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ment is in the hand of man: but they shall de Messia deprehendisse se credit Kenbe burnt up utterly, when the house of the nicottus ; dignum evpnua quod ei gratulemur, great judgment appears : that they may sit cupiamusque magis confirmari. on the throne of judgment to judge the I therefore presume, that the subject of world.”
this sacred song, composed near the close of Ken.-We are now arrived at a part of David's life, is the Messiah : and certainly Holy Scripture, which is of more than no other subject was so worthy to employ common importance : a part, which promises the last poetry of the man after God's own something very magnificent, but sadly dis-heart. He labours to introduce it with an appoints (at present) our reasonable ex- accumulation of all such expressions, as pectations. It is not in the power of words would command the greatest attention to to form a more solemn and splendid intro- what he was about to deliver, as he was duction : and yet, when we have perused king, and as he was prophet. That a good the whole song, whether the darkness be ruler, in the general, should be here treated owing to errors in the present text, or of, seems impossible : not only from the mistakes in our version, or to both; the introductory pomp and splendour, but also general subject, as well as most of the par- from the subsequent particulars being inticulars, want much illustration.
applicable to any king or ruler, but Messiah. The great point is, to fix and ascertain The everlasting covenant, concerning this the subject : whether it be, the celebration son of David, is expressly mentioned; as of a good and righteous governor, in general; well as the spiritual nature of his kingdom. or, in particular, that righteous and just one, all the particulars agree to the Messiah : the Messiah. In favour of this latter sense, and while some describe the fate of his new evidence has arisen from an investiga- enemies, others are descriptive of his own tion of the Heb. MSS. ; the oldest and best crucifixion ; all very similar in sense to what of which has preserved the word Jehovah, is foretold elsewhere. We read in Ps. xxii., in one part of this hymn; where, if the they pierced my hands and my feet; they word be genuine, it solves the chief dif- parted my garments, and cast lots upon my ficulty. As this word appeared to me from vesture. And if David was thus circumthe first, and does still, to be of very great stantial, in that Psalm; why may he not consequence; I represented it in my “ First have mentioned here the same or other cirDissertation on the Hebrew Text,” p. 468— cumstances, relative to the same event? It 471 (see below]: adding, that the old Greek is no just objection, that this song is not version proves the ancient existence of the quoted in the New Testament; for the New word in this place. With what success this Testament does not quote the other words, discovery was made to the public, the reader they pierced my hands und my feet. And will in part judge from the review of that should it be objected further, that nothing
ertation by the learned Professor Mi- of this interesting nature appears, at present, chaëlis, who says :—Ultima verba Davidis in these last words : I reply, that nothing mendis laborare quibusdam, vix audemus clear appears at all; not only no consistent dubitare: frustra in illis explicandis desu- plan, but not even common sense is to be dasse totum interpretum tanquam collegium made out of the words in our present intelligentes ; neque ipsi, sollicita verborum version. If therefore, by the assistance of investigatione, adhibita etiam luce quam Heb. MSS., and a better English version, Arabia ac Syria præferre solet, aliquid satis this passage shall be found to contain a tuti invenientes. Quicquid ex verbis eruas, consistent prophecy of the Messiah; we hiat ; nec apparet, ad quem finem pertineat. cannot but be particularly struck with the Legimus et sicut lux matutina orietur sol, mention made here of the iron and the sive, et circa tempus lucis matutinæ orietur spear. With spikes of iron was he to be sol; languente utraque sententia. Quod filled ; as he was fastened to the cross by igitur verum, felix, reique Christiana faustum these, at the opposite extremities of his sit, codex Kennicottianus, omnium hucusque body, his hands and his feet: and with the inspectorum antiquissimus, hubet atque ut spear was his side pierced. So that if, with lux matutina orietur Jehova sol-quod Dei the apostle, who at first doubted, we should nomen, nunc deletum, in nostro commate at last see here the print of the nails, and legebat interpres Græcus. Vaticinium ergo the wound made by the spear; let us, like וכאור בקר יזרח שמש
that apostle, be no longer faithless, but
Et sicut lux matutina orietur sol. In the present case I shall postpone, and If we take these words literally, are they reserve for a more critical appendix, the sense ? Is not the sun the light of the several notes which may be necessary, in
morning; or, is not the morning light the support of the alterations here proposed : as only and certain effect of the sun rising ? I have before expressed my intention, in And can a thing be compared to itself, or relation to other very difficult passages. the cause to its effect? The various reading, And I shall now give such a correction of which (if true) not only frees us from this our common translation of these verses, as difficulty, but proves this passage to be proappears to me just and necessary.
phetical, stands thusNew Translation of 2 Sam. xxiii. 147.
