his posterity; yet he thought fit to manifest of the Jews, to which alone, I apprehend, his displeasure against David's successors what is here said of him refers; and herein for their sins, and to mix their honour and he was a man of God's own heart, who ful- happiness with wars and troubles. filled all his will in this respect in opposition 7 The chronicles of the kings of Judah. to Saul, who made no scruple to deviate See above on chap. xiv. 19. from it. But this has nothing to do with Bp. Patrick.–6 This was said before his private character. Some injudicious (xiv. 30), and therefore may seem to come person, however, not perceiving this, and in here impertinently: because he is not taking it to include his private character too, speaking of Rehoboam, but of his son in order to save the credit of the sacred Abijam : who was a valiant young man in historian, might, I suppose, put this clause the days of his father, and always fought his into the margin, “save only in the matter battles with Jeroboam. Which being related of Uriah,” which relates to his character as before in the history of Rehoboam, is here a moral man; but in this respect the ob- repeated, as Abarbinel thinks, to show that servation is unhappily not true, for David Abijam was the cause of these wars. And these was guilty of several, and some very great words, “all his days,” he thinks, relate to breaches of God's moral law, besides the Abijam, who continued the war between his matter of Uriah. From the margin it might father and Jeroboam with great success : as be taken into the text, as many other pas- we read 2 Chr. xiii. 17. Bochartus thinks a sages have been.

plainer account may be given of this, by Ver. 6, 7.

supposing that Rehoboam signifies this son of his; children and fathers being one and

the same in a moral account. Thus Abra: , ham purchased

of the sons of Emor; which was indeed

purchased by Jacob: and the Israelites say se bo 777 hp-by by anato Rehoboam (xii. 16), “What portion have

?" , :

grandchild of David ? In like manner, he

TiT thinks, it may be said, “there was 7 και τα λοιπά των λόγων 'Αβιού και πάντα between Rehoboam and Jeroboam;” that α εποίησεν, ουκ, ιδού, ταύτα γεγραμμένα επί is, between Abijam the son of Relioboam βιβλίω λόγων των ημερών τους βασιλεύσιν | and Jeroboam : whom Abijam grievously Ιούδα ; και πόλεμος ήν αναμέσον 'Αβιού και afflicted (Hierozoicon, par. 1., lib. ii., cap. αναμέσον Ιεροβοάμ.

43). But this doth not seem to be the true Au. Ver.–6 And there was war between account; because the war between Abijam Rehoboam and Jeroboam all the days of his and Jeroboam is distinctly mentioned in the life.

next verse. Therefore the meaning of these 7 Now the rest of the acts of Abijam, words is, that though God was pleased, for and all that he did, are they not written in David's sake, who walked uprightly before the book of the chronicles of the kings of him, to continue a lamp, that is, a successor Judah? And there was war between Abijam to him in Jerusalem; yet these successors and Jeroboam.

were vexed with continual wars (as apPool.6 There was war, &c.; which was peared both in the reign of Rehoboam and said chap. xiv. 30, and may be here repeated, Abijam), and did not enjoy their kingdom to signify the cause and original of the war peaceably. between Abijam and Jeroboam, which is Ken.- 6 And there was

war between implied here, and particularly described Abijam and Jeroboam, fc., 8c. 2 Chron. xiii. Abijam continued the war As the history of Rehoboam was ended in which Rehoboam had begun, and pushed it the former chapter, where the last verse but on to a decisive battle. But the place may one had mentioned the continual war be

6 וּמִלְחָמָה הָיְתָה בֵּין־רְחַבְעָם וּבֵין haun is said to have purcliased the sepulchre יָרָבְעָם כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו : ד וְיֶתֶר דִּבְרֵי

עָשָׂה הֲלוֹא־הֵם וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה אֲבִיָּם

we in David ? " That is , in Rehoboam the יְהוּדָה וּמִלְחָמָה הָיְתָה בֵּין אֲבִיָּם וּבֵין

