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14 Και έστη
Chron. και ην
Mepis tov aypov inpris Chron. Philistines ; and the Lord saved them Sam. Kai nu ekel mepis tov aypov Tanpas Sam. Philistines : and the Lord wrought Chron. κριθων, και ο λαος εφυγεν απο προσ- Chron. by a great deliverance. Sam. φακου. Και ο λαος εφυγεν εκ προσ- Sam. a great victory. Chron. ωπου αλλοφυλων.
It seemed necessary to compare together Sam. ωπου αλλοφυλων. . 12 Kai corndwon thus much of the two chapters in this place,
μεσω της μεριδος, και eowcev that so the reader might see the more Sam.
εν μεσω της μεριδος, και εξειλατο clearly what a great mutilation or defect Chron, αυτην, και επαταξε τους αλλοφυλους, | there is in this part of the text in ChroSam.
αυτην, και επαταξε τους αλλοφυλους: nicles. The principal evidence for the proof Chron. και εποιησε Κυριος σωτηριαν μεγαλην. of this must arise from the inspection and Sam. Και εποιησε Κυριος σωτηριαν μεγαλην. comparison of the text in both places; and
from thence it will appear, alınost beyond a The present English Version.
possibility of doubt, that the history in Chron. 12 And after him was Eleazar the Chronicles breaks off abruptly in the middle Sam. 9 And after him was Eleazar the of the 9th verse in Samuel; and recomChron. son of Dodo, the Ahohite, who was mences, in a manner equally abrupt, in the Sam. son of Dodo, the Ahohite,
middle of the 11th verse. But if any one Chron. one of the three mighties. 13 IIe should be disposed to deny this defect in Sam. one of the three mighty men Chronicles, and to maintain the perfection Chron. was with David at Pasdammim, and of the text as it now stands there; he need Sam. with David, when they defied only be desired to make out from that alone Chron. there the Philistines
the history of the thirty-seven mighty men, Sam. the Philistines that were there which seems absolutely impossible. For as Chron. gathered together to battle,
Shammah, the third general of the first series Sam. gathered together to battle, and the is there omitted, the history will be so far Chron.
from being found regular, that it is thrown Sam. men of Israel were gone away. into total confusion. Chron.
That there is a deficiency then of one Sam. 10 He arose, and smote the Philis- whole verse and a part of two others here in Chron.
Chronicles will, in general, be allowed. And Sam. tines until his hand was weary, and the omission seems manifestly owing to the Chron.
resemblance of some words at the place Sam. his hand clave unto the sword: and where the transcriber broke off and where he Chron.
went on. Sam. the Lord wrought a great victory that he cast his eye down on TAS O'NDSD HDDN"? Chron.
(two of which words are very similar) and Sam. day; and the people returned after copied on from the last place; and so caused Chron.
the omission (so Hallet], which has been Sam. him only to spoil. 11 And after him continued ever since. Chron.
Let us now consider each of these verses Sam. was Shammah the son of Agee the particularly; comparing one text with Chron.
another, where the two parts accompany Sam. Hararite: and the Philistines were each other; and endeavouring to establish Chron.
the true reading in the places that are corSam. gathered together into a troop, rupted. Chron. where was a parcel of ground full of In Samuel the 9th verse begins thus, Sam. where was a piece of ground full of And after him was Eleazar the son of Dodi Chron. barley, and the people fled from (not Dodo) the Ahohite, i. e., next after Sam. lentiles; and the people fled from Jashobeam, and therefore the second geChron. before the Philistines. 14 And they neral of the first series. The word 1774 in Sam.
the Philistines. 12 But he Samuel is writ more properly in Chronicles Chron. set themselves in the midst of that in the plural form, with a Yod before the Sam. stood
in the midst of the pronoun; and is so expressed here in Chron, parcel, and delivered it, and slew the Samuel in the Complutensian Bible. The Sam. ground, and delivered it, and slew the patronymic of Eleazar in Samuel is Dodi,
, נאספו שם למלחמה For having writ
with Dodo in the margin. The LXX (in The text here is corrupted in Samuel ; the the Alexand. copy) have a version for both differences there evidently destroying the Dodo and Dodi, νιος πατραδελφου αυτου, regular sense in Chronicles and making it vLOS Eovoel—Łovoel being a various reading unintelligible. It would be endless to enufor Aoudet, as appears from the Vatican merate all the constructions of the word copy. In Chronicles it is Dodo; but in the 12: but whether it has been thought a LXX (Vat. and Alexand. copies) Awdal, as verb active or passive, whether the sense from Awd.. But this point is determined at that some have laboured to extract from it once by 1 Chron. xxvii. 4, where we read be, that the Philistines reviled the Israelites, that as Jashobeum, the first general of the or the Israelites defied the Philistines; or first ternary, was the first officer for the first that the Israelites exposed their lives to the month in waiting upon the king, so, for the Philistines, according to others-certain it second month, was Dodi the Ahohite, doubt- is, that neither of these contradictory opiless Eleazar the son of Dodi the Ahohite nions can be the true one. For (not to (the second general of the first ternary) as insist upon Dinwid having a 3 prefixed after before observed. Eleazar the son of is 7777, which that verb never admits after it) dropped in this last place, and the next this word contained originally some proper word is not 1717 but '717 (Dodi) in the text, name of a place. and Awdal in the LXX; which is an autho- This appears, not only from there being rity sufficient for determining between the such a name here in the copy of Chronicles, disagreeing copies of the verses now before us. and that name of letters very similar to the
Besides, the reading here Eleazar the son word so corrupted; but also, because in of Dodi the Ahohite will the more effec- Samuel itself the third word from this is oo, tually distinguish this hero from Elhanan ibi, which is directly relative to some place the son of Dodo the Bethlehemite, who antecedently mentioned: otherwise, there stands recorded the first of the body of can be no sense in, When they defied the thirty mighty men, in Sam. 24 and Chron. 26. Philistines, that there were there gathered And it seems to have been owing to the re- together to battle. And farther—according semblance of these two names, that Dodo at to the present reading in Samuel there is no first crept into the text, after Eleazar ; since nominative case, nor introduction to the Eleazar is also confounded in the Vatican verb 10013; as there regularly is in Chroedition of the LXX with Elhanan. To all nicles. Some commentators, therefore, seewhich may be added the testimony of ing the absolute necessity of making this Josephus, who calls this Eleazar vios Aøồelov, word the name of a place, have rendered it lib. vii., cap. 12. As to the family or local at Horpam : but there is no such place in name, it has been already observed, that the the Bible as Horpam ; and if there were, it son of Ahohi, and the Ahohite, signify just would neither make this passage sense, nor the same thing.
the two passages
consistent. The word ba in Samuel should have the This then, and the beginning of the next a prefixed (so Houb., Hallet], as in Chro- word, have been corrupted; and the true nicles ; it is placed so in the margin of the reading is preserved in the corresponding several editions, and in the text of the Com- copy of Chronicles (so Houb., Hallet], plutensian. Before this, and its preceding which has also two additional words ITA 1917 word, we have in Chronicles the pronoun before 1917 , two words, which we may 1117; which does not appear in any version, conclude to have been originally also in and therefore probably was not original Samuel (so Hallet]; as the Ald. and Com(Hallet maintains that this word was ori- plut. editions of the LXX read there outos ginal].
no ueta Aavid : and Josephus, speaking of The next words are very obscure, and on this very place, has os nu peta Tov Baolews that account it may be proper to compare ev Apagauw (which last word was perhaps them
originally Apardauw, the version of o'97 Dox), DAT DI2 7977 OY 797 897 Chron. lib. vii., cap. 12.
As to the true name of this place, we have Sam.
it in Chronicles Pasdammim (so Houb., Dywany Chron. Hallet]; or, as it is sometimes writ, Ephes
. dammim (1 Sam. xvii. 1); and most of the
; ישבו Chron
. | observation in the 10th verse , but עם דויד בפסדמם והפלשתים
.Sam עם דוד ב חרפם בפלשתים .Chron נאספו .Sam נאספו
letters in the true and the corrupted word | Israelites by Moses, that One of them should are very similar, and therefore the more chase a thousand, and two put ten thousand easily mistaken.
of their enemies to flight.
There is no word that requires particular
. , ; 2 . which in the Alexand. and Vat. copies of ) .
the LXX, is rendered ekaOnto, and in the
Ald. and Complut., ETTEOTPeyev, in which ) .
last sense are the Vulgate and the English I have only omitted the yod here in the version. If it be considered as the Preter proper name; which, being frequently tense, it must be the former; if the future, omitted in nouns of the plural number, it may be the latter. Josephus evidently might be so here : and have shortened the takes it in the latter sense; and his words oblique stroke of the mem, as it appears are so just a paraphrase upon the passage from Origen's Hexapla to have been for- before us, that it may not be improper to merly written, which brings it very nearly transcribe them, Met' avtov (legralov) mv to a pe, the laleth and resh are frequently Ελεάζαρος υιος Δωδειου, ος ην μετα του βαmistaken, the samech is only distinguished σιλεως εν Αρασαμω. ουτος ποτε, των Ισραηλfrom a heth by its union of the perpendicular | ιτων καταπλαγεντων το πληθος των Παλαισstrokes at the bottom, and the first and last τινων και φευγοντων, μονος εμεινε και συμletters are the very same.
πολεμιοις The next word, without doubt, was the follovs, WS UTO TOU alpatos Tipookolnonvai nominative case to the verb 150N), which mnv poupatav avtov TY deţia, kai tous Iopanimmediately follows it in Samuel as well as ιτας ιδοντας τετραμμενους υπ' αυτου in Chronicles; and therefore must have been Παλαιστινους, καταβαντας απο των ορεων, in both, as we now find it in Chronicles, διωκειν, και θαυμαστης και διαβοητον τοτε D'nu57 (so Houb., Hallet]. The sense veanu apaodai, tov jev Eleačapov KTELVOVTOS, then is, He was with David at Pasdammim. | επομενου δε του πληθους και σκυλευοντος τους And when the Philistines were there gathered avaipovjevous. Lib. vii., cap. 12. together to battle, and the men of Israel were The first word in the 11th verse has the gone away (fled) he arose, &c.
Yod omitted again, as appears by the end Here is another argument against the pre- of the preceding verse, and many other sent reading in Samuel, arising from the places; the Complut. edition reads here words, when they defied the Philistines; VNT. No other word in the first part of since we can hardly suppose, that the Is- this verse has any difficulty, except it's raelites were so hardy, as first to defy their [Hallet reads zones as in the p. p.), and that dreadful enemies; and, upon the appearance has been greatly the subject of disputation. of a party of them, shamefully to get up The most rational account of it seems to be, into the mountains, and fly from them with- that it signifies ad Lechi, the place where out a battle. Wherefore, that they did not Samson made so remarkable a destruction of defy the enemy they dreaded, is probable; the Philistines; see Judges xv. 14, 17. but that they fled from them upon their ap- Thus the LXX (Edit. Complut.) read eru pearance, is certain. And yet we find in EIAFONA, the same word which is used the next verse, there was then among them here by Josephus. And Bochart, in his one hero, who maintained his ground against Hierozoicon (par. i., lib. ii., cap. 15) enthis party of the Philistines; and not only deavours to establish this as the true sense maintained his ground, but obliged the party of the word in this place. to retire with great loss.
After this proper name the passage
in But we must remember, that the sacred Chronicles takes place again, and goes on historian, who was fully sensible how sur- with its corresponding passage in Samuel. prizing this event would appear in after The word ou in Samuel is omitted in Chrotimes, takes care to inform us in the follow-nicles, possibly because it had been writ but ing words that the hand of the Lord was the third word before, as the text now stands with Eleazar, and that the chief author of in the latter. The next variation is, that the great deliverance wrought that day was d'on in Samuel is om in Chronicles; the Lord :—the Lord, who had assured the which two words resemble each other so in the correct verse ויעש only from its being , שערים and עדשים but that the two words
much in the number and nature of their many of the Philistines. This being another constituent letters, though a little transposed, relation of a surprising nature, and somethat it may be presumed from thence they what similar to the preceding, the historian were originally the very same word : and here also observes, that the hand of the Lord doubtless were so, as the two texts evidently was with Shammah, the brave instrument of treat of the same action in the same place. this defeat of the Philistines; and that the
In Samuel the word is D'UT', pakov, lente; great deliverance that day was wrought by the in Chronicles only, kpıdwv, hordeo. The Lord. last word is writ almost universally without a The only remaining difference is, that Vau, and therefore probably was so writ here you in Chronicles is corrupted from or in originally; and then there can be no doubt, Samuel (so Hallet]. This appears, not
, consisting of the very same number of letters, of Samuel ; but because this and the three and of the very same letters, except a 7 for a following words are exactly the same in the 7, and occurring in the same part of the 10th as in this 12th verse of Samuel: and, history in two different copies, were ori- that the word here in Chronicles was originally the same word. (That such a trans- ginally also the same (as the three that position or dislocation of letters has been follow it are) is plain from the LXX, all the made elsewhere, see Ezra ii. 46, opd; which copies of which version uniformly so render is boy in Neh. vii. 48. In Gen. xi. 31 weit
, kai etrOLNOe kuplos oorplay jeyadnu. To have 19", exierunt, instead of 837), eduxit, these several reasons it may be added, that as in the Samaritan version and LXX. In you cannot be the Hiphil future from yu", 1 Sam. ii. 3, as was read 529 by the LXX, because that would be prom, as in Psalm who have rendered it kal Ocos; and so in cxvi. 6; and lastly, if it had been thus exJob xiii. 15; to which may be added, from pressed, it could not have been the original 2 Sam. xxiii. 1, OH) or 3x3, for which the word, as it makes no sense with the words LXX seem to have read yox or 3DN, by ren- following: for the version would be then, dering the word twice in this verse motos, and the Lord saved a great deliverance. as usual.) And as the piece of ground The proper English version then of these mentioned in these two chapters is said to several verses is, And after him was Eleazar, be full of lentiles or barley, it is more pro- the son of Dodi (Hallet, Dodo], the Ahohite, bable it was the latter, on account of the one of three mighty men; he was with David greater use and plenty of barley. The copy at Pasdammim. And when the Philistines in Chronicles differs also in reading 101: but were there gathered together to battle, and either of the two numbers of that verb is the men of Israel were fled; he arose, and right; because op, being a noun of mul- smote the Philistines, until his hand was titude, may be connected with a verb plural; weary, and his hand clave unto the sword: as the noun v'N was in Samuel verse the 9th. and the Lord wrought a great deliverance that
In the two next corresponding verses the day; and the people returned after him only LXX being uniformly singular in the several to spoil. And after him was Shammah, the verbs, that is a plain proof, that the plural son of Agee, the Hararite : and the Phiverbs in the present text of Chronicles listines were gathered together at Lechi should be singular, as in Samuel. The alte- [Hallet, to battle), where was a piece of ration of them to plurals seems to have been ground full of barley, and the people fled owing to the preceding omission of one of from before the Philistines. But he placed the mighty men; whose existence some himself in the midst of the field (of barley) transcriber was desirous to support, by and saved it, and smote the Philistines ; and making two persons concerned in this action the Lord wrought a great deliverance. instead of one.
Ged.-9 Next to him, and one of the But the original history could speak but first three worthies, was of one in this place, and that evidently was
Eleazar Ben-Dodi, an Ahohite. He was Shammah, the third general of the first with David, at Phasdamim (pp. 1 Chron. ternary : of whom a wonderful instance of xi. 13]; where, the Philistines being asheroism is here recorded, that he stood alone sembled to battle, and the men of Israel against a party of the Philistines, in a field giving way; (10) he resisted and smote the of barley, and saved the barley and destroyed Philistines, until his hand (which had stuck
מהשלשים .Sam וירדו שלשים .Chron ראש .Sam ראש ויבאו אל קציר אל דוד the first three mighty men
עדלם וחית | where the Philistines were assembled to
מערת .Chron פלשתים חנה בעמק רפאים : .Saim פלשתים חנה בעמק רפאים :
to the sword) was weary: and, by him, that tinguished persons of the whole. The round day, the Lord wrought a great deliverance : number thirty is put for thirty-seven. the people only followed him to the spoil. Booth.-13 And those three chiefs of the (11) Next to him, was
thirty went, and came down to David to the Shamah Ben-Agah, an Hararite : who, rock, to the cave of Adullam : and the Phiwhen the Philistines had assembled at Lehi listines were encamped in the valley of (where was a spot of ground full of lentils), Rephaim. and when the people were fleeing from the Ken. Philistines, placed himself in the midst of 1 Chron. xi. 15; 2 Sam. xxiii. 13. the field, (12) and smote the Philistines : cwbwn 72 7w750 9779 Chron. thus, by him, the Lord wrought a great
. deliverance. Booth.–9 And next to him, and one of 7999 b 787 by
. , , . son of Dodo, the Ahohite. He was with
bo Chron. David at Pasdammim (p. p. 1 Chron. xi. 13]:
by Sam. battle, and the men of Israel were giving
: . way;
10 And he arose, and smote the Philistines, until his hand, which had stuck to
: . his sword, was weary: and by him Jehovah Chron. Kai kateßnoav ou tpeis ek twv Tpiathat day wrought a great deliverance; and Sam. Kai kateľnoav
τρεις απο των τριαthe people followed him only to spoil. Chron. kovta apxovtov εις την πετραν And next to him was Shammah, the son of Sam. κοντα, και κατεβησαν εις Κασωαρ Agee the Hararite. And the Philistines | Chron, προς Δαυιδ, εις το σπηλαιον Οδολλαμ, were assembled at Lechi, where was a piece Sam. Tapos Aavid Els TO Ornalov Odolan. of ground full of barley [p. p. 1 Chron. Chron. kai n Trapeußoan twv allopurwy mapxi. 13]: and the people fled from the Phi- Sam.
των αλλοφυλων παρlistines. 12 But he stood in the midst of Chron. eußeßinkel ev tn koihadı twv Teyay. the ground, and defended it, and smote the Sam. eveßalov
εν τη κοιλαδι
ΡαφαPhilistines : thus by him, Jehovah wrought Chron. Twv. a great deliverance.
That the word diwbw, thirty, in Samuel should have been wiwo, three, as it is in the
margin here and in the text in Chronicles, Tab 13z157? will readily be allowed ; not merely because ? ,
it is impossible the historian should say, : 019? And thirty out of the thirty went down. The
Complutensian Bible has 70s, three, here in και κατέβησαν τρεις από των τριάκοντα, και the text of Samuel, and all the versions κατέβησαν εις Κασών προς Δαυίδ εις το σπή- agree in saying, three of the thirty: and, if λαιον 'Οδολλάμ και τάγμα των αλλοφύλων, anything could be yet wanting to complete και παρενέβαλον εν τη κοιλάδι Ραφαίν. this evidence, there is the evidence of the
Au. Ver.-13 And three of the thirty text in Samuel against itself. For though chief [or, the three captains over the thirty] here, at the beginning of the history of this went down, and came to David in the exploit, performed by these men, they are harvest-time unto the cave of Adullam : called thirty; yet at the end of it, in and the troop of the Philistines pitched in ver. 17th, they are called now, three,the valley of Rephaim.
these things did three of the mighty men. Ged.—13 Those three (the chief of the The next point then must be, Who those thirty) had gone down to David, unto the mighty men were, and of what rank among rock [p. p. 1 Chron. xi. 15; so Houb., Ken.] the thirty-seven heroes. The words Tube at the cave of Adulam ; when the Philistines In D'usw.o do not appear to have been were encamped in the vale of Rephaim. rightly translated in any ancient version.
The chief of the thirty; i. e., the most dis- They begin the exploit of the three heroes,
וַיִּרְדוּ שְׁלשָׁים מֵהַשְׁלֹשִׁים ראש
אֶל־קָצִיר אֶל־דָּוֹד אֶל־מְעָרַת it is so in the margin and text , but because עֶדְלָם וְחַיַּת פְּלִשְׁתִּים קְנָה בְּעֵמֶק