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but Bochartus also here read three years, fol- | could there be originally a contradiction ? lowing the LXX. who have ērn Tpia, whom Or, can we, with any appearance of sense, most of the ancients follow, as Bochartus assert that three is an historical epitome of observes in his Hierozoicon, par. i., lib. ii., seven? But yet we shall be told perhaps,
Yet Josephus here hath seven that we had better adopt Buxtorf's maxim, years: and many think that Gad at first Utrumque bonum, quia utrumque scriptum ; propounded seven years: but afterward, at(page 420) especially, as there is great David's prayer, shortened them to three. weight in one of his canons of criticism, Other solutions are in every interpreter, who (page 414), Rei veritas non in verbis conadheres to this reading of seven years (see sistit, sed in sententiâ. A canon ! the most Buxtorf's Vindic. Verit. Hebr. par. ii., wisely established because of its universal cap. 2 and cap. 8, p. 523).
influence ! A canon, that will excuse every Ken. We have here, delivered by the blundering assertion, not only of its author prophet Gad, a most solemn message; David but of all the fraternity of writers, provided is commanded to choose one of the three it be but true ; which, I confess, if a senfollowing judgments, seven years' famine, tence be composed of words, I shrewdly three months' flight before the enemy, or suspect it is not. I shall only add, that the three days' pestilence. But in 1 Chron. contradiction here again seems to have been xxi. 12, the proposal runs more regularly, occasioned by the mistake of a numeral (not seven but) three years, three months, letter, 2, three, for 1, seven. So Dr. A. or three days. Can there be any doubt of Clarke. a mistake here? Did the prophet Gad Hloub. D'w you, anni septem. 1 Par. deliver this message twice? If only once, xxi. 12, duw viv, tres unni, quam scripdid he propose both seven and three years turam habuere Græci Intt. Nos vero eam of famine? If three years, the number hic etiam sequimur, quia tres anni respondent seven is wrong; and if seven years, the tribus mensibus et tribus diebus. Nugantur number three is wrong : common sense seems hic rabbini Judæi, cum dicunt hæc accidisse fully sufficient to determine such a point as anno tertio famis ejus, quæ grassata est, this is. And yet we find some men, and propter Gabaonitas a Saüle interfectos, proeven Archbishop Usher in his Annals, plead- positumque Davidi fuisse, ut eligeret tres ing for the truth of these different readings ! alteros annos famis, postea annum famis And this, notwithstanding that great man septimum fore annum Sabbaticum. Quos si has expressed himself so strongly as to the audiemus, jusserit David, fame grassante, fallibility of Jewish transcribers, Ad me quod populi censum fieri, quo nihil stolidius. attinet, sententia mea hæc perpetua fuit,...18, hostes tui. Grammatica ratio vult Hebræum Vet. Testamenti codicem scribarum ny, hoste tuo; nam sequitur, 7077 817),
et erroribus non minus esse obnoxium, quam ipse persequetur te. ..150), qui misit me. novi codicem et libros omnes alios. De i Par. xxi. 12, bu nx, ei qui misit me, ut LXX Versione Syntag., p. 219. If then et legendum; vel 5w, pro nu; nam utrumone of the numbers be corrupted, the uni
que in usu est post 27 397, respondere. formity of the number three, still observed
Ver. 14, 15. in two instances in Samuel and in all three
, three corrupted into seven ; especially as etn
? champion Buxtorf, as to the differences of Bible numbers, Satius est ignorantiam nos
: tram agnoscere, et UTRUMQUE RECTUM ESSE
Historiæ enim illæ non sunt 14 και είπε Δαυίδ προς Γά8, στενά μου ita accurate secundum omnes circumstantias πάντοθεν σφόδρα εστίν εμπεσούμαι δη εις conscripta, sed breves tantum epitome. χείρας κυρίου, ότι πολλοί οι οικτιρμοί αυτού (Anticrit. page 401.) But, when the same opodpa, els dè xeipas kvēpórov où un futrèow. circumstances are mentioned in two places, | 15 και εξελέξατο εαυτώ Δαυίδ τον θάνατον.