וכאור בקר יזרח יהוה שמש
This .יהוה and יזרח the adjoining words
וכאור בקר יזרח שמש בקר לא עבות מנגה
Et sicut lux matutina orietur JEHOVAH sol. Now these are the last words of David.
This word 1717, Jehovah, is regularly writ in
the MS., as here expressed ; and, if the oriThe oracle of David, the son of Jesse;
ginal reading, seems to have been omitted in Even the oracle of the man raised up on other copies, on account of the similitude of
high : The anointed of the God of Jacob;
reading receives a strong confirmation from And the composer of the psalms of Israel.
the Greek version ; which it may be necesThe spirit of Jehovah speaketh by me;
sary to compare with the printed Heb. text, And his word is upon my tongue : JEHOVAH, the God of Israel, sayeth ; To me speaketh the rock of Israel.
LXX, Vat. copy, Και εν φωτι ΘΕΟΥ πρωιας THE JUST ONE ruleth among men ! ανατειλαι ηλιος το πρωι ου ΚΥΡΙΟΣ παρηλθεν He ruleth by the fear of God!
εκ φεγγους, and the Alex., Και εν ΘΕΩ φωτι As the light of the morning, ariseth JE- πρωιας ανατειλαι ο ηλιος το πρωι ου παρηλθεν HOVAH ;
Er Deryous. From which versions, however A sun, without clouds, for brightness ;
unintelligible at present in themselves, an And as the grass from the earth, after rain.
argument arises in favour of the reading in
this MS. For in the Vat. edition we have Verily thus is my house with God; For an everlasting covenant hath he made Deos and Kuplos, and in the Alex. Ocos;
words, which have nothing in the printed
Heb. text to authorize or introduce them, Ordered in all things and safely secured : For he is all my salvation, and all my desire. and seem only to be accounted for by this
MS. reading. According to which perhaps But the sons of Belial shall not flourish ;
the Greek version stood originally thus, As a thorn rooted up, shall be all of them :
Και εν φωτι (reading N21) πρωιας ανατελει For they will not be taken kindly by the
ο Κυριος (in another copy θεος) ο ηλιος, το hand.
TT PWI ov trapni dev (reading 12, which is geAnd the Man, who shall reprove them, nerally rendered by mapepxouai, instead of Shall be filled with iron, and a wooden ny or may vepedai) ek Deyyous. The true spear:
Greek version therefore seems to be, Kai ws But in the fire shall they be utterly burnt, φως πρωιας ανατελει ο Κυριος ο ηλιος, πρωια with ignominy.
ου νεφελαι (εν αυτη) εκ φεγγους. TransKennicott's 1st Dissertation on the Hebrew positions of words are frequent in the Text.--2 Sam. xxiii. 4. This song of David's present Greek version ; which in some seems to contain a prophecy of the Messiah ; places is a jumble of two or three different and will, I presume, be certainly determined renderings of the same word or words to that important sense, if a various reading thrown together : which seems to have been in our oldest MS. No. 2 should appear to be the case here. For the words Oeos and genuine. It concerns that remarkable part, Kvplos seem to be different renderings of the which expresses the light of the morning and same word 7.7 or perhaps of that and only the rising of the sun.
writ in some copies instead of it; and then
, יזרח removed from their place after
.שמש ;than witl יהוה connected with
both words have been transposed, both The sun of a morning without clouds,
, where Shining after rain upon the verdure of the this MS. and the context require the word ground. e) Kvplos should be stationed: and indeed
IV. there the sense is excellently illustrated by 5 Is not my house established with God, its situation
Inasmuch as he hath settled with me an Et sicut lux matutina orietur Jehovah Sol.
everlasting covenant, It is impossible to read these words,
Regular and guarded f) in every article. without recollecting the allusion to them in
Verily my salvation is complete, complete Malachi, shall the Sun of Righteousness
is my wish, g) arise, &c., which words, in the original,
Will he not make him to grow ? h) farther confirm the reading in the MS. For in Malachi we have the same verb and the
V. same noun, as in Samuel; but with a re- 6 The profane i) are all of them, like the markable difference in their connexion. In thorn, to be extirpated, k) Samuel the verb is masculine, but in Malachi For they will not be taken by the hand. 1) feminine; and as the phrase seems copied by 7 And whoever shall approach unto them the latter from the former, one might have
shall be filled expected to find the same verb, when joined
With iron and the wood of a spear, m) to the same noun, in the same exalted But in the sabbath n) they shall be utterly image, carefully expressed in the same form. burnt with fire. Hence also it is probable, that the word a) Literally, He that is sweet in the songs 1717 was originally in Samuel; as the verb of Israel.-Israeliticorum carminum deliciæ. there is masculine, because more immediately Castalio.
