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passage, but are probably wrong again in ovs ETAJATE ev meow vuw is so obvious, the translation of bubbst by slain instead of as to need no illustration. soldiers; since the true translation seems to It is true the Vatican edition of the LXX, be, As Babylon hath caused the Soldiers instead of eratate, has etataćete; but then of Israel to fall; so at Babylon shall fall it must be observed, that this very common THE SOLDIERS (not, of all the earth, but) of verb ow is never rendered by Tataoow in all that country.

any other place, but it is foxty times rendered In Ezekiel xi, 6, 7, we read b557 Cn°277 by tattw, as we now have it in the Alex

-andrian copy of this place . Nor is it else בעיר הזאת ומלאתים הוצתיה הלל לכן כה אמר אדני יהוה where rendered by any verb of a similar. הלליכם אשר שמתם בתוכה המה הבשר והיא הסיר

a These words are delivered to men, who gave signification with tatagow; but generally wicked counsel in the city (of Jerusalem) by verbs signifying like tattw, and verbs probably by recommending an increase of which are very applicable to the true sense their military force; and who, vainly con- of this passage, as tionue and cornue with fiding in the arm of flesh, thought to defend their compounds eußallw, eriyew, &c. themselves against the destruction denounced There is another instance in this prophet, by the prophet, omnem lapidem movisse, ut which is too remarkable to be here omitted. sese adversus Chaldæos confirmarent, &c.— In chap. xxi. 14, we read, 277 1977 Dom 2777 Jun. and Tremellius. For thus saith the 577207 5577, which words are literally, upon the Lord, ver. 2. These are the men 718 D'OUN77, common acceptation, as in the interlineary ou doyecouevot Matala, who contrive vanity version, Gladius interfectorum, hic gladius (since all their defence shall be in vain) and occisi magni—But that this sword of vencounsel evil counsel in this city, &c., there- geance, which was thus sharpening for the fore prophesy against them and sayver. 5 yet future destruction of Jerusalem, could I know the imaginations of your hearts. not be gladius interfectorum, or (which seems 6 Ye have multiplied your Soldiers in this more unintelligible) gladius occisi magni, is city, and with Soldiers ye have filled the so evident, that it has compelled two instreets thereof. 7 Therefore thus saith the terpreters to come almost to truth here, in Lord, The Soldiers, whom ye have placed rendering the latter expression, gladius ocin the midst of you, shall be flesh, and this cisionis magna, as in the Vulgate ; and city the caldron. 8 Ye have feared the gladius interfectionis magna,

as in the sword, and I will bring the sword upon you. Chaldee paraphrase. And it seems strange, This interpretation of the word 550 in these that these two interpreters should not have three places seems to make this passage seen the much greater propriety (from the speak good sense itself, and perfectly to masculine termination of the words, and for agree with the context; neither of which every other reason) of translating the words can easily be allowed it, while it is rendered, gladius occisoris, interfectoris

, or militis magni. Ye have multiplied Slain Men in this city, The true version then of these words probably and filled the streets with Slain Men; is, Gladius militum (Babyloniorum) hic gladius therefore your Slain Men, whom ye have militis magni (bellicosi regis Babylonis) for placed in the midst of you, &c.

thus it is expressly called in the 19th verse It

may be worth while to consider the 5a3 Thos 277, the sword of the king of Babylon. version of the LXX, Eπληθυνατε νεκρους I shall refer only to one chapter more, the υμων εν τη πολει ταυτη, και ενεπλησατε τας first chapter of the second Book of Samuel οδους αυτης τραυματιών. .

Ala TOUTO Tade (see notes on 2 Sam. i., p. 494). λεγει Αδωναι Κυριος τους νεκρους υμων, ους

If then the noun 547 so frequently sigεταξατε εν μεσω αυτης, &c. We see here, nifies a soldier, it will readily be admitted that desty is translated first by verpous then that Jashobeam lift up his spear against 300 by Tpavpatiwv, and then again by verpos, a soldiers at one time. This was a very extraplain proof, that the translators did not well ordinary display of courage, and worthy of know how to reconcile the word to the sense one of David's chief captains. We can of the context; and indeed it seems im- hardly believe, that so brave a man would possible, that either the word NEKPOYE or lift up his spear against 300 men, that were TPAYMATIAE should be applied to ETAE- either dead or wounded; or, that he could ATE with any propriety in this place : kill so prodigious a number by himself, with whereas the propriety of ETPATIQTAE vpwv, | his own single spear : but we may reasonably believe, that, when surrounded or ren- number, and each the very same number to a dered desperate, he might fight his way man as the other? But this appears entirely through a body of 300 soldiers, or defend a rational, upon the preceding interpretation. narrow pass against a body of that number. Besides, if both could be supposed to have