14 וַיְאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־בֶּן צַר־לִי מְאֹד in Chronicles
, will induce us to presume the נִפְלָה־נָא בְיַד־יְהוָה כִּי־רַבִּים רַחֲמָר וּבִיךְ אָדָם אַל־אֶפְלָה: 15 וַיִּתֵּן יְהוָה also in ("ז) the Greek version lhas fpua
בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל מֵהַבְּקָר וְעַד־עַת מוֹעֵד The advocates for the integrity of the וַיָּמָת מִן־הָעָם מִדָּן וְעַד־בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע Hebrew text may perhaps say with their שִׁבְעִים אֶלֶף אִישׁ :
και ημέραι θερισμού πυρών και έδωκε κύριος | Anse. This he did in the beginning of the θάνατον εν Ισραήλ από πρωΐθεν έως ώρας | third day, whereas otherwise it should have αρίστου, και ήρξατο η θραυσις εν τω λαώ: gone on to the end of the day. Or it may και απέθανεν εκ του λαού από Δάν και έως signify no more but this, At the end of the Βηρσαβεέ, εβδομήκοντα χιλιάδες ανδρών. third day God gave over smiting; for then
Au. Ver.--14 And David said unto Gad, is God said (after the manner of men) to I am in a great strait : let us fall now into repent, when he ceaseth to proceed as before the hand of the Lord; for his mercies are he had done. great (or, many]: and let me not fall into Bp. Patrick.–From the morning.] From the hand of man.
that time when Gad delivered the message, 15 So the Lord sent a pestilence upon and David made his choice; which was Israel from the morning even to the time in the morning, as we read before (ver. appointed : and there died of the people 11). from Dan even to Beersheba seventy thou- Even to the time appointed.] There are sand men.
those who by “the time appointed,” under14, 15, Man, &c.
stand to the end of three days, mentioned Ged., Booth.—14— But let me not fall by Gad, as the time appointed by the Lord into the hand of man. Thus David chose for the continuance of this plague. But the pestilence.
this is quite contrary to what follows, that 15 It was now the time of wheat harvest God repented him of the evil; and com[LXX]; and Jehovah sent a pestilence manded the angel that smote the people to upon Israel from the morning until mid- stay his hand. Therefore the LXX translate day; and there died of the people, from it better, čws ūpas åplotov, “ until dinnerDan to Beersheba, seventy thousand men. time:" and so Procopius Gazæus. Certain
Until mid-day.) I have followed Syr. it is, that moed signifies some part of that and Arab, who have both until the sixth day when the plague began: and that must hour. So equivalently Sep., until dinner- be either noon, or the evening. But, as time. And so Josephus. Others render : Bochartus hath observed, the morning and until the appointed time.-Ged.
evening are the parts of the day most Pool.—15 To the time appointed ; either, opposite in Scripture (of which he gives 1 From morning to evening, which is here many instances), and therefore so he here called the time appointed; or, the time of understands it, that it continued from mornthe convention, or, public meeting, as this ing to the evening. For moed properly Hebrew word oft signifies, i. e., till the time signifies an assembly : and therefore the of the evening prayer and sacrifice, when the time moed he thinks is the time when the people used more solemnly to meet together. people met for evening prayer; about the See Psalm cxli. 2; Acts iii. 1. Thus God ninth hour of the day. Which prayer, mitigated his sentence, and turned three before the building of the temple, was made days into one ; it being a thing not unusual at the tabernacle, or in their synagogues. with God to qualify his threatenings, and to And therefore the tabernacle is frequently take off the evil threatened sometimes called ohel moed : and the synagogues are wholly, as in Nineveh's case, and some called in Psalm lxxiv. 18, moade el. So times in part.
And this God might do here that he makes account this pestilence lasted upon the speedy and serious repentance of no more than nine hours: which was the David, and of his people. Or rather, 2. eighth part of three days. From the morning, (or rather, from that
Ver. 16. morning; for the article seems to be em- Dr. A. Clarke.—The threshing-place of phatical, and to denote that very morning Araunah.] In the parallel place, 1 Chron. in which Gad came to David, ver. 11, and xxi. 15, 20, &c., this person is called Ornan. that the plague did immediately ensue after The word that we render Araunah is written Gad's offer, and David's choice,) even to the in this very chapter 173718, Avarnah, ver. 16, time appointed, to wit, by God, i. e., for three 799, Araniah, ver. 18, 2014, Araunah days, as God had set the time, ver. 13. Aravnah, ver. 20, and the following: but in Object. If it continued three days, how is it every place in 1 Chron. xxi. where it occurs said that God repented him of the evil, and it is written pe, Ornan. It is likely he stopped the angel in his course ? ver. 16. had both names, Araunah and Ornan : but
וַיֹּאמֶר אֲרַוְנָה אֶל־דָּוֹד יַקְח וְעַל ,king what the king asked of him
. " And אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ הַטוֹב בְּעֵינָו וגו'
the varieties of spelling in 2 Samuel must taking of Jerusalem he was the king of the arise from the blunders of transcribers. Jebusites; or, a man of the greatest autho
Houb.—16 ... 'Da't: Plenè 'D127, Jebusai, rity among them, like a king; or unus Codex Orat. hîc et ver. 18.
