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he, (i. e., some one, any one, or every one) Ιούδα, από Δαν και έως Βηρσαβεέ, και calls his name, Ps. cx. 7; na 172 ni?, étiokeyal Tòv lady, k.7.2. from the torrent (i. e., the abundance of spi
Au. Ver.—2 For the king said to Joab ritual waters which shall then abound) in the captain of the host, which was with him, the way, shall one (any one, every one) Go now through [or, compass] all the drink : 2 Sam. xxiv. 1, 7??n» non, so (one, tribes of Israel, from Dan even to Beersome one) tempts David ; which is supplied, sheba, and number ye the people, &c. 1 Chron. xxi. 1, by 191, an adversary. We Houb. 2 17p1, Et numerate : Græci must not, therefore, take the name of God Intt. Chaldæus et Syrus numero sing. effefound in the preceding context, in order to runt numera ; quippe legunt p1, vel 7171, supply this ellipsis, as some have impru- quod amplectendum. Nam de uno Joab in dently done, nor charge the text with the superioribus mentio facta fuit. inconsistencies which have arisen purely out
Ver. 4. of our own ignorance. This sort of con
Au. Ver.-- And Joab and the captains struction frequently occurs. So also in the of the host went out from the presence of objective voice, the way, it hath been called to the king, to number the people of Israel. thee, i. e., hou hast been named, Isaiah
Houb.-4 7 305 ...ds", Exiit ante regem. xlviii. 8, equivalent to the Arabic al ples. Lege "b%p, à conspectu regis
. Ita Vulgatus, See also v. 11, %. T, how would it be pro- et ita Syrus, qui 07p yo, à coram. Non faned ?
licet convertere, exiit ante regem, cùm ipse Dathe.—1 Rursus Jova ira in Israëlitas rex non fuerit egressus. Codex Orat. 42 commotus concitavit Davidem, ut juberet, 57779 v35, mutato utriusque verbi ordine, Israëlitas et Judæos numerari.
quales multæ erant ordinis perturbationes, Hæc verba intelligenda sunt ex in codicibus iis, unde Biblia Hebraica loquendi Hebræorum de providentia divina, primùm impressa fuerunt. de quo jam ad Jud. ii. 17 observavimus,
, ! omnes hominum actiones, tam bonas quam
, , ; Deumque ipsum omnium rerum auctorem s.
: causam efficientem primariam vocare,
και διέβησαν τον Ιορδάνην, και παρενέβαλον Houb.—1 522 10, Ut accenderetur in
εν Αροήρ εκ δεξιών της πόλεως της εν μέσω Israel. Post 570'ı supplendum ex Parali
της φάραγγος Γαδ και Ελιέζερ.. pomenis, lib. i., cap. 21, v. 1, so you 1999
Au. Ver. — 5 And they passed over 5870, et stetit Satan adversùs Israel, ut sequatur no", et pepulit ; ita ut intelligatur side of the city, that lieth in the midst of the
Jordan, and pitched in Aroer, on the right Satan, non Deum, pepulisse Davidem, ut
river (or, valley) of Gad, and toward Jazer. populi censum fieri juberet. Nisi hæc sup
River (or, valley] see notes on Numb. plentur, ignorabitur, quæ fuerit causa cur Deus Israeli esset iratus, et ira Dei erit ipsa vol. i., pp. 703, 704.
xxiv. 6, vol. i., p. 610; and on Deut. xxi. 4, causa cur Deus excitârit Davidem ad populum numerandum, quod incredibile videtur, river which lay in the tribe of Gad, or upon
Pool. Of the river of Gad, i. e., of the ubi tacetur, quæ fuerit iræ divinæ causa. Cùm potiùs ex ipso contextu perspicuum called Arnon, Deut. ii. 36. Toward Jazer,
the borders of Gad and Reuben, which was fiat, idcircò fuisse iratum Deum, quia Satan Davidem pepulerat, ut populum suum nu- or, near Jazer, which also was upon the meraret. Omittendorum verborum, quæ
in Libro Paralipomenon non omittuntur, occasio
Bp. Patrick.-In the midst of the river of fuit in vocabulo into", quod bis legebatur, Gad, and toward Jazer.) We nowhere read
of such a river: which, in the margin, is scribâ ex uno ad alterum saltum faciente.
translated the valley of Gad. But Jazer Ver. 2.
was a town in that tribe (Numb. xxxii. 35). ?
Bp. Horsley.--For 777 49 7207, I would read 720 979 487, “and by Jazer of Gad.”
