xxx. 14. And it is likely they did many v. 4; xxxi. 9; no tanquam a nie= to other against them, and against other people,

amongst which the Pelethites might be one. cilus, celir s. inus. np. test terminatio Were chief rulers ; had the places of greatest adjectivi. Nomen sing. articulo definitum authority and dignity conferred on them. collective accipitur, ut 27 al. sæpissime. Bp. Patrick.-18 Benaiahwas over both Idem valet in 777, confossores (= 797) the Cherethites and the Pelethites ;] Or, the xx. 23. C'tib, 2 Reg. xi. 4, 19, a 1 r. 73, Crethites and the Plethites, as some proconfodit. Ita mihi quidem videtur. Sed

nounce these words. What they were is alii secus statuunt. Ceterum carnificum variously conjectured. The most idle connomine vocantur custodes corporis, quia per ceit is that of some of the Jewish doctors hos supplicia de nocentibus sumebantur, et who take them for the members of the etiamnum sumuntur in oriente. DIT] Vi- great Sanhedrin, nay, for urim and thummim dentur intelligi sacerdotes domestici. Cf. (see Selden, lib. ii. De Synedr. cap. 15, xx. 26. Auctor Chronicorum habet Du?? p. 601, and cap. 16, p. 668). Certain it is TP7 , proximi a rege 1 Chron. xviii. 17, that they were soldiers, as appears from qua emendatione recentiorem hunc scrip- xv. 18, xx. 7, 1 Kings i. 34, where they are torem cavere voluisse dicunt ne Davides mentioned as present at the proclaiming sacerdotes alius, quam Leviticæ stirpis, ha- king Solomon against Adonijah; which buisse crederetur.

could not have been done safely without Pool.- Was over: these words are sup- some armed force ; and if they were not the plied out of the parallel place, 1 Chron. persons, there were none. Yet they were xviii. 17, and out of 2 Sam. xx. 23, where not common soldiers, but the constant they are expressed.

guards of David's person : like the prætoThe Cherethites and Pelethites were un- rian bands among the Romans. So Josephus doubtedly soldiers, and such as were eminent calls them owuatopúlakes, “ keepers of the for their valour and fidelity to the king, as body,” who never departed from the place is evident from 2 Sam. xv. 18; xx. 7; where the king was : as we may be satisfied 1 Kings i. 38, 44; and most probably they by this, that they had a peculiar commander were the king's guards, which consisted of and were not under Joab, the captain of the these two bands, who might be distin- host; but are distinguished from his soldiers, guished either by their several weapons, xx. 6, 7. Some make them men of a gior by the differing time or manner of gantic stature, but I know no ground for their service. They are supposed to be thus that; though, no doubt, they were proper called, either first, from their office, which men, as we speak, robust and of tried was, upon the king's command, to cut off fidelity; who, in the rebellion against David, or punish offenders, and to preserve the did not desert David, but stuck close to him king's person, as their names in the Hebrew (xv. 18). is further probable, tha they tongue may seem to imply; or, secondly, were selected out of a certain nation or from some country or place to which they family. For the Cherethites inhabited part had relation. As for the Cherethites, it is of Palestine, and were indeed the same with certain that they were either a branch of the the Philistines, as I observed upon 1 Sam. Philistines, or a people neighbouring to them xxx. 14, and see Zeph. ii. 5. The Pelethites, and confederate with them, as is manifest it is likely, were a family in Israel: for we from 1 Samuel xxx. 14; Ezek. xxv. 16; find two of the name of Peleth mentioned Zeph. ii. 4, 5. And so might the Pelethites in Scripture : one of the tribe of Reuben, be too, though that be not related in Scrip- Numb. xvi. 1, another of Judah, 1 Chron.

And these Israelites and soldiers of ii. 33. Their arms were bows and arrows, David might be so called, either because and slings, if we may believe the Chaldee they went and lived with David when he interpreter, who calls them archers and dwelt in those parts; or from some notable slingers: as Procopius Gazæus calls them exploit against or victory over these people; jaculatores et sagittarios. Which may beas among the Romans the names of Asia-confirmed by this conjecture, that the Phiticus, Africanus, &c., were given for the listines having sorely galled the Israelites, in

One of their exploits against the fatal battle with Saul, by their archers, the Cherethites is in part related 1 Samuel David took care not only to have his people


same reason.