descended from the blood royal of the
Jebusites, as Dr. Lightfoot expresses it. Ver. 20.
But neither the Greek, nor the Syriac, nor Au. Ver.-On his face upon the ground. Booth. With his face
the Arabic copies have the word king : nor towards the
was it in many of the Vulgar till Sixtus's ground.
correction ; nor in the Chaldee paraphrast Ver. 22.
in the time of Kimchi (so Bp. Horsley), ? ? who cites it thus; “ Araunah gave to the
, as Bochartus observes, Araunah (or Ornan) '
being mentioned fourteen times in the holy και είπεν 'Ορνά προς Δαυίδ, λαβέτω και books, it is a wonder he should not be styled åveveykátw ó kúpiós pov o Baoileùs tỘ kupią a king, but only here (Hieroz., par. i., lib. i., το αγαθόν εν οφθαλμοίς αυτού κ.τ.λ. cap. 38). But it is likely he was a very
Au. Ver.—22 And Araunah said unto rich man, as Josephus reports : whom the David, Let my lord the king take and offer king spared when he took the fort of Zion; up what seemeth good unto him : behold, either because he was a lover of the Ishere be oxen for burnt sacrifice, and thresh- raelites, or had done some good office unto ing instruments and other instruments of David. the oxen for wood.
Dr. A. Clarke.—23 As a king, give unto Houb.—22 Dixit Davidi Areuna ; capiat the king.] Literally, all these did king vero Dominus meus rex, faciatque id quod Araunah give unto the king. That there sibi videbilur, &c.
could not be a king of the Jebusites on 22 sen, et ascendere faciat, seu offerat. Mount Moriah, is sufficiently evident; and Lege, uyu, et faciat, ut 1 Par. xxi. 23. that there was no other king than David in Male tò Syun tuetur Buxtorfius, quasi in holo- the land, is equally so; the word 7507, hamcaustum mox offerendum conveniat, cum de melech, “the king,” given here to Araunah, holocausto nihil hactenus dictum fuerit. is wanting in the Septuagint, Syriac, and Præterea talem loquendi formam, ascendere Arabic; in three of Kennicott's and De faciat quod bonum erit in oculis ejus, pro Rossi's MSS., and in the parallel place in victimam, quam volet, offerat, in codice Chronicles; and, it is very probable, never Hebræo nusquam reperias, utpote ab made a part of the text. Perhaps it should Hebr. sermone alienam. ...1'92, Recte Ma- be read, All these did Araunah give unto the sora, 1993, in oculis ejus.
king. Ver. 23.
There is, however, a difficulty here. David had taken the fortress of the Jebu
sites many years before ; yet it is evident 0 that Araunah was proprietor of the soil at
this time. It is not clear that he was a :
subject of David; but he paid him respect
as a neighbour and a king. This is merely τα πάντα έδωκεν 'Ορνά το βασιλεί. και possible. είπεν 'Ορνά προς τον βασιλέα. κύριος ο θεός Ged.—23 All these Araunah proffered to σου ευλογήσαι σε.
the king, &c. Au.Ver.23 All these things did Araunah, Booth.—All these things Araunah offered as a king, give unto the king. And Araunah to give to the king, &c. said unto the king, The Lord thy God Dathe. 23 Quæ omnia Aravna regi
obtulit, &c. Bishop Patrick. — All these things did Houb.—23 Omnia hæc regi Areuna traAraunah, as a king, give unto the king.] debat, &c. The words in the Hebrew are," these things Thos 7627, rex regi.