b) Or, shall rule--and so in the line folSam. —Shall Jehovah, the Sun, arise- lowing. Mal. —Shall the Sun of Righteousness arise
c) ANTI, MSS. Jer. -Jehovah, our Righteousness.
d) He, the Just One. I see no necessity Isaiah lx. 1. Arise, shine, for thy light is for inserting Jehovah here, to be the nomicome ; and the glory of Jehovah is risen native of the verb mr. The ellipsis of the upon thee. 2 For behold, the darkness shall pronoun of the third person is frequent in all cover the earth, and gross darkness the languages, when the subject of the verb people : but (171,7 mr) Jehoval SHALL cannot be mistaken, which is the case here, ARISE upon thee, and his glory shall be seen when the lines are properly divided. upon thee. 3 And the Gentiles shall come e) Shining upon. 129, participle Hiphil to thy light, and kings to the brightness of of the verb 17, after rain. The air is thy rising. I leave the inference to the generally in the purest state after heavy reader.
showers in the spring, and the sun shines Bishop Horsley.
with heightened lustre. The verdure of the I.
, literally, “the young herbage from 1 David, the son of Jesse, saith,
the ground.” This mention of the herbage, And the man saith who hath been raised or verdure, presents the idea of spring. up on high,
What an assemblage of pleasing images ! The anointed of the God of Jacob, the dawn-sunrise-sunshine after rain-the And the sweet psalmist of Israel: a)
f) Regular and guarded. 71007_7517. II.
I take these words for forensic terms. 2 The Spirit of Jehovah speaketh by me, And his word is upon my tongue ;
g) Forgon, I read, with Houbigant,
. 3 The God of Israel saith,
h) For God shall make him to grow. For To me speaketh the Rock of Israel.
: I : , III.
again interrogatively. Him to grow. Him, The JUST ONE ruleth b) over men, that is, the Just One, the subject of the He ruleth c) by the fear of God,
third stanza, and the principal subject of 4 And as the light of the morning [he] d) the covenant here mentioned, who is pershall arise,
petually spoken of in prophecy under the
כי taking ,יצמיחו : בליעל I read ,יצמיח :ובליעל
image of a growing plant or branch. See 3 The Rock of Israel.] The Fountain Jer. xxxiii. 15; xxiii. 5; Zach. ii. 8; whence Israel was derived. vi. 12; Is. iv. 2. In these passages, and He that ruleth over men must be just.] particularly in Jer. xxiii. 5, an allusion may More literally, p'73 OTNI Swis, He that ruleth well be supposed to this original prophecy of in man is the just one ; or, The just one is David.
the ruler among men. i) The profane. Houbigant is mistaken Ruling in the fear of God.] It is by God's when he says the word syna is never used fear that Jesus Christ rules the hearts of all but when attached to some noun substantive, his followers; and he who has not the fear as °N, , 127, &c. It is evidently used as of God before his eyes, can never be a a collective in Nahum ii. 1. As a collective, Christian. the plurals Dub), 197', &c, are properly 4 He shall be as the light of the morning.] joined with it. The insertion therefore of This verse is very obscure, for it does not the word "2 is unnecessary. Neither the appear from it who the person is of whom sense nor the syntax demand it: and it is the prophet speaks. As the Messiah seems without authority either of MSS. or ver- to be the whole subject of these last words sions. Sosa, the profligate, the profane, the of David, he is probably the person intended. graceless, the reprobate.
One of Dr. Kennicott's MSS. supplies the k) The thorn to be extirpated. 739 9123, word 7t; and he therefore translates, As Quasi spina evellenda.
the light of the morning ariseth Jehovah (see 1) For they will not be taken by the hand. above)—He shall be the Sun of righteousThey will not accept of the Redeemer's ness, bringing salvation in his rays, and help.
shining-illuminating the children of men, m) And whoever—with iron and the wood with increasing splendour, as long as the of a spear. Dr. Kennicott very properly sun and moon endure. supposes an allusion to the iron spikes which As the tender grass.] The effects of this fastened our Lord's body to the cross, and shining, and of the rays of his grace, shall the spear which pierced his side. But as be like the shining of the sun upon
the these sons of Belial persecuted not our Lord young grass or corn, after a plentiful shower only, but others, the first preachers of Chris- of rain. tianity who came unto them, as he had 5 Although my house be not so with God.] done, with words of friendly admonition Instead of y, so, read pa, established ; and and reproof, as before the times of the let the whole verse be considered as an inGospel they persecuted the prophets who terrogation, including a positive assertion ; were sent to them upon the like merciful and the sense will be at once clear and conerrand, I think the word U'N is rather to be sistent : “ For is not my house (family) rendered by the indefinite pronoun, siquis, established with God; because he hath made or whoever, for which it often stands, than with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in by The Man, as Dr. Kennicott renders it, all, and preserved? For this (He) is all understanding it specifically of Christ. my salvation, and all my desire, although Prophecy, I think, rather delights in very he make it (or him) not to spring up." All general expressions, with very particular is sure relative to my spiritual successor, allusions.