יָרָבְעָם :





tween him and Jeroboam : 'tis highly im- war between Abiah the son of Rehoboam probable, that the account of his successor and Jeroboam, all the days of his life. 7 Abiah should be interrupted by a repetition Now the rest of the acts of Abiah, and all of the same notice concerning Rehoboum. that he did, are written in the chronicles of And as there was a very memorable war the kings of Judah. between Abiah and Jeroboam; 'tis probable, Abiah the son of.] I have followed the that such a war did not pass entirely un-reading of Syr. and Arab. which I deem the noticed here. It is therefore much to the true one; and which is partly confirmed by honour of eight Heb. MSS., to have pre-fourteen Heb. and one Chald. MSS. The served here the true word Abiah, instead of rest, except Sept. in which the whole comma the corrupted word Rehoboam. As to the is wanting, have Rehoboam for Abiah ; a words now in the next verse, and there was manifest blunder at the end of ver. 7. In the war between Abijam and Jeroboam ; they are present text, and in all the versions except entirely wanting in one Hebrew MSS. So Syr., we have this addition : And there was Bp. Horsley.

war between Abiah and Jeroboam. But this Commentaries and Essays.-6 This verse is plainly an interpolation ; or, perhaps, the looks like an interpolation; nor is it acknow- words of ver. 6, stood here originally.— Ged. ledged by the LXX. The history of Re- Houb.-7. Cætera autem quæ Abiam spechoboam was closed in the former chapter, tant, et cuncta quæ egit, hæc scripta reperiand there it is said, “there was war between untur in libro commentariorum regum Jude. him and Jeroboam all their days;" then 6 Cæterum fuit Abiam, quamdiu vixit, cum follows the history of his son Abijam, and Jeroboam bellum perpetuum. in the midst of it this passage comes in 6 by27' gan opam ya, (fuit bellum) inter again, where it can have no business. Roboam et Jeroboam. Nos hæc omittimus,

Dr. A. Clarke.--6 There was war between et lacunam facimus intercapedine punctorum Rehoboam and Jeroboam.] This was men- sic... ut significetur hunc versum 6 fuisse ex tioned in the preceding chapter, ver. 30, and fine versus 7 male iteratum, ubi legitur fuisse it can mean no more than this; there was a inter Abium et Jeroboam bella perpetua. continual spirit of hostility kept up between Assumimus tantum ex versu 6 hæc verba, the two kingdoms, and no doubt frequent noge su, omnibus diebus vitæ ejus. Liquet, skirmishing between bordering parties; but præposterè hîc memorari bella Roboam et it never broke out into open war, for this Jeroboam perpetua, ubi agitur non jam was particularly forbidden. Seechap. xii. 24. Roboam, sed Abia filius ejus; ut non mirum Hostility did exist, and no doubt frequent sit hæc bella Roboam cum Jeroboam, omisisse skirmishes; but open war and pitched battles Græcos Intt. in Codice Rom. ut et Arabem there were none.

interpretem. , , inter But why is this circumstance repeated, and Roboam, legere videtur, Dram ya D'Ix ya, the history of Abijam interrupted by the re-inter Abiam, filium Roboam, optimâ scrippetition? There is some reason to believe turâ ; quam si antepones, omittenda erunt that Rehoboam is not the true reading, and in fine versûs 7 eadem bella Abiam et Jerothat it should be Abijam: Now there was boam, quomodò etiam hæc omittit Syrus. war between Abijam and Jeroboam all the Nos maluimus bella ea commemorare in fine days of his life.” And this is the reading of versûs 6 quem post versum 7 collocamus, fourteen of Kennicott's and De Rossi's MSS. seu postquàm de Abiâ dictuin est, cætera The Syriac has Abia the son of Rehoboam ; autem quæ fecit...hac scripta reperiuntur, the Arabic has Abijam. In the Septuagint quia hic est ordo consuetus. Vide suprà the whole verse is omitted in the London cap. xiv. vers. 29 et 30, et infra vers. 31 et Polyglot, but it is extant in those of Com- 32. plutum and Antwerp. Some copies of the Maurer.6 Et bellum fuerat inter ReTargum have Abijam also, and the Editio chabeamum cet. Bene Schulzius : " Princeps of the Vulgate has Abia. This is hoc, quod jam cap. xiv. 30, adfuit, repetitum doubtless the true reading, as we know there est ob connexionem cum versu sequenti, ubi

a very memorable war between Abia bellum cum Jerobeamo et Rehabeami filio and Jeroboam ; see it particularly described continuatum fuisse discimus.” 2 Chron. xiii. 3, &c.

Ver. 8. Dathe, Ged., Booth.6 And there was Au. Ver.-Abijam.

, בין רחבעם Syrus




מָלַךְ וְאַרְבָּעִים וְאַחַת שָׁנָה fuit Maacha jilia Alessalom . De Asa haree בִּירוּשָׁלָם וְשָׁם אָפֿוֹ מַעֲכָה בַּתי

Ken., Ged., Booth.--Abiah. See notes the Greek version, Ana. The same note on xiv. 31.

applicable to ver. 13.