4 c

VOL. 11.

instructed in the use of the bow, but also explained, “they were at the hand of the procured some archers from the Cherethites, king;" waiting on him, as chief officers in who were a part of the Philistines, to be his his court, or, as Cornelius Bertram explains guard : as some princes now get the Switzers it, publicos et primarios ministros, “the (see my notes upon 1 Sam. xxxi. 3, and public and principal ministers of state (see upon the first chapter of this book, ver. 18). Bochartus, lib. ii. Canaan, cap. 17). And The number of them may be probably this was the reason, they say, of Absalom’s gathered from the targets and shields of gold discontent, that he was not one of these that Solomon made, which were five hun- Aủhápxai; or, had not a place according to dred (1 Kings x. 16, 17), and were for the his mind. use of his guard (2 Chron. xii. 9–11), and Dr. A. Clarke.The Cherethites and the kept in the guard chamber.

Pelethites.] The former supposed to be They that would see more of them, may those who accompanied David when he look into a little treatise of Opitius, which fled from Saul; the latter, those who came is wholly upon this subject : and Fortunatus to him at Ziklag. But the Targum transScacchus treats largely of them in his Myro- lates these two names thus, the archers and thecium, iii., cap. 16–18, where he hath the slingers; and this is by far the most this singular opinion, p. 181, that the Che- likely. It is not at all probable that David rethites were inferior to the Pelethites: but, was without a company both of archers and I think, with reason concludes, that they slingers. The bow is celebrated in the were the king's domestics and lay in his funeral lamentation over Saul and Jonathan; palace, or about it, in the night: which he and the sling was renowned as the weapon gathers from 1 Kings i. 33, where David of the Israelites, and how expert David was bids Nathan, and Zadok, and Benaiah, take in the use of it we learn from the death of with them the servants of their lord, and Goliath. I take for granted that the Chaldee make Solomon king; and accordingly they paraphrast is correct. No weapons then took the Cherethites and the Pelethites with known were equally powerful with these ; them (ver. 38); and from the story of that the spears, swords, and javelins, of other brave man Uriah, who would not go to his nations were as stubble before them. The own house to his wife, when Joab and the bow was the grand weapon of our English host lay in the field; but went and slept at ancestors; and even after the invention of the door of the king's house “with the ser-fire-arms, they were with difficulty pervants of his lord ; ” that is, with these suaded to prefer them and leave their Cherethites and Pelethites (ch. xi. of this archery. book, ver. 9).

Hallet.- I might note more errors in this David's sons were chief rulers.] So the chapter, but I shall only add, Who can help Hebrew word cohen often signifies, not only thinking that in the list of names in the two a priest, but a prince; as many learned men last verses of these parallel chapters, there have observed; particularly Hackspan, in is an error one where or other? his Miscellanea, lib. i., cap. 5, sect. 15, but especially Selden, lib. ii. de Synedr., cap. 16,

2 Sam. viii. 17, 18. | 1 Chron. xviii. 16, 17.

Zadok the son of Zadok the son of p. 671, &c., where he shows, that the Hebrew word signifies any minister, either



and Abi- Ahitub, and of God or of man :

melech the son of melech the son of

as in the twentieth chapter of this book (ver. 26), Ira, the

Abiathar, were the Abiathar,

were the Jairite, is said to be a cohen, which we

priests : and Seraiah priests: and Shavsha

was the scribe. And was the scribe. And translate chief ruler about David : and so the Chaldee, and the Spanish Jews, a prin- Jehoiada, and the Che- Jehoiada was over the

Benaiah the son of Benaiah the son of cipal officer. But by the law, neither he

rethites, and the Pe- Cherethites and the nor David's sons could be priests. There can

lethites : and David's Pelethites : and Dabe therefore, no doubt of this, that they were • the principal officers in the court of David,

were chief vid's sons were chief

about the the prime ministers of his house-hold: such rulers, Day.

king, as, among us, are the lord high-chamberlain, steward, treasurer, &c., as appears from