though he do not as yet appear; the coven) In the sabbath ; i.e., in the end of all nant is firm, and it will spring forth in due things : that final sabbatism of the people of time. God, of which the apostle speaks in Heb. 6 But the sons of Belial shall be all of iv. 9.
them as thorns.] There is no word in the Dr. A. Clarke.-1 These be the last words text for sons; it is simply Belial, the goodof David.] I suppose the last poetical com- for-nothing man, and may here refer—first, position is here intended. He might have to Saul, and secondly, to the enemies of our spoken many words after these in prose, but Lord. none in verse. Other meanings are given; As thorns thrust away.) A metaphor this I prefer.
taken from hedging; the workman thrusts The words of this song contain a glorious the thorns aside either with his bill or hand, prediction of the Messiah's kingdom and protected by his impenetrable mitten or conquests, in highly poetic language. glove, till, getting a fair blow at the roots, he cuts them all down. The man is fenced! 6, 7, The parenthesis must be read as with iron, and the handle of his bill is like such ; and the last line joined to the second. the staff of a spear.
This is a good repre- Booth.—Now these, though later, are the sentation of the dubbing-bill, with which words of David. they slash the thorn hedge on each side 1 Thus saith David, the son of Jesse; before they level the tops by the pruning man who was highly exalted saith ; shears. The handle is five or six feet long. The anointed of the God of Jacob; This is a perfectly natural and intelligible The pleasant Psalmist of Israel. image.
2 The spirit of Jehovah speaketh by me, Ged.
And his word is on my tongue. 1 The following, also, though posterior, are 3 The God of Israel hath said to me ; the words of David.
To me the Rock of Israel hath promised, “ Thus, saith David, the son of Ishai; A just ruler over mankind,
Saith the man, who was exalted to be Who will rule in the fear of God.
Who harmonized the psalmody of Israel. ariseth; 2 The spirit of the Lord speaketh by me, A morning cloudless and resplendent; And his word is on my tongue.
As the grass from the earth after rain ;3 To me, the God of Israel hath said, 5 Is not my house thus with God ? The Rock of Israel hath promised;
For with me he hath made an everlasting A just ruler over mankind;
covenant. Who will rule in the fear of God.
Wisely ordered in all points and sure. 4 Not like the grass of the earth (which, Truly in this is all my salvation; When the morning sun riseth clear and And mine every desire will he not accomcloudless,
plish? Glistereth from the previous rain),
6 But lawless men,
all of them, 5 Shall be my house before God.
Are like thorns, to be thrust away, For with me he hath made a perpetual (For they cannot be taken with the covenant,
hand, In every point regular, and sure.
7 But the man who would cut them up, For every sort of welfare is mine;
Must have an axe and a spear-shaft,) And mine every wish he hath accom- And to be burned, in the place, with plished.
fire, 6 Whereas lawless men, all of them,
3 A just ruler over.] These words conAre like briars, to be thrụst out,
tain the substance of what God had pro(For with the hand they may not be mised; and they cannot be applied with taken,
propriety to Solomon. For how could he be 7 But the man, who would meddle with said to be a ruler over mankind? This is them,
certainly the sense when D7] is used absoMust be provided with an axe and spear-lutely, without any restrictive or qualifying shaft)
term. The just ruler then must signify the And to be burned, on the spot, with fire. future Messiah, who sprang from David, and
1 The following, &c. The common ren- whose kingdom was to be universal. dering is : These too are the last words of 5 Is not my house.) This line is clearly David. But that I think cannot be the the apodosis or application of the beautiful meaning. They seem a supplement to the comparison in the preceding verse; and foregoing song, composed some time after. this naturally contributes great assistance
Ib. Who harmonized the psalmody of in ascertaining its genuine sense : Israel. Comp. ch. i. 18 and 1 Chron. | lovely as the morning, when the sun
4 Not like the grass, &c. There is great ariseth; a morning, not gloomy, threatening beauty in this metaphor. That grass, which tempests and hurricanes, but cloudless and from the dews and showers of the night bright; as flourishing as grass from the earth appears so glossy and glistering, at the after rain; so shall my house or family rising of the sun, shall soon decay and abide, splendid in rank and in honours ; wither before his meridian rays: but not so flourishing until he come, who is to be the the house of David, &c.
just ruler over mankind; and when every