Houbigant, Booth. And his mother's Ver. 10.

name was Anah, the daughter of Absalom. S ? 10 010's na 7390, (nomen matris ejus)

Abessalom. hæc nunc dicuntur, quæ eadem suprà ver. 2, de

: Die Abia dicta sunt. Parùm credibile est, maκαι τεσσαράκοντα και ένα έτος εβασίλευσεν trem Ase, matrisque ejus patrem fuisse εν Ιερουσαλήμ και όνομα της μητρός αυτού | ejusdem nominis, ac matrem Abia, ma'Ανα, θυγάτηρ 'Αβεσσαλώμ.

trisque ejusdem patrem ; ita ut mater Asæ Au. Ver.-10 And forty and one years fuerit Maacha filia Abessalom, et mater reigned he in Jerusalem. And his mother's Abiæ fuerit similiter Maacha filia Abessalom. [that is, grandmother's, ver. 2] name was Hæc Arabs, cùm sentiret, evitavit et saltum Maachah, the daughter of Abishalom.

fecit. Nos Græcorum Intt. scripturam seBp. Patrick.Maachah.] This was the quimur, apud quos legitur 'Ayà, Ana, tum name of his grandmother, who is called his hic, tum ver. 13. Librarius quidam pomother (so Pool], as Reuel is called the suerit 1999, pro 1739, ex memoriâ, quam father of Jethro's daughters, Exod. ii. 18, | haberet, ante-dictorum, huicque aberrationi when he was their grandfather. Which materiam dabat Divx, quod nomen legitur example Kimchi here alleges to explain this. ver. 2, post 7399 .-Houb. And thus Abarbinel. The sense is not, that

Ver. 13. Maachah brought forth Asa (for she was his father's mother), but she brought him up

? his : which

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אֶת־מַעֲכָה אִמוֹ וַיְסְרֶהָ מִגְבִילָה אֲשֶׁר־עָשְׂתָה מִפְלֶצֶת לַאֲשֵׁרָה and gave him lis education

: whicli made וַיִּכְרֹת אָסָא אֶת־מִפְלַצְתָּה וַיִּשְׁרְף בְּנַחַל | his piety the more remarkable that he was קִדְרוֹן:

not tainted with her principles of religion as
his father was.
But why his mother should

? not be mentioned, but his grandmother, και την 'Ανά την μητέρα εαυτού μετέστησε which was not at all needful (because it was του μή είναι ηγουμένην, καθώς έποίησε σύνοδον evident, by what was said before, that εν τώ άλσει αυτής και εξέκοψεν 'Ασά τας Maachah was the mother of Abijam his καταδύσεις αυτής, και ενέπρησε πυρί εν τω father), is unaccountable. And therefore xequáppo twv Kédpwv. others think that this was the name of his Au. Ver.-13 And also Maachah his mother; which was the same : as her mother, even her he removed from being father's also was, with that of Abijam's queen, because she had made an idol in a mother's father.

grove ; and Asa destroyed [Heb., cut off ] Bp. Horsley.His mother's name was her idol, and burnt it by the brook Kidron. Maachah, the daughter of Absalom. Re- Bp. Patrick.13 Also Maachah his mohoboam married Maachah the daughter of ther, even her he removed from being queen.) Absalom, and by her had Abijam; 2 Chron. He took away her guards, all the ensigns of xi. 20—22. Therefore Abijam's mother's royal dignity, and reduced her to the conname and family is rightly described, ver. 2. dition of a private person. But the word And this passage, where the same person is being is not in the Hebrew; which others mentioned as Asa's mother, must be corrupt. translate, "he removed her from the Again, the second verse of 2 Chron. xiii.

queen :

" that is, from his wife. must be corrupt, where Michaiah the daughter Because she had made an idol in a grove.] of Uriel is mentioned as A bijah's mother. The word we translate idol is miphlezeth, Nothing seems so probable as that some which imports something of terror and confusion has been made between these two horror; either because it was of a frightful women, and that Michaiah the daughter of aspect, or brought dreadful judgments upon Uriel was Asa's mother.

its worshippers. St. Jerome understands by Ged.-Maacha. If this reading be right, it Priapus (so Clarke), or Baal-peor, to the word mother is here placed for grand-whom the women were much devoted. Themother ; which is

very possible. Houbigant odoret takes it for Astarte, or Venus : and, prefers the reading of the Vatican copy of indeed, in the northern countries, Priapus

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