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.Chron איש מדה חמש באמה וביד
וביד .Sam אשר מראה .Chron המצרי חנית כמנור ארגים וירד
וירד .Sam המצרי חנית .Chron אליו בשבט ויגזל את החנית
.Sam אליו בשבט ויגזל את החנית .Chron מיד המצרי ויהרגהו בחניתו : .Sam מיד המצרי ויהרגהו בחניתו :
. wanting in Samuel, as the sense is otherwise
defective-an Egyptian, a man whose stature .
was five cubits high; and in the hand of the . Egyptian was a spear— certainly-like a .
weaver's beam : since this is the usual com. parison for the vast spear used by one of
these giants. And we find, the LXX read .
here ως ξυλον διαβαθρας, which puts the : . omission in the text of Samuel beyond
dispute. We have here another instance in .
the LXX of the eye of the transcriber Chron. kal
αυτος επαταξε τον ανδρα τον having been misled by the same word ocSam. αυτος επαταξε τον ανδρα τον curring in diferent places ; and of his Chron. ALYUTtlov, avopa opatov TTEVTATNXov, copying on from the last word, when he had Sam. Αιγυπτιον, ανδρα ορατον
writ only the first : for the several words Cliron, και εν τη χειρι του Αιγυπτιου δορυ inserted in Samuel in the small character Sam. εν δε τη χειρι του Αιγυπτιου δορυ were omitted between δορυ and δορυ. . Chron. ws
αντιον υφαινοντων, και κατεβη The English version is—And he slew an Sam. ξυλον διαβαθρας
KateBn Egyptian, a man (in Sam., of great aspect) Chron. Eto' αυτον Βαναίας εν ραβδω, και whose stature was fire cubits high ; and in Sam.
ραβδω, , the hand of the Egyptian was a spear, like Chron, αφειλατο εκ της χειρος του Αιγυπτιου a weaver's beam : but he went down to him Sam.
δορυ mns Xerpos Tou with a staff, and plucked the spear out of the Chron. to dopu, kai anektelvev avtov ev TW Egyptian's hand, and slew him with his own Sam. Αιγυπτιου, και απέκτεινεν αυτον εν τω spear. Chron. δορατι αυτου.
Ged.-21 He, moreover, slew an eminent Sam. δορατι αυτου.
Egyptian; and though the Egyptian had a The words o uN in Samuel should be, spear in his hand, he [Benaiah] went up to as in Chronicles, 4297 0N7; for the second him with a staff; and, pulling the spear out word is twice repeated in this very verse of the Egyptian's hand, slew him with his with the article prefixed in Samuel; all the own spear. 22 Such deeds did Benaiah three places have it in Chronicles and it is Ben-Jehoiadah ; and, hence, had a name prefixed in Samuel before both words by the among the second three. LXX. The next variation is between Booth. 21 He, moreover, slew an
: Chronicles. The first word 72 in Samuel Egyptian had a spear in his hand, he went must have been writ by a very careless down to him with a staff, and plucked the transcriber instead of 0; which latter word spear out of the Egyptian's hand, and slew is placed in the margin of Samuel. him with his own spear. 22 These things
The next word ind is very similar in its did Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada ; and letters 1770, and therefore one may have hence had a name among the second three been corrupted from the other. But, if we worthies. consider the sense of each word, and ob- Houbigant.—21 Ile etiam percussit virum serve that 770 is followed by two other Ægyptium, hominem magnæ staturæ, qui words, which do not follow 7N7O; we may lanceam manu tenebat. Irruit in eum baculo, more rationally suppose, that both words &c. are original, each being proper in its present
: , . text; and that the three words in Chronicles Recte Masora mutat 70x in un, non item were at first intended as a paraphrase upon recte nihil mutat in 17972, quasi esset vir the word in Samuel. For 17479 7°N, a man of aspectabilis. Nam si erat ille vir ob progreat aspect, may very properly be explained ceritatem aspectabilis, melius id notat 770,
a , , , was five cubits high. Josephus calls this non 879. Si ob pulchritudinem, ne id Egyptian, Bavpaotos to ueye@os. Lib. vii., quidem dignum erat, quod narraretur. Nec
Banaiæ magna laus fuisset hominem pulchrum The two words D'ITN 730) are evidently occidisse.