What the divisions in armies then were, achieved such an exploit, certainly both is not much known at present; but we read would have deserved an equal reward and (1 Sam. xxix. 2).the lords of the Philistines the same rank in military honour. But we passed on (to battle) by hundreds and by are told, that Abishai attained not unto the thousands. And as the Philistine army was first three: yet how could he be less hothus divided, probably a company of theirs nourable than Jashobeam, when he had done consisted of an hundred men; and if three the same marvellous exploit, or rather, how companies formed a regiment, that regiment could he be less honourable than the two would consequently consist of three hundred captains that were inferior to Jashobeam, men, which is exactly the number en- since no action of theirs can be conceived to countered by Jashobeam. It seems ex- have been greater. Whereas, if Jashobeam tremely probable, that three hundred might and Abishai fought their way through, or be one constant division in the army of encountered, a whole regiment of the Phithe Israelites, in honourable remembrance of listines; that was eminently to the honour Gideon's troop of three hundred, which beat of both; and deservedly raised Abishai to the Midianites; which troop God himself the head of the second series, though he had thought proper to fix at three hundred, which not attained to the honour of Jashobeam, were a small body selected out of thirty-two who had also distinguished himself gloriously thousand, the number of men in Gideon's on other occasions. whole army. And if this were a division 8 The last observation on these two very amongst the Israelites, the Philistines might difficult verses is, that in Samuel copy their example in this instance. But should be nox as in Chronicles (so Keri], whether this divisio obtain amongst the &c. It may be remarked here, that we have Israelites, or not; that it obtained amongst in this verse of Chronicles one example of the Philistines seems highly probable from that jumble of versions, which makes up this history of Jashobeam. And a farther some part of the present edition of the confirmation of this opinion may be drawn LXX. The phrase Ons Dyba had in this from the 18th verse of this chapter in verse been rendered anaĚ by one translator, Samuel and the 20th in Chronicles; where and ev kalpw evi by another (for we cannot we read, that Abishai also, at another time, suppose the same person would translate the lifted his spear against the same number phrase two different ways, and place one three hundred: and he was rewarded for version of it in the middle and the other at this act of heroism by being placed at the the end of the verse); and the conclusion of head of the second series of generals, as this verse in the original version of the Jashobeam had been made head of the first. LXX having been lost, it is repaired by part

Wherefore, as both the places relating to of two different versions ; one of which Abishai make the enemy three hundred, and read amuś, and the other ev kalpw evi: and as that in Chronicles relating to Jashobeam so both renderings continue in the same has also three hundred; we need not scruple verse, even to this day, OUTOS COTATATO TIV to reduce the eight hundred in the corrupted ρομφαίαν αυτου ΑΠΑΞ επι τριακοσιους τραυpassage to the same number; which will | ματιας ΕΝ ΚΑΙΡΩ ΕΝΙ. See another such leave room enough for applauding the hero, jumble of versions in the LXX, 2 Sam. i. 23. and will render the passages consistent, as The English version of Chronicles is, And they must originally have been. Not to add, this is the number (in Samuel, These are the that it will greatly abate the marvellous, names) of the mighty men, whom David had : which is carried very high upon the common Jashobeam the Hachmonite, chief of three; acceptation of Jashobeam's slaying three he lifted up his spear against three hundred hundred men by his own single spear. But soldiers at one time. then what shall we say to that increase of the Dr. A. Clarke.—8 These be the names of marvellous, which arises from Abishai's slay- the mighty men.] This chapter should be ing 300 men by his single spear—that these collated with the parallel place, 1 Chron. xi.; two men should each slay so prodigious aland Kennicott's First Dissertation

up

see

,הוּא יְעַבְּנוֹ הָעֶצְנוֹ ing is here corrupted_for

;הָעֶצְנוֹ for the sake of paronomasia with יְעַרְכוֹ | a corruption for he lift up his spear

[
so

on

the printed Hebrew Text, pages etc. coll. cute conj. ii. to smite with a 64-471.

The Tachmonite that sat in the seat.] pointed weapon; see below in 731. Better Literally and properly, Jashobeam (so Houb., to render for by vibration, i. e., the brandishHallet, Ken., Dathe, Booth.] the Hach- ing of a spear, from the root ym to be soft, monite [Houb., Dathe, Filius Hachmoni]. pliant, flexible. Perhaps however the readSee 1 Chron. xi. 11.

he The same was Adino the Eznite.] This is brandished it, his spear, with suff. pleonast. a (, Houb., Hallet, Ken., Dathe, Ged., Booth.]. comp. Ez. X. 3; 1 Sam. xxi. 14. See 1 Chron. xi. 11.