? Διελθε δή πάσας φυλάς Ισραήλ και Γ on the right of Aroer, and next by the
וַיַּעַבְרוּ אֶת־הַיַּרְבֵּן וַיַּחֲנוּ בְעֲרוֹעֶר ,Hebraeos solere omnia hujus mundi eventa יְמִין הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ־הַנָּחַל הַגָּד ,malas
שׁוּט נָא בְּכָל־שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִבָּן They crossed the Jordan , and pitched first וְעַד־בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע וּפִקְדוּ אֶת־הָעָם וגו'
banks of the Jazer. Aroer was the city in this place was is not exactly known : some the midst of the river, and the river in the think that the words refer to a newly-conmidst of which it lay was the Arnon. See quered country, as our margin, the nether note on Deut. ii. 36. Arnon was not, but land newly inhabited; and if so, this was Jazer was, a river of Gad's territory. probably the country eastward of Gilead,
Ged., Booth.—5 And they passed over the which the Israelites, in the time of Saul, Jordan, and encamped on the right side of had conquered from the Hagarites, and Aroer, a city that lieth within the river (Ged., dwelt in themselves. See 1 Chron. v. 10, within the torrent] of Gad, and toward Jazer. where this transaction is recorded.
Aroer. This is not Aroer on the Arnon, To Dan-jaan.] Or, to Dan of the woods. but Aroer by Raba.
This is the place so frequently mentioned, Within the torrent; i.e., on the interior situated at the foot of Mount Libanus (so side of the torrent. Ged.
Pool], near to the source of the Jordan, the Dathe.—5 Jordanum trajecerunt castraque most northern city of all the possessions of posuerunt prope Aroërem ad dextram oppidi, the Israelites in what was called the proquod est in insula Gad et ad Jaëserem. mised land, as Beer-sheba was the most
Houb.—5 Et trajecto Jordane, in Aroer southern : hence the common form of speech, consederunt ad latus dexterum sylva ejus, Prom Dan to Beer-sheba, i. e., from north quæ est in media valle Gad et prope Jazer. to south.
5 737 yo', Ad dexteram urbis. Nos guo? Houb.—6 y 1937, Dan Jahan. Penitus Y, ad dexteram sylve. Cur abjicienda ignoratur quæ urbs, et ubi sita fuerit. Vulsit scriptio 799, docemur ex eo ipso, quod gatus sylvestria, ex scriptura , quam nos mox dictum est, eos qui ad populi censum superiori versu restituimus. Melius Edm. iter faciebant, consedisse in Aroer, vel prope Calmet antefert que, fontem, quoniam prope Aroer. Nam si in Aroer, vel prope Aroer Dan erant fontes, præcipue fons Jordanis.... consederunt, non igitur prope alteram urbem, 5'01: Lege 12001, et girarunt (ad Sidonem). quæ non nominetur ; et hoc ipsum, non Ita Græci Intt. kai ékúklwoay. Ita etiam nominari urbem istam, ubi duæ aliæ urbes Syrus et Vulgatus. Aroer et Jazer nominantur, indicat non
Ver. 9. tangi urbem, quæ certè etiam nominaretur,
, , quæ ? Gad nominatâ.
ut tribum Gad, sed ut nominationem huic valli, quæ memoratur, factam. Clericus interpretatur,
: ad dexteram Haroheris urbis, accipiens 79807 και έδωκεν Ιωάβ τον αριθμόν της επιde ipsa urbe Aroer, quod uni Clerico licebat. σκέψεως του λαού προς τον βασιλέα και
εγένετο Ισραήλ, οκτακόσιαι χιλιάδες ανδρών Ver. 6.
δυνάμεως σπωμένων ρομφαίαν και ανήρ
Ιούδα, πεντακόσιαι χιλιάδες ανδρών μαχητών. ?
Au. Ver.-9 And Joab gave up the sum
of the number of the people unto the king : :
and there were in Israel eight hundred και ήλθον εις Γαλαάδ και εις γην θαβασών, thousand valiant men that drew the sword; ή έστιν 'Αδασαι, και παρεγένοντο εις Δανιδάν | and the men of Judah were five hundred και ουδάν, και έκύκλωσαν Σιδώνα.
thousand men. Au. Ver.–6 Then they came to Gilead, Pool.-Eight hundred thousand. Object. and to the land of Tahtim-hodshi [or, In 1 Chron. xxi. 5, they are numbered netherland newly inhabited), and they 1,100,000. Answ. The sum here expressed came to Dan-jaan, and about to Zidon.
is only of such as were not in the ordinary Pool.—Tahtim-hodshi; a place so called. and settled militia waiting upon the king, Or, the lowland lately gained, i.e., not given which being 24,000 for every month, as is by Joshua, but taken lately from the largely related, i Chron. xxvii., amounts to Hagarites by Saul; which was near Gilead, 288,000, which either with their several 1 Chron. v. 10.
commanders, or with the soldiers placed in Dr. A. Clarke.—Tahtim-hodshi.] Where several garrisons, might very well make up
וַיִּתֵּן יוֹאָב אֶת־מִסְפַּר מִפְקַד הָעָם sylvam
, quam esset in valle , היער sed potius אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַתְּהִי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁמֹנֶשׁ מֵאוֹת;Gad nominata
. Erat Aroer in tribu Ruben אֶלֶף אִישׁ־חַיִל שְׁלֵף חֶרֶב וְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה propterea non licet Gad accipere ut.tribum חֲמֵשׁ־מֵאוֹת אֶלֶף אִישׁ:
וַיָּבֹאוּ הַגִּלְעָדָה וְאֶל־אֶרֶץ תַּחְתִּים חָדְשֵׁי וַיָּבֹאוּ דָּנָה יַעַן וְסָבִיב אֶל־ צִידוֹן :
300,000. Or 288,000 may pass in such eight thousand, make just three hundred accounts for 300,000; it being frequent in thousand : which, added to the eight hunsuch great sums to neglect a smaller num- dred thousand here mentioned, make up the ber. But in the Book of the Chronicles, eleven hundred thousand mentioned in the which was
to gather up the fragments Chronicles. The like account Bochartus omitted in the former books, both sorts gives of the next difficulty, that if twentyare put together, and so they amount to four thousand legionary soldiers be added of 1,100,000. Five hundred thousand. In the tribe of Judah to the four hundred and 1 Chron. xxi. 5, but 470,000. Answ. Either, seventy thousand, it comes near to five 1. They were exactly no more, but are called hundred thousand (Hieroz., par. i., lib. ii., 500,000 in a round sum, as is usual in cap. 38). But others think there is no need Scripture and other authors. Or, 2. The of this; it being usual in Scripture to mengarrison soldiers, and such as were employed tion a round sum: either of men or of years, in other services about the king, are here when some were wanting. So that though included, which are there excluded. Or, 3. there were no more than four hundred and They were 500,000 when Joab gave up the seventy thousand, yet they might be said to number to the king, though presently after be five hundred thousand. Or, as they say that they were but 470,000; 30,000 being in Halicoth Olam., the tribe of Benjamin slain by the plague in the tribe of Judah; (who were neighbours to Judah) are reckoned which being David's own tribe, it was but here in this book, who were omitted in the just and fit it should suffer more than the Chronicles (1 Chron. xxi. 6). rest for this sin. And though it be true that Bp. Horsley.—The numbers in 1 Chron. Joab gave up the sum before the plague xxi. 5, are more probable, viz., “Israel, begun, yet the sacred penman of the Book eleven hundred thousand—Judah, four hunof Chronicles thought fit to make a defalca- dred and seventy thousand.” tion of them who had been swept away by Dr. A. Clarke.-In Israel eight hundred the plague, that the judgment of God thousand the men of Judah were five therein might be observed. Or, 4. There hundred thousand.] In the parallel place, are included here the 30,000 which belonged 1 Chron. xxi. 5, the sums are widely difto the thirty colonels mentioned chap. xxiii., ferent: in Israel one million one hundred who are excluded i Chron. xxi., although it thousand, in Judah four hundred and seventy be questionable whether those were all of thousand. Neither of these sums is too the tribe of Judah.
great, but they cannot be both correct; and Bp. Patrick.—The men of Judah were which is the true number is difficult to say. five hundred thousand men.] There is a The former seems the most likely; but more great difference between this account and corruptions have taken place in the numbers that in the Chronicles. For there (1 Chron. of the historical books of the Old Testament, xxi. 5), the men of Israel are said to be than in any other part of the sacred records. three hundred thousand more than are here To attempt to reconcile them in every part mentioned; and, on the contrary, the men is lost labour ; better at once acknowledge of Judah are said to be thirty thousand less. what cannot be successfully denied, that Of the former of which there is a plain account, although the original writers of the Old that in this book the standing legions are not Testament wrote under the influence of the numbered: which were very well known, Divine Spirit, yet we are not told that the they serving under twelve commanders so same influence descended on all copiers of many months (1 Chron. xxvii. 1, &c.); but their words, so as absolutely to prevent in the book of the Chronicles all these are them from making mistakes. They might taken into the number there mentioned. mistake, and they did mistake; but a careful For the Jews observe in Halicoth Olam, collation of the different historical books that there being twenty-four thousand who serves to correct all essential errors of the waited every month (which makes in all scribes. See the Dissertations of Dr. Kentwo hundred eighty-eight thousand), allow-nicott. ing a thousand officers (as we cannot well Houb.–9 na now, Octingenta (millia). allow less) to every twenty-four thousand, | 1 Par. xxi. 5 legitur undecies centena millia, there will be twelve thousand wanting; quæ duæ scripturæ simul stare non possunt, which added to the eight hundred eighty-de qua re vide quæ dicimus ad locum supra
אתוֹ אַחֲרֵי־כֵן לָפּר
וַיִּךְ לֵב־דָּוִד אֶת־הָעָם
פסקא באמצע הפסוק
dictum. Utra scriptura præstet incertum : David had á covetous project in his mind, Ea potius scriptura amplectenda, quæ mino- to lay a capitation tax (as we now speak) rem habet numerum. ..No uon, Quin- upon every poll throughout the kingdom. genta (millia). 1 Par. xxi. 9, quadringenta But such conjectures being without ground, septuaginta millia, de qua varietate idem, some reject all other interpretations, and quod de supra-dicta, sentiendum ; utraque in rely upon this; that the numbering of the scribas conferenda, non in sacrum scriptorem. people was a thing contrary to the fundaVer. 10.
mental promise made by God to Abraham,
that his seed should increase so as to be ?
like the stars for multitude: which is given bp Thang O
as a reason why the number of the people npr mon noin them noon nin was not taken exactly, 1 Chron. xxvii. 23,
and seems to imply, that there was a general
: notion : Na God promised to increase them beyond num
ber, none ought to go about to take the και επάταξε καρδία Δαυίδ αυτόν μετά το number of them, for this might seem to αριθμήσαι τον λαόν και είπε Δαυίδ προς savour of infidelity, and mistrust of God's Κύριον, Ημαρτον σφόδρα και εποίησα νύν Κύριε· | promise. But those words on which this mapaßißacov on thv úvoplay toû doúlov oov, reason relies (in 1 Chro. xxvii. 23), only give ότι έμωράνθην σφόδρα. .
a reason why David did not number all from Au. Ver.-10 And David's heart smote twenty years old, and under: which if he him after that he had numbered the people. had gone about to do (i. e., reckon the whole And David said unto the Lord, I have nation), it might have seemed to cross the sinned greatly in that I have done : and promise: but since it was only those who now, I beseech thee, O LORD, take away the were above twenty years old whom he iniquity of thy servant; for I have done ordered to be numbered, I cannot look upon very foolishly.
it as a contempt or a mistrust of God's word: Pool.- For I have done very foolishly, but, after all, I think we must content ourbecause I am sensible of my sin and folly, selves with what Ralbag says (whom Abaras it is more fully expressed, Psalm li. 5, 6. binel after the other opinions follows), that Or, although, as this particle is oft used. David being the anointed of the Lord, and
Bp. Patrick.- I have sinned greatly in the sweet singer of Israel, made flesh his that I have done.] It is made a great doubt arm, and confided in the number of his by interpreters what this sin was, and people; in which such a king as he should wherein the heinousness of it consisted. not have placed his confidence, but in the The common opinion is, that as there was Lord his God; whom none can resist, and something of vanity and ostentation in him, who can save by few, as well as by many. when he had a mind to know how populous Unto which Abarbinel adds, that the greathis country was, so it quite made him forget ness of a sin is not always to be measured the half-shekel that was due upon such by the sin itself, but by the quality and occasions, by the appointment of the law, dignity of him that committeth it: as Moses Exod. xxx. 12. And this was no small sin, and Aaron were punished for a small sin, not to pay God his dues, in such plenty and which excluded them from the good land : abundance as they now enjoyed. But if which was not proportionable to the sin, but that was the meaning of Moses, it cannot to the condition of the offenders, who should well be thought that David was either igno- have given a better example to the people. rant nor unmindful of it, having made the Dr. A. Clarke. I have sinned greatly.] law his study day and night. Bertram We know not exactly in what this sin contherefore thinks his fault was, that he num- sisted. I have already hinted, ver. 1, that bered those who were under twenty years probably David now began to covet an exold, contrary to the order in the law, Exod. tension of empire, and purposed to unite xxx. iv.; xxxviii. 26, &c., but I see no some of the neighbouring states with his foundation for this; but rather the quite own; and having, through the suggestions contrary is asserted in the Book of the of Satan or some other adversary (for so Chronicles. Therefore Dr. Lightfoot fancies the word implies) given way to this covetous
disposition, he could not look to God for | μήνας φεύγειν σε έμπροσθεν των εχθρών σου, help, and therefore wished to know whether και έσονται διώκοντές σε, ή γενέσθαι τρείς the thousands of Israel and Judah might be ημέρας θάνατον έν τη γη σου νύν ούν γνώθι deemed equal to the conquests which he και ίδε τι αποκριθώ τα αποστείλαντί με ρημα. . meditated. When God is offended and Au. Ver.-13 So Gad came to David, and refuses assistance, vain is the help of man. told him, and said unto him, Shall seven
Dathe.-Prorsus assentior Ill. Michaeli, years of famine come unto thee in thy land? qui consilium Davidis in numerando populo or wilt thou flee three months before thine acute indagasse videtur ; nempe non su- enemies, while they pursue thee? or that perbia impulsus jussit David populum nu- there be three days' pestilence in thy land ? merari. Neque in eo peccavit, quod now advise and see what answer I shall dimidium siclum ex lege Exod. xxx. 12 return to him that sent me. colligere neglexerit ; quæ duæ rationes vulgo ab interpretibus allatæ fuerunt ad Grotius, Bochart., Houb., Pilkington, factum Davidis reprehendendum. Sed con- Ken., Clarke, Ged., Booth.—Three years. silium Davidis fuit, omnes Israëlitas ad Pool.-Seven years of famine. Object. perpetua belli servitia cogendi, (das ganze In 1 Chron. xxi. 12, it is only three years of Volk als Soldaten zu enrolliren,) sine dubio famine. Answ. 1. Some conceive that here majora bella, quam hactenus gesserat, ma- was an error in the transcriber, and that the joresque aggressiones molitus. Quam sen- true reading is three years, as the LXX read tentiam maxime probabilem et tantum non it in this place, being supposed to have certam esse, probant sequentia argumenta : found it so in their copies, and that other1) Joabo hæc res maxime displicebat. Quod wise they durst never have presumed to profecto non fuisset, si rex tantum in causa make so great a change in the text. 2. In aliqua ad religionem pertinente peccasset. Chronicles he speaks exactly of those years Hujus enim non adeo strenuus erat defensor of famine only which came for David's sin ; Joabus. Voluntati Davidis in Uria occi- but here he speaks more confusedly and dendo sine hæsitatione obtemperaverat, comprehensively, including those three years quidni ergo in numeratione populi, re per se of famine sent for Saul's sin, chap. xxi. innoxia, neminem lædente ? Sed videbat And this sin of David's was committed in Joabus, hanc rem adversari libertati populi. the year next after them, which was in a Hanc igitur laudabili studio defendebat, et manner a year of famine; either because it improbabat illud consilium, quod omnes was the sabbatical year, wherein they might libertate privabat. 2) Ad hanc populi nu- not sow nor reap; or rather, because not merationem non magistratus, sive sacerdotes, being able to sow in the third year, because uti alias, adhibebantur, sed exercitus sec. of the excessive drought, they were not vers. 5. Ex quo apparet, Davidem motus capable of reaping this fourth year. And in populo metuisse, ad quos opprimendos three years more being added to these four, milites mittebantur. Vid. hæc pluribus edis- make up the seven here mentioned. So the serentem Michaëlem cum in notis ad vers. meaning of the words is this, As thou hast bibl. Gerin. tum in jure Mos., p. III., $. 174, already had four years of famine, shall three et S. R. Niemeyer in Characterist. Bibl., years more come? And that it is said of p. IV., p. 329.
these seven years, that they shall come, it is Ver. 13.
a synecdochical expression frequent in Scripture, because part of the years were yet to
come; even as it is said of the Israelites, that 1
wander forly ,
. .—seven come unto thee, &c.] In the book of the Chro
nicles only three years of famine are pro
:777 m?i pounded ; which is far more likely than seven : και εισήλθε Γάδ προς Δαυίδ, και ανήγγειλε, for it better agrees with the three months' και είπεν αυτώ, έκλεξαι σεαυτώ γενέσθαι, ει light before his enemies, and the three days' non col tpia črn depòs év tân yn cov, tpeis, pestilence. And therefore, not only Grotius,
וַיָּבֵא גָד אֶל־דָּוִד וַיָּגֶד־לוֹ וַיּאמֶר לוֹ they should eandler in the wildernes forty הֲתָבוֹא לְךְ שֶׁבַע־שָׁנִים וּרָעָבוּ בְּאַרְצֵךְ
וְאִם־שְׁלֹשָׁה חָדָשִׁים נָסְךְ Bp . Patrick shall even years of famine" וְהִוּא לִדְפֶךְ וְאִם־הֶיוֹת שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים
דָּבָר בְּאַרְצֵךְ עַתָּה דָּע וּרְאֵה מָה־אָשִׁיב