in Egyptian five cubits high : and though the איש מזה חמש באמה in Samuel and אשר מראה
.23 .ut 1 Par . xi ,איש מרה Lege :אשר מראה
,proceritatem habet ,מוה quia ,מראה man
, whose stature quamו 4 , איש מנה חמש באמה by
.men , as here explained ,אָשׁר מַרְאֶה an אָשֵׁר מַרְאֶה utrum legere velint
super auscultationem , על משמעתו Chronicles
וְאֶל־הַשְׁלֹשָׁה מִן־הַשְׁלֹשִׁים נִכְבָּר hear and obey the king's orders , by being לֹא־בָא וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ דָוִד אֶל־מִשְׁמַעְתּוֹ :
Maurer.-21 NO 701.] Masorethæ le-propriety so visible in the ancient versions gendum præcipiunt 'n vin, vir spectabilis of this piece of history, and particularly of magnitudine, cf. 1 Chron. xi. 23 : ?? . this verse, has been principally owing to Receptam lectionem nuper defendit Hitzigius their several authors not attending to the Begriff , p. 122, ubi lectoribus optio datur, nature and subordination of these mighty
, . ita ut modus, quo Benaja Ægyptium inter- It only remains to be observed, that " in fecerit, accuratius describatur : ille peremit Samuel should be song as in Chronicles : and hominem Ægyptium, recta, i. e., intrepide eum that the last word has been very differently aggressus, propr. “indem er gerade auf den interpreted, which interpretations have been Gegenstand seiner Blicke zuging." Negari owing to different readings of the word non potest, verba hunc sensum admittere. in question. The LXX in Chronicles by Prov. ix. 6, ein notat recta incedere, pro- rendering it tatpa, seem
to have read gredi. Præteritum qui legere voluerit, in- innown. Others, as Grotius observes, seem spiciat E. g. 478, qui infinitum, §. 489, 2 b. to have read nown, by rendering it cusDenique ad accusativum rei vel pers. quæ todiam suam. There is no great impropriety petitur quod attinet, cf. idem $. 525, b. in the present reading both in Samuel and Ver. 23.
vel obedientiam suam, i.e. Benaihu was set ? ?
over those, whose particular duty it was to : ,
nearer his royal person. εκ των τριών ένδοξος, και προς τους τρείς And we find this to have been exactly the ουκ ήλθε και έταξεν αυτόν Δαυίδ προς τας
For we read i Chron. xviii. 17, and ακοάς αυτού και ταυτα τα ονόματα των 2 Sam. XX. 23, that this Benaihu was over δυνατών Δαυίδ του βασιλέως. .
the Cherethites and the Pelethites : and, Au. Ver.—23 He was more honourable from 2 Sam. xv. 18; xx. 6, 7; 1 Kings than the thirty (or, honourable among the i. 33, 38, it appears, that the Cherethites and thirty); but he attained not to the first three. the Pelethites composed David's body-guard. And David set him over his guard (or, Benaihu then, in being placed over these, council; Heb., at his command, 1 Sam. was properly captain of David's life-guard; xxii. 14].
and therefore the words before mentioned Ken.-In Samuel the Alexandrian and must be rendered, over his guard. Thus Vatican copies of the LXX have τριων, as | Josephus, Βαναια δε τω Ιωαδου την ΤΩΝ if d'vin had been tohunt; but in the Com- ERMATOØYAAKUN APXHN Tapaðidwow. plutensian the words are vtep TOUS Tplakovta, Lib. vii., cap. 12. But these authorities seem which is the true translation of the Hebrew more strongly to recommend the word words and the true sense of the place. This 1990s. will appear from recollecting what has been The English version is, Behold! he was already proved—that Benaihu was one of the more honourable than the thirty, but he seven generals, who were more honourable attained not unto the first three ; and David than the thirty mighty men, being the second set him over his guard. general of the second series. The text then Gesen. - noor f. (r. rau). 1 hearing, must have been, as we now have it both in audience, Ital. udienza, i. e., admission to the Samuel and Chronicles, He was honour- private hearing of a king. 1 Sam. xxii. 14, able (or honoured) above the thirty; or papp 10p, and hath access to thy private (as in Chronicles), Above the thirty (behold audience. 2 Sam. xxiii. 23 ; 1 Chron. xi. 25, him!) he was honourable : but yet he attained and David took him into his private audience, not unto the first three. And that the i. e., into his privy council. original words cannot properly signify præ 2. Obedience, for concr. obedient, subject, tribus honorabilis, is evident;
because Is. xi. 14. Benaihu, in consequence of this title, must have been the first general of a ternary :
Ver. 24. whereas it is certain from the history, that he was only second in the second ternary. It is plain, that the extraordinary want of |
עֲשָׂהאֵל אֲחִי-יוֹאָב בַּשְׁלֹשִׁים אֶלְחָנָן בֶּן־בּוֹדוֹ בֵּית לָחֶם :
Cliron . | Also the valiant men of the armies cere וגבורי החילים עשהאל אחי
.Sam עשהאל אחי יואב בשלשים : .Chron יואב
.Chron אלחנן בן דודו מבית לחם :
Agani adeApòs 'Iwáß. cüros év Toss the word d'obwa by ugildo ww.y, princeps τριάκοντα: 'Ελεαναν υιός Δουδι πατραδέλφου αυτού εν Βηθλεέμ
triginta (fortium) triginta prafuit, or rather Au. Ver.—24 Asahel the brother of Joab (according to the primary idea of this verb), was one of the thirty; Elhanan the son of triginta caput fuit: so that no word could
more strongly express Asahel's superiority Dodo of Beth-lehem.