Maurer.-nada ] “ Sedens in consessu Eight hundred, whom he slew at one time.] honoris nomen esse videtur, Grossmeister Three hundred is the reading in Chronicles, Germani, Chairman Angli dicunt.” Schulz. and seems to be the true one (so Houb., Aliis est N. pr. cf. 1 parall. 1 Chron. xi. 11,

., .]. , , translate slain, should probably be translated ariorum, qui quales fuerint et unde nomen soldiers, as in the Septuagint otpariwtas acceperint, non constat. est terminatio

. . , , over Saul and Jonathan, chap. i., and Kennicott's First Dissertation, p. 101.

Dr.

percussio ejus (bolc ii. malleo mucronato Kennicott observes : “ This one verse con- percussit), hasta ejus percussio hastæ tains three great corruptions in the Hebrew ejus fuit in octingentos cet. Sed locus cortext: 1. The proper naime of the hero | ruptus esse videtur. Locus parall. 1 Chron.

. , words, rendered, that sat in the seat. 2. The manifesto depromtum est ex 2 Sam. xxiii. 18.

, are turned into two proper names wholly

Ver. 9-12.

הוּא עֲדִינוֹ .296 .he withstood three hundred SoLDIERS at one

\ adjectivi . Cf. E. Gr . crit . , p ,ad ipsum quod_attinet ,הָעֶצְנוֹ עַל שְׁמֹנָה וגו' | time

.
See the note on David's lamentation

quod ,הוּא עוֹרֵר אֶת חַנִיתוֹ עַל וגו' Jashabeam is turned into two common

|
xi
.
11 habet

הוא עורר את חניתו ,words he lift up his spear וְאַחֲרָוּ אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־וּךְ בֶּן־אֲחֹתִי he was ,הוא עדינו העצני :iniadmisible here 9 בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה גִּבּרִים עִם־דָּוִד, בְּחָרְפָס to say that Jashobeam the Hachmonite was בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים נָאֶסְפוּ־שָׁם לַמִּלְחָמָה וַיַּעֲלוּ the same with Adino the Eznite

, as that 10 הוּא קָם וַיַּךְ David the Bethlehemite was the same with אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל : בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים עַד כִּי־יָגְעָה יָדוֹ וַתִּדְבַּק ,hundred was probably at first three laundrea יָדָו אֶל־הַחֶרֶב וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה תְּשׁוּעָה גְדוֹלָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וְהָעָם יָשְׁבוּ אַחֲרֵיי -worthies

,
who belonged to David
:

Josheb 11 וְאַחֲרָיו שָׁמָּה בֶן־אָגֶא | beshebeth

,
an Hachmonite
,

was the chief of אַךְ לְפַשֵׁט : הָרָרִי וַיֵּאָסְפוּ פְלִשְׁתִּים לַחַיָּה וַתְּהִי־ -the first three

. He , at one time brandish שָׁם חֶלְקֶת הַשָּׂדֶה מְלֵאָה עֲדָשִׁים וְהָעָם נָס מִפְּנֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים: 19 וַיִּתְיַצְב Booth

. 8 These are the names of the בְּתוֹךְ־הַחֶלְקָה וַיַצִילֶהָ וַיַּךְ אֶת-beam

, the Hachimonite , was chief of te פְּלִשְׁתִּים וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה תְּשׁוּעָה גְדוֹלָה : first three

.
He
,
at_one time
,
raising his

as in 1 Chron. xi. 11."

Ged.--8 Now these are the names of the

men.

spear, penetrated through three hundred

men.

דודו קרי .11

.v ואחריו קרי

.9 .v ואחריו קי הגבורים ק'

-delicate , effemi (עָרַן

.adj

. ( r עָרִין-.Gesen

.. ) nate, voluptuous, Is. xlvii. 8. Very difficult 9 και μετ' αυτόν 'Ελεαναν υιός πατραδέλφου and perhaps corrupted is the passage in atrol utes Aoudt rou dv Tois Tpiot 8uwarots

Cheth . for | uerd Aauto- kai el T6 dvetdical alTov Tols הוּא עֲרִינוֹ הָעֶצְנוֹ 8

.Sam

.
xxiii

2
xenoav exei eis dAsuov
,
kaiמעwhich the author of Chronicles gives in

|
dnaoduous
,

Tu
he lifteddydBngev dump Iopan

10 airds avtorm kal , הוּא־עוֹרֵר אֶת־חֲנִיתוֹ 11

.Chron

.
xi

1

up his spear. Simonis renders in 2 Sam. 1. c. | endrakey ey Tois damodimous, das oi ekontacey

hen yelp alTouגגpercussio ejus hasta sua

(
fuit
)
in octingentos
,
11 xeip alToi
,
kai Tpogeeko

VOL. II.