Certainly the same man was not called 1 Chron. xviij. 17, where this matter is thus Abimelech and Abimelech. The same man



was not called Seraiah, and Shavsha, and where our translators, “he leadeth princes Sheva, chap. xx. 25. Here must be mis- away spoiled :" but it may as well be thought takes in spelling. Jehoiada was over the Job there speaks of priests, as in the context Cherethites and the Pelethites, as it is well | he does of councillors, judges, kings, the expressed in Chron. and 2 Sam. xx. 23. mighty, the trusty, the aged, and princes : But it is false to say, as the Hebrew scribes among which several sorts of men it was have written the passage in 2 Sam. viii. 18, very proper to mention priests. that the Cherethites and Pelethites, together There is another place not referred to by with David's sons too, were chief rulers, as them, in which the word cohen is thought to Le Clerc also has observed. And perhaps signify a prince, and is accordingly rendered the transcribers of Sam. have been guilty of in our Bible, principal officer, 1 Kings iv. 5. another error in calling David's sons 0'17, But I see no necessity for this. For Zabud which word usually signifies priests, as it is and his father Nathan might be priests, rendered just before, ver. 17, where Ahi- though not high priests : and the king might melech and Abiathar are called, 1973, think fit to take a good priest for his friend. priests. I very much question whether the 1 Chron. xxvii. 5, Benaiah the son of Jeword cohen ever signifies any other than a hoiada called, in our translation, a chief priest. Bishop Patrick on this verse, after priest, and in the margin a principal officer. Grotius and Selden, asserts that cohen sig. It is likely enough that Jehoiada was a nifies a prince, as well as a priest. Le Clerc priest. It is certain there was a priest of says the same. But their authorities weigh this name in David's days, the leader, or nothing with me against a plain fact. These head of the family of Aaron, 1 Chron. great men quote but two places, all to show xii. 27. Benaiah might be his son. His that cohen signifies a prince. One is this being of Kabzeel, 2 Sam. xxiii. 20, which is under consideration ; where it appears from not mentioned among the cities given to the the parallel chapter in the Chronicles, that Levites, is no argument that he was not a 0973 is written by mistake instead of priest. For Nob is not mentioned among D'0877, which mistake is as easy as many those cities, Josh. xxi., nor 1 Chron. vi., others in the same chapter. The other and yet it is certain many priests lived there, place cited on this occasion is 2 Sam. xx. 26, 1 Sam. xxi. 1; xxii, 11, 19. If Benaiah “ And Ira also the Jairite was a chief ruler was a priest, we can have no reason to take (Heb., cohen) about David.” It must be the word cohen in this place in any other owned that this was the reading of this sense. He is not here called, the chief place before the time of the making the priest. The chief priest was usually called oldest versions in the Polyglot. For the 527207 7737, but this man is called 7777 3.7377. word is rendered priest by the Vulg., LXX, It must be owned that the high priest, who Syr., and Arab. Yet still I cannot help sus is called as usual 51727 1737, 2 Kings xii. 11, pecting that this is an error of old tran- is in the parallel place, where the very same scribers. Others as old as this I have thing is spoken of, called 0177 ), 2 Chron. before noted. I cannot find any parallel xxiv. 11. But it is evident Jehoiada the account to this Chron., and so cannot father of Benaiah was not high priest. I correct this error by the help of such a should think, therefore, that the words parallel account. But it is very easy to see 1 Chron. xxvii. 5 should be rendered, that there may be an error in writing this word, Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, the priest, as well as there certainly is in writing the the chief, i. c., the chief of the captains. man's title, Jairite, which is spelt Ithrite, in See ver. 3. I conclude then, there is no this very same book, chap. xxiii. 38. It seems evidence to prove that cohen ever signifies a strange that the word cohen, which in above prince, or any other than a priest. The six hundred places signifies a priest, should only proof that is urged to show that the in two places be used to signify a prince. word cohen in the above-mentioned places Buxtorf, indeed, in his Lexicon, refers to signifies a prince, and not a priest, is because several other places wherein he thinks cohen it is so used in 2 Sam. viii. 18 and xx. 26. signifies a prince, as Gen. xli. 45 ; xlvii. 22, But after what has been said on them, where Potiphere is called, “the priest of perhaps there will not seem to be sufficient On ;” Exod. ii. 16; iii. 1, where Jethro is reason to be of that opinion. called "priest of Midian;" and Job xii. 19, Gesen.-n7 m. 1. an executioner, see r. , הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ Caphtor , signifies the ,כַּפְתּר it certain tluat