over the thirty, whose names (as the Arabic Кеп.—
version adds) are these. Shamma, &c. 1 Chron. xi. 26; 2 Sam. xxiii. 24.
The English version in Chronicles is
. were : . Asahel, the brother of Joab : &c. and in
Samuel, Asahel, the brother of Joab, was .
over the thirty. .. Sam.
1 Chron. xi. 26; 2 Sam. xxiii. 24. Chron. και οι δυνατοι των δυναμεων, Ασαηλ,
: . Sam. Aσαηλ αδελφος Ιωαβ: ουτος εν τοις Chron. αδελφος Ιωαβ.
. Sam. τριακοντα.
Chron. Ελεαναν υιος Δωδωαι .. Here is a considerable difference between Sam. Ελεαναν υιος Δουδει πατραδελφου the two texts ; and the occasion of it seeins Chron. . εκ Βηθλεεμ. . to be this, that the author of the catalogue Sam.
εκ Βηθλεεμ. . in Chronicles, not confining himself to the This first hero, in the body of thirty, is consideration of the exact number of these expressed exactly the same in both the mighty men (which had before been ex- original texts; excepting, that the mem is pressly mentioned in Samuel) does not at all dropped at the beginning of his local name distinguish Asahel, as to his rank amongst the in Samuel: just as the beth was before the thirty-seven. But, though Asahel was more same name in the 14th verse of this chapter honourable than the thirty, yet nothing of Samuel. How this worthy's name is particular being recorded of him, more than properly distinguished from Eleazar, the son of the following thirty (who are celebrated of Dodi, the Ahohite, has been already by their names only, and not by their observed in page 134. exploits), the author of Chronicles barely sets We have here another instance of the him at the head of the following thirty. confusion and jumble of versions, which is
The author of the catalogue in Samuel now found in the LXX; for in Samuel the observes a different method. He, having word 1717, which had been rendered by one been exact with regard to the rank and | translator Δωδει, and πατραδελφου αυτoυ by number of these famous heroes, tells us, that another, is here translated by both. Or, Asahel was over the thirty, whose ber, rather, those two translations are by some as a body of the same order, had been so transcriber or editor injudiciously thrown often mentioned; and therefore, that he together: and of this there are, in the (Asahel) was the last of the second three, several editions of the LXX, many inof which his brother Abishai was the first. stances. For it is impossible, that Asahel should be The English version is, Elhanan, the son one of or among the thirty, because there of Dodo, of Bethlehem. follow thirty exclusively of him; and because Ged.—24 The names of king David's other Asahel must be the last of the second thirty worthies were [So Sept. and equiternary, which otherwise is incomplete ; valently Arab. The present text, with consequently the preposition 2, prefixed in Vulg. has, among the thirty was] : this verse to d'uso, thirty, must be here Asahel, Joab's brother. rendered over or above; as it has been
ELHANAN Ben-Dodi, of Bethlehem. already proved to signify, in the observa- Booth.—24 Asahel, the brother of Joab, tions on the 21st verse of this chapter of was over the thirty, and one of the second Chronicles.
three worthies. The names of David's And there is this farther proof of its sig- thirty mighty men were [1 Chron. xi. 26), nifying pre-eminence (and not equality) in Elhanan, the son of Dodo, of Bethlehem. this place, that the Arabic version renders Houb. — 24 Erant etiam inter triginta
-de Beth ,מבית לחם .26
1 בית להם
Asael, frater Joab; Elehanan, filius Dodo, from the LXX are taken from the Cod. de Bethlehem.
Au. Ver.-25 Shammah the Harodite, lehem, quod legendum, ut liquet.
Elika the Harodite, Dathe.—24 Inter illos triginta fuerunt 26 Helez the Paltite, Ira the son of Ikkesh Asahel, frater Joabi, Elhanan, Dodonis filius, the Tekoite, Bethlehemita.
27 Abiezer the Anethothite, Mebunnai
the Hushathite, Ver. 25-39.
28 Zalmon the Ahohite, Maharai the Netophathite,
29 Heleb the son of Baanah, a Netopha
,he Barhumite בֶּן־רִיבֿי
31 Abi-albon the Arbathite, Azmaveth the
32 Eliahba the Shaalbonite, of the sons of Jashen, Jonathan,
33 Shammah the Hararite, Ahiam the son of Sharar the Hararite,
34 Eliphelet the son of Ahasbai, the son : ,
Ahithophel the Gilonite,
35 Hezrai the Carmelite, Paarai the Arbite,
36 Igal the son of Nathan of Zobah, Bani the Gadite,
37 Zelek the Ammonite, Nahari the :,
שַׁמָּה הַחֲלוֹי אֶלִיָקָא הַחֲרֹדִי : 96 חֵלֶץ הַפַּלְטִי עִירְא בֶן־עַקְשׁ הַתּוֹעִי : hite , Ittai the son of Ribai out of Gibeah: 37 אֲבִיעֶזֶר הָעַפְחֹתִי מְבָנַי הַחֲשָׁתִי:
28 צַלְמוֹן הָאֲחֹלִי מַהֵר הַנְטְפָחִי : as , צַלְמוֹן
בֶּן־בָּעֲנָה הַנְטְפָתִי אִתַּי ,brooks
[ or , valleys , Deut . i . 24 ] of Gaash 29 חֵלֶב
בְּנִי מִגִּבְעַת בְּנָיָהוּ בִּרְעָתְנִי הִדַי מִנַּחֲלֵי גָעַשׁ :
עַזְמָוֶת אֲבִי־עַלְבּוֹן הָעַרְבָתִי
אֶלְיַחְבָּא הַפַּעַלְבּוֹי הַבַּרְחָמִי :
שַׁמָּה הַחֲרָלִי בְּנֵי יָשֵׁן יְהוֹנָתָן :
34 אֱלֵיפֶלֶט of the Maachathite , Eliam the son of אֲחִיאָם בֶּן־שָׁקֶר הָארָרִי :
בֶּן־אֲחַסְבִּי בֶּן־הַמַּעֲכָתִי אֱלִיעָם בֶּן־
35 חֶצְרַוֹ הַכַּרְמְלִי אֲחִיתְפֶל הַבְּלֹכִי :
יִגְאָל בֶּן־נָתָן פַּעֲרֵי הָאַרְבִּי :
36 צלֶק הָעַמוֹנֵי Beerothite , armour bearer to Joab the son מִכָה בָּנִי הַמָּדִי :
,of Zeruiali נַחֲרַי הַבְּאֵרֹתִי נשא כְּלִי יוֹאָב בֶּן־
37 עִירָא הַיָּתְרִי בָּרֵב צְרוּיָה :
אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי כָּל
38 fra an Ithrite, Gareb an Ithrite,
1 Chron. xi. 27 ; 2 Sam. xxiii. 25.
יהיר י" .36
ζερ ο 'Ανωθίτης, εκ των υιών του 'Ανωθίτου:
Chron. Lauod eadt,
Sam. 2anual o Apov8ados 29 Εσθαι υιός Ριβά εκ Γαβαεθ υιος Βενιαμίν That this mighty man, the second in the To Evpagator 31 'Aoud6 6 Bapitauirns: body of_thirty, cannot be the same with 32 'Euagon 8 2aAa3aurns* viot Addy, Plovd- Shammah the Hararite, the third general of eap 33 sauvav d'Apollons: 'Aurdu vids'Apat the first series of three, we may conclude at zapaoupions* 34 *AAudane0 vios Too Aq3iTou, | once. But that he is the same with Shamhoth
mentioned in 1 Chron . xxvii . 8 , as (שמהות) uids Tal Maxoxoxt
.vios Tov Apa3adalou Telope d Bnda- mentioned presently after Shammoth here ג3
35 'Adapat é Kappauos Tot being the fifth captain in waiting on the Oipatospx?. 36 rdam utas Nadavar IoAu-| king seems very evident; because jour of duvdaeos vids Taaaaa8 37 'Ete d'Auna- the twelve captains in waiting, who are menvirns* 30 'Apot dro xstudpoop- 31 Tuda-tioned presently after Shamhoth there, are patos atpop Td okeum: 'Ioda uids Saportas To which it must be added, that the several 38 'Ipas d 'Eeupatos Impa3 d 'Edevaios | copies of the LXX agree in rendering the 39 otptas 6 Xerratos of Tdvres Toudxovra kai name in Chronicles lauo8; but do not agree 6Td.
to read Lajpai in Samuel, since the Ald. In the notes below, Kennicott's quotations | Copy reads Eeuwd there.
.שמהות or שמהת בfro שמה
Salmon begat שלמון Salmah
, and שלמה begat
One of these names then being now im- xxvii. 10; where this same worthy is recorded properly expressed in the original text, we as the seventh captain in waiting on the king; may conclude, that the name 798 Shammah and there both his names are expressed in Samuel is corrupted from either nind literally the same, as here in Chronicles. Shammoth or now Shamhoth; if from the The teth therefore, like many other compliformer, by a change of the two similar letters cated letters, is here in Samuel corruptly 17 and 0–790 from now; if from the latter, made up of the original vau and nun, of 31, by an omission of the last, or two last letters That a letter, thus compounded of two or
more strokes, may be mistaken for two As this worthy is thus distinguished from letters whose strokes coincide with the Shammah (one of the first seven) by the strokes of the letter so compounded, is easy different termination of his proper name, to imagine. And, that such a complicated Shamhoth; so of the different local or family letter has been elsewhere so mistaken for names now found in Chronicles and Samuel, two more simple letters, see page 19th of it may be proper to prefer that, which farther this Dissertation, in the words 727 and 137. distinguishes this man from the former. The See also 1 Sam. xvii. 32 ; where Ons is by former then being Shammah the Hararite, the LXX rendered kupios pov, and was this will be Shamhoth the Harodite; the last therefore read by them "78; which, perhaps, name being taken exactly as it is in Samuel. was the true reading. And there is a reA farther reason for preferring the name of markable instance of this change, in two Harodite is, that the worthy, mentioned im- words succeeding each other; or rather, in mediately after Shammoth, is also an the same proper name repeated (or intended Harodite; and two heroes of the same place to be repeated) in Ruth iv, 20, 21, And or family are frequently mentioned together Amminadab begat Nahshon, and Nahshon in the following parts of this catalogue.
And that Shamhoth was an Hurodite, as Boaz, &c. in Samuel; and not an Hararite, or (more The English version is, Heletz, the strictly) Arorite, as in Chronicles; appears Pelonite. yet more evidently from the Alexand. copy So Ged., Booth. of the LXX ; which makes the termination
Ken. of the word in Chronicles the very same as
1 Chron. xi. 29; 2 Sam. xxiii. 27. in Samuel, di, Oadı; the Ald. copy, di, Addi;
. and the ancient Cambridge Greek MS. retains also, ôi, Adı. To all which we may
: . add lastly, that not only the Bomberg. and Chron. και Σοββοχαι ο Ασωθι, Complutensian editions agree in reading this Sam. εκ των υιων του Ασωθειτου. . name '7100 in Samuel; but that the English Here is a very considerable difference Polyglott has the very same termination ('7) between the two expressions of this proper also in Chronicles. This different termina- name, in the English version, and a still tion then, together with the difference of a n greater in some of the ancient versions. In in this name of Harodite, instead of an 17 in the English this hero is called Mebunnai in Hararite, or Arorite, sufficiently distinguish Samuel, and in Chronicles Sibbecai. The the one from the other.
English translators here express the two The English version is, Shamhoth, the words, exactly according to the Masoretical Harodite.
pointing ; but the name is evidently cor
rupted in Samuel by a mistake of two very 1 Chron. xi. 27; 2 Sam. xxiii. 26.
similar letters 39 for 30. For, there being . no such Biblical name elsewhere as Me
bunnai, the LXX, in the Alexand, and Vat.
copies, do not acknowledge it for a proper Chron. Χελλης ο Φαλλωνι,
name here ; but render it eK TWV viwy, which Sam. Ελλης ο Φελλωνει:
makes no sense, and therefore cannot be That the local or family name of Heletz admitted ; and besides it occasions a dewas Pelonite, as in Chronicles, and not ficiency of a proper name. Pallite, as in Samuel, is easily inferred from The Ald. Edition of the LXX reads the LXX; but it is certain from 1 Chron. Eaßovxai also in Samuel; which alone is a
.Chron סבכי החשתי ,Sam מבני החשתי:
.Chron חלץ הפלוני :