4 R

were

προς την μάχαιραν και εποίησε Κύριος σω- 11 Full of lentiles, or barley, as it is τηρίαν μεγάλην εν τη ημέρα εκείνη και ο λαός 1 Chron. xi. 13; for both might very well εκάθητο οπίσω αυτού πλήν εκδιδάσκειν. 11 και grow in the same field, in divers part of it μετ' αυτόν Σαμαία υιός "Ασα ο 'Αρουχαιος και [so Patrick]. And this fact is ascribed to ouvxonoav oi allopuro eis Onpia: kai ņo Eleazar, 1 Chron. xi. 12, but so as it is imεκεί μερίς του αγρού πλήρης φακού και ο λαός plied that he had some partner or partners έφυγεν εκ προσώπου αλλοφύλων. . 12 kal in it; for it is there said, ver. 14, They set έστηλώθη εν μέσω της μερίδος, και εξείλατο themselves, &c. So Eleazar might stand and αυτήν, και επάταξε τους αλλοφύλους και fight in that part where the barley was, and εποίησε Κύριος σωτηρίαν μεγάλην. .

Shammah there where the lentiles were. Au. Ver.-9 And after him was Eleazar Bp. Patrick.11 Into a troop.] Or, as the son of Dodo the Ahohite, one of the we translate it in the margin, "for forage.” three mighty men with David, when they For so Ralbag interprets the Hebrew word defied the Philistines that there chajja (which Kimchi takes to be a city), gathered together to battle, and the men of that they came to get some sustenance out Israel were gone away :

of the field. 10 He arose, and smote the Philistines Hallet.—The present expression in the until his hand was weary, and his hand Hebrew is very strange and difficult bon clave unto the sword : and the Lord in. This expression has greatly perplexed wrought a great victory that day; and the all the translators. The Vulgar Latin people returned after him only to spoil. renders it, They were gathered together in a

11 And after him was Shammah the son station. The Alexandrian and Vatican of Agee the Hararite. And the Philistines copies of the Greek version render it, They were gathered together into a troop [or, for were gathered together at Theria [i.e., wild foraging], where was a piece of ground full | beasts], because y signifies a wild beast : of lentiles : and the people fled from the the Complutensian copy has it, at Siagon, Philistines.

i.e., a jaw, which in Hebrew is called . 12 But he stood in the midst of the The Chaldee takes it to be a proper name of ground, and defended it, and slew the Phi-a place, Hajah. The Syriac renders it, to listines : and the LORD wrought a great catch beasts: the Arabic renders it, with victory.

an addition, to steal the cattle of the children Pool.-9 When they defied the Philistines of Israel: some render it, they gathered (so Patrick]; when he either in the name together in a farm, or in the country, in of all the Israelites, or with the countenance villam : Le Clerc renders it, contra villam, and help of some of them, challenged the against the village : others, at a certain Philistines to fight. Or, when some of, or place. All this insuperable difficulty will be among, the Philistines defied them, i. e., the avoided, if we suppose, that there is an error Israelites, according to their manner, and of the transcribers, and that instead of tas, the example of their great Goliath, 1 Sam. we should read, as in the parallel place, xvii. 25, 36. Or in Horpam (for some make honho, to war; which reading is the most it a proper name of a place) among the Phi- natural, and what one would have expected listines. Gone away, i.e., fled away, the bistorian should have written. I make 1 Chron. xi. 13, being dismayed at the the less scruple of venturing to propose this approach of their enemies

. Heb., ascended, emendation of the text, notwithstanding i.e., vanished away like smoke, which that all the ancient versions agree with the ascends, and so disappears, as that verb is present reading of the Hebrew, because it oft used.

evidently appears, from comparing the two He arose, i.e., he undertook the work, as places we are now considering, that there that word sometimes is used. Or, he stood were errors in both, older than all the (as it sometimes signifies) when the rest versions of them that are now known in the fled. His hand clave unto the sword; or world. The omission now mentioned (see thus, yet did his hand cleave to his sword, note of Ken. below] in Chron. is older than i.e., though he was weary, he did not desist, all the versions of that book : for all those but continued fighting. Only to spoil, i.e., versions have omitted the same long passage. to pursue the enemy, whom he had dis- And though the transcribers of Sam. have comfited, and to take their spoil.

well preserved that passage, yet they have been guilty of some little mistakes, in which |. all the versions have followed them, which

.

.Sam ההוא והעם ישבו אחריו אך | may be corrected by the parallel place in

Chron. ) .

Chron. .

Chronicles.

A comparison of the places

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11 ואחרו שמה בן will show that the expressions should be the

.Sam לפשט :

same in both. .

Chron. . .. ', i.e., living, as neut. living thing. Hence

. 1. An animal, beast.

Chron. . . . ; . men, troop, 2 Sam. xxiii. 11, 13.* Poet.

bloody-minded troop thy turtle-dove, where

,חַי .f.

pp . fem . of the adj חַיָּה-.Gesen ויאספו פלשתים

הררי .Sam אגא .Sam לחיה ותהי שם חלקת השדה Collect

.
pp
.
the living
;
hence a band of

.2 חלקת השדה ותהי .Chron מלאה שעורים והעם נסו מפני ,19 .people

, Ps . lxviii . 11 ; and so Ps . lxxiv .Sam מלאה עדשים והעם נס מפני deliver not over to the , אַל־תִּתֵּן לְחַיַּת נָפֶשׁ תּוֹרָךְ .Chron פלשתים : 14 ויתיצבו בתוך

-signifies a desire of slaughter and ven נֶפֶשׁ

.3 .No נֶפֶשׁ geance

;

see
12 ויתיצב בתוך
.Sam פלשתים :

את | .

2

)

( .Chron החלקה ויצילוה ויכו

, חַיָּה ,.

את .Sam החלקה ויצילה

ייך ,הַיָּת פְּלִשְׁתִּים : 13

.Sam

.
xxiii

2 .Chron פלשתים ויושע יהוה תשועה -agnen Philisteorum

,

pro quo in loco paral .Sam פלשתים ויעש יהוה תשועה : 11

.Comm .מַחֲנֵה פְלִשְׁתִּים : 15

.lelo 1 Par

.
xi

-et congregauerunt se Pha ,וַיֵּאָסְפוּ פְלִשְׁתִּם לַחַיָה .Chron גדולה :

,
,

8c) . .Sam גדולה :

.con
-
Sam ,דַעַת פְּלִשְׁתִּים
.GP

,
tribus
,
$

c
יo Axex

; . Ges. Thes.2) Agmen hominum (pr. ng viva collect. pro vivis, Th="TT vivi, homines).

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com

yעם Chron

.
euros

TOIS

τρισι δυνατoις. τρισι δυνατοις

του

TOLS

listæi in agmen, fc.
Prof. Lee.—79 (b) Tribe, company, c.

Chron. 12 Kal Her auTop EAsadap utos Arab. .

Sam. 9 Και μετ' αυτον Ελεαζαρ, υιος

Chron. Δωδαι pany of Philistines, 2 Sam. xxiii. 11, 13. Comp. 1 Sam. xvii. 1; 1 Chron. xi. 15;

Sam. TaTpademiou aUTou, vuos 200t Ps. lxviii. 11.

Sam. Ken. 1 Chron. xi. 12–14; and 2 Sam. xxiii. 9—12. Sam.

μετα Δαυιδ, εν τω ονειδι

αλλοφυλοι
Sam. σαι αυτον εν τοις αλλοφυλοις, συνηχ-
9 Sam.
Chron. @noap skel ets Tolenov,

€ls Tolenov,
.
Chron.

10 Αυτος Chron.

. Sam. .

Sam. aveoTm, kat TaTasy ty Tous amov

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.
13 OvTos

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12 ואחריו אלעזר בן דודו רגועש

אלעזר בן דדי ואחרו Chron . Sam . engay eket האחוחי הוא בשלושה הגברים :

בשלשה גברים

.Sam בן אחחי
.גSam

.
Bnvey armp Iopan

דויד
עם

היה
.Chron
13 הוא

דוד

עם
.Chron

.
|
Chron בפס דמים והפלשתים נאספו

בפלשתים נאספו ,x64p awTou " עSam

.
mous
,
eos 00

koTar

בחרפם

למלחמה
.Chron

.
|
Sam שם

ויעלו איש
למלחמה
.Sam שם

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