, , gave Araunah the king unto the king.” quod verbum non legunt nec Græci Intt. From whence some infer, that before the nec Syrus, nec Arabs, nec vero etiam Vul
הַכֹּל נָתָן אֲרַוְנָה הַמֶּלֶךְ לַמֶּלֶךְ
וַיֹּאמֶר אֲרַוְנָה אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִרְצְךָ :
פסקא באמצע פסוק
,rex ,המלך Tolle
gatus, apud quem rex non erat, antequam (render this place thus, agreeably enough to esset Sixtina editio ; nec denique ipse Chal- the words and the order of the Hebrew text, dæus, ut quidem ætate Davidis Kimki lege- he bought them for silver (or, for money, as batur. Absurdum est Areunam illum Jebu- the Hebrew word cheseph oft signifies, and sæum nominari regem. Clericus sic inter- particularly in this very history in the pretatur, Areuna, O rex, omnia dat regi; parallel place, 1 Chron. xxi. 24, where quasi ipse Areuna loqueretur, et se se David desires to buy it for the full price, Areunam nominaret. Sed vidimus in supe- or for full money, where in the Hebrew it is rioribus Areunam neque se ipsum nominare, for full silver), even for fifty shekels, to wit et regem his verbis compellare, son 378, of gold, as it is expressed i Chron. xxi. 25; Domine mi rex, non uno verbo 77, O rex. which place they render thus, and that conEt præterea quis non videt coactam esse sonantly to the Hebrew, he gave shekels of Clericanam istam interpretationem ? gold of the value (for the Hebrew word
mishkal signifies value as well as weight, as Ver. 24.
was before noted on 2 Sam. xii. 30) of six hundred shekels, to wit, of silver. And this
וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־אֲרַוְנָה לֹא כִּי־ -may seem added in the Book of the Cliro קָנוֹ אֶקְנֶה מֵאוֹתְךְ בִּמְחִיר וְלָא אַעֲלֶה
mieles , lest it should be thought that the fifty ליהוָה אֱלֹהֵי עֹלוֹת חִנָּם וַיִּקֶן דֶוֶד -and silver shekels
. Thirdly , ' There is a con אֶת־הַגּרֶן וְאֶת־הַבָּהָר בְּכֶסֶף שְׁקָלִים
two places : here he mentions for what και είπεν ο βασιλεύς πρός 'Ορνά, ουχί, ότι David bought it, or what he was obliged to αλλά κτώμενος κτήσομαι παρά σου εν αναλ- give for it; and in Chronicles what he λάγματι, και ουκ ανοίσω το κυρίω μου θεώ | actually gave for it, to wit, of his royal ολοκαύτωμα δωρεάν και εκτήσατο Δαυίδ τον | bounty, over and besides the full price of άλωνα και τους βόας εν άργυρίω σίχλων πεν- it; which was decent and convenient for s0 τηκοντα. .
great a king, and especially upon so great Au. Ver.--24 And the king said unto an occasion, and to him who had given him Araunah, Nay; but I will surely buy it of such a noble example. thee at a price: neither will I offer burnt Bp. Patrick.–For fifty shekels of silver.] offerings unto the Lord my God of that In the Chronicles we read, according to our which doth cost me nothing. So David translation, that he gave him “six hundred bought the threshingfloor and the oxen for shekels of gold by weight,” which Bochartus fifty shekels of silver.
thus reconciles; that in one place he speaks Pool.—For fifty shekels of silver. Object. of shekels of gold, and in the other of In 1 Chron. xxi. 25, he is said to give for the shekels of silver. Whose proportion is place six hundred shekels of gold by weight. twelvefold, so that fifty shekels of gold are Answ. These two places may be fairly recon- in value as much as six hundred shekels of ciled divers ways. First, Here he speaks of silver. He quotes a place out of Plato in the price paid for the threshing-floor, and his Hipparchus, which proves that gold and oxen, and instruments; and there for the silver held this proportion. And then he whole place adjoining, on which the temple thus translates this place in Samuel, He and its courts were built, which certainly bought the floor and the oxen beceseph, for was very much larger than this threshing- money; viz., for “fifty golden shekels.” So floor, and probably had Araunah's house, the word ceseph often signifies money in if not some others, now built upon it. general, of whatsoever metal it be: as apSecondly, The shekels here may be of gold, pears from this very history, wherein David and in 1 Chron. xxi. of silver; and so the tells Ornan that he will buy the field of him, proportion of gold to silver being that of beceseph malo, which we translate," at its twelve to one, fifty shekels of gold make full price,” i Chron. xxi. 24. And then it six hundred shekels of silver. And whereas follows, he gave Ornan shikle zahav,“shekels it may be objected, that on the contrary these of gold,” mishkall shesh mooth, “in value fifty shekels are said to be of silver, and the six hundred vulgar, or silver, shekels." See six' hundred of gold, this they answer by Hierozoic., par. i., lib. ii., cap. 38, where another translation of the words. For they I the word mishkall he acknowledges commonly signifies weight; yet here denotes | verior videtur, pro toto illo Moriæ monte et value : as in 2 Sam. xii. 30. The design of ædificiis in eo constructis, quam hic minor Ezra being to show, that the fifty shekels he quinquaginta siclorum argenteorum; et tamen gave for the floor and oxen were not silver verss. antiquæ omnes in hac lectione con(which were most common), but shekels of sentiunt. gold: every one of which was worth twelve Houb.—24 7378 137, emendo emam. Barof silver : so that those fifty shekels were bare 127, pro 737: Duo codices orat. 1737, ut equivalent to six hundred silver ones. fuerat scribendum. ...D'von DTU, siclis quin
But there is a shorter way of solving this quaginta, 1 Par. xxi. 25, na Du, sexcentis difficulty by supposing, that for the thrash-|(siclis) quas duas scripturas conciliare secum ing-floor and the oxen he gave only fifty frustra conantur interpretes quidam, seu shekels of silver: but all the ground about Judæi, seu Christiani. Clerico potius asit (out of which the court of God's house sentiendum sic observanti, “multo crediwere afterward made) cost him six hundred bilius est loginquitate ipsa temporis, aut shekels of gold.
incuria librariorum, mendum in hunc locum Dathe.—1 Chron. xxi. 25, leguntur sex- irrepsisse, cum talia etiam alibi occurrant." centi sicli aurei, qui numerus major utiquel
FIRST BOOK OF KING S.
וַיְכַסֶהוּ בַּבְּגָדִים וגו'
gat no heat.
Chap. I. 1.
και αυτόν έτεκεν οπίσω 'Αβεσσαλώμ.
Au. Ver.-6 And his father had not dis'
pleased him at any time [Heb., from his - και περιέβαλλον αυτόν ίματίοις, κ.τ.λ.
days] in saying, Why hast thou done so? Au. Ver.-Now king David was old and and he also was a very goodly man; and his stricken in years [Heb., entered into days]; mother bear him after Absalom. and they covered him with clothes, and he Houb.-6 Dybvax TN 1775 innt, et ipsum
peperit post Absalom. Est 17752 mendum Clothes.
manifestum, in quo pugnat sacra pagina Booth.-Bedclothes.
ipsa secum. Etenim in hac serie orationis 1 0'732 1703n, et operiebant eum stragulis. non potest 77ad aliam matrem, quam ad Melius 1710", plene, ut alibi sæpe ante Haggith, superiori versu memoratam, peraffixum 11 hodierni ipsi codices. Interpre- tinere ; itaque necesse erit sacram paginam tamur d’zza, stragulis, non autem, ut multi, dicere, peperisse Haggith Adoniam, postvestibus. Nam aguntur operimenta hominis quam Absalom pepererat. Atqui Absalom in lecto decumbentis : id sequentia indicant. non habuit matrem Haggith, sed Macha, Si diurnæ vestes agerentur, poterat David filiam Tholmai, regis Gessur : vide 2 Sam. igne calefieri, quando vestes non depelle- iii
. 3. Præterea nimis longo intervallo est bant frigus, nec conquisitum fuisset reme-Tas, quam ut de Haggith efferatur, postdium illud insolitum, quod hic memoratur. quam duæ periodi intercesserunt, in quibus
aliæ personæ aguntur, nempe Adonias et Ver. 3.
David. Vera scriptura est, vel 6907, vel Houb.—3 19", Et adduxerunt. Scriptio 759', genuit (David) Adoniam post Absalom, deficiens, pro w??", quod quidem lego in in qua scriptura plana omnia sunt et cohæduobus codicibus orat.
rentia. Declinavit a mendo Vulgatus, dum
convertit, secundus natu post Absalom. Sed Ver. 6.
eodem mendo in errorem inductus est Arabs, : ? – ut crederet eadem matre fuisse natos Absa
וְאֹתוֹ יָלְדָה אַחֲרֵי אַבְשָׁלוֹם :