na No. 1, in 1 Sam. v. 4; xvii. 51; only in Hitzig supposes (ad Is. Ixi. 10) that 77) is the formula nko?? 7730 2 Sam. viii. 18; i. q. 70, to stand, whence and, pp. one who xv. 18; xx. 7, 23; 1 Kings i. 38, 44; stands by, an assistant. Maurer regards 773 1 Chron. xviii. 6; collect. pp. executioners as i. q. 772, na, to incline, to bend, i. e., to and runners or couriers, names applied to bow down, as is done in worship, whence David's bodyguard (owparodúlakes, Jos. Ant. I pp. one bowing down, making prostravii. 5, 4), whose duty it was both to execute tions. Both of these conjectures are worth punishment and to convey the king's com- attention ; in favour of the last, we might mands as speedily as possible to his officers, perhaps also appeal to the Syro-Arabic comp. , , . See 1 Kings ji . 25, 31, 36, coll. Dan. ii. 14.—Some un- gloss my PS2, i.e., to bow down derstand here Cherethites, i.e., Philistines; oneself sc. in worship. Other conjectures but it can hardly be supposed that David

see in Thesaur., p. 661, 662. Hence would choose his own lifeguard from a

poto plur. bunte, m, a priest; Chald. ???, people at all times so hostile and odious to the Hebrews.


ካህን፡ 2. Cherethite, a Gentile name,


Philistine, 1 Sam. xxx. 14 ; plur. om, Che- id. For the etymology see in r. p. Very rethites, Philistines, Ez. xxv. 16; Zeph. ii. 5. freq. in Ex., Lev., Deut. of the priests of Sept. and Syr. render it Cretans, from which Jehovah, as Ex. ii. 16. Among the Hebrews and the passages, Amos is. 7 ; Jer. xlvii. 4; the high-priest, ó åpxlepeús, was called Deut. ii. 33, the conjecture would be strong 51727, Lev. xxi. 10, &c., also vxn7 jab, that the Philistines sprang from Crete, were 2 Kings xxv. 18, &c., 'ɔ, Ezra vii. 5 ; that , ,

the anointed priest, Lev. island Crete ; see 272.

iv. 3, 5, 16. The next in dignity was called nie m. (nég) a public runner, courier, with 7877'), the second priest, Jer. Jii. 24 ; but art. collect. public runners, couriers, every- this phrase in the plur. og 310, 2 Kings where coupled with no q. v. 2 Sam. xxiii. 4, seems to imply all the priests in oppoviii. 18; xv. 18; xx. 7, 23; 2 Kings sition to the high priest.—Melchizedek, the xi. 4, 19. Some without good reason hold earliest king of Jerusalem, is also called a both me and to be Philistines, and priest of Jehovah, Gen. xiv. 18; Ps. cx. 4; regard the latter form as put by parono- and several of the earliest Hebrew kings masia for an, but against the analogy of were in fact also priests, as Solomon, 1 Kings the Hebrew language; so Ewald Heb. Gram., viii.; comp. Uzziah, 2 Chron. xxvi. 16. So p. 297. See mo.

Virg. Æn. iii. 80, “Rex Anius, rex idem ito not used in Kal; whence jab, a priest. hominum Phæbique sacerdos.”

Note. It is an ancient opinion of the The etymology is doubtful; -Arab.

Hebrew intpp. that signifies also prince.

Not only have the Chaldee translators renand presage, to divine ;

a dered it in several places by 92, prince, as diviner, soothsayer, often among the pagan the author of Chronicles also seems to have

Gen. xli. 45; Ex. I. c.; Psalm cx. 4; but Arabs; then, an internuncio, envoy; Ethiop. followed this view, since he renders the hur, to be a priest, to minister; Syr. words 2 Sam. viii. 18, 19 DOTS 777 ????, giving pors, to be ministered, consecrated ; in in his manner a gloss, i Chron. xvii. 17


, Bar Ali, to be rich, opulent, to enjoy David, the chiefs, were at the side of the the comforts of · life; llamos, rich- kingdom. The chief passages are 2 Sam.

king, i.e., were the chief ministers of the ness, riches, prosperity, happiness. But viii. 16; xviii. 20, 23—26; 1 Kingsiv. 2–6; all these appear to be secondary meanings, from all which it appears that there were derived from the station and power of the priests connected with the court, partly expriesthood, i.e., from 173, priest, which is ercising their proper functions, and parıly as found in the Heb., Chald., Syr., and Eth. friends and counsellors of the sovereign; as languages.—The native power of this word, was also often the case with prophets and therefore, is still to be sought by conjecture. priests in later times. The author of Chron


من and



and the sons of , וּבְנֵי דָוִד הָרִאשֹׁנִים לְעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ

icles seems to have chosen his interpretation |(Zadocus et Ebjathar), partim interioris adfrom the more ancient context, because missionis apud regem essent, quorumque priests of any other than the Levitical utpote virorum piorum et sapientium confamily were unknown to him. Of less silio et auctoritate reges uti solebant (cf. weight is the authority of Onkelos. Hence in inter se illud Iud. xvii. 10 de Micha sacerall the passages referred to, the signif. priest dote Danitarum : an , et Gen. is the only true one. Comp. the case of Solo- xlv. 8 de Josepho : 17 aprin, quemmon above. See more in Thesaur., p. 663. admodum iidem ceteroquin prophetas, ex c.

Gesen. Thesaur. Atqui plures sunt V. T. Davides Nathanum, in amicorum numero loci, in quibus Date in amicis et aulicis regis habebant et imperatores regesque Christiani memoratur, et vetusta est opinio, ibi non inde a Constantio Chloro et Constantino sacerdotes sed principes s. nobiles intelligi, Magno episcopos in aulicorum amicorumque quam significationem plures primariam regiorum corona habebant, quod quidem refuisse statuunt atque vel ex commenticia putare, non omnem rem in scurrile vertere illa ministrandi potestate, vel ab honoris et debebat Moversius l. c. qui de loco 2 Sam. diviliarum notione apud Syros, de qua supra, viii. disputans p. 303 ita scribit : “Andere ductam existimant (v. Simonis in Lex. Keil machen wirklich auf possierliche Weise Vers. üb. die Chronik, p. 346 Movers krit. die Söhne Davids zwar nicht zu Priestern Untersuchungen üb. die Chronik, p. 300). ex professo, sondern nur zu seinen geistPaullo accuratius igitur illos locos pertractare lichen Räthen, oder • Hofcaplänen,' wobei liceat, ut lectoribus nostris persuadeamus, sie nur vergessen, dass das Alterthum keine ubique in certa explorataque sacerdotis Consistorialräthe und Hofcapläne, sondern notione acquiescendum esse. Sunt potis- nur Opferpriester gehabt habe," quæ non simum tres 2 Sam. viii. 16--18 ; xx. 23-26; scripsisset vir doctus, nisi ipse eius, quæ 1 Reg. iv. 2–6, quibus amici et ministri sacerdotum in aula Persarum et Ægyptiorum regii Davidis et Salomonis recensentur. erat, conditionis immemor fuisset. His Proficiscamur a secundo, qui maximi hac in autem præmissis lucebit etiam illorum quæstione momenti est, quo extremo hæc locorum primus 2 Sam. viii. 16—18, plurimis

: ? 777 , Zadocus et Ebjathar erant rexatus (vide de Wette Beyträge i., p. 81 ; sacerdotes : et etiam Ira Jaïrita erat sacer- nostr. Hist. Ling. Hebr., p. 41; Wineri dos Davidis. De Zadoco et Ebjatharo Lex. h. v. Gramberg über die Chronik, quum aliunde constet 2 Sam. xv. 24, sqq. p. 143 sqq.; Religionsideen d. A. T. i., 1 Reg. i. 7, 8, 26 sqq. maxime xxxiv. 39; p. 252; Maurer ad h. I. et contra Keilium, ii. 35; 1 Par. xxx. 22), veri nominis eos Moversium 11. cc.), reliquisque sane difsacerdotes Leviticos eosdemque tamen ficilior. Priorem is continet indicem prinmagnæ in aula regia auctoritatis fuisse, hic cipum Davidis, in quo postquam Comm. 17

m Iræ mentio annectatur his verbis : dictum est : et Zadoc filius Ahitub et Ahiet etiam Ira...erat sacerdos Davidi, con- melech filius Ebjathar erant sacerdotes,

, : ? dotem amicumque regium fuisse, quod 17 D'ITA. Quod si sanum esset, explicandum quidem posterius significatur dativo, 7775 MTD foret : et Benajas filius Jojada et Crethi coll. lud. xvii. 10: 23 ans ? 7T!, xviii. 19. Plethique et filii Davidis erant . Sed Kimchi: ob 1870 15 POU!? yn y boar 1728. dudum viderunt critici (Clericus, HubiAtque hæc ita se habere, luculenter apparet gantius, nuper Maurerus), ex locis parallelis ex illorum locorum tertio 1 Reg. iv. 2–6, 2 Sam. xx. 23 ; 1 Par. xviii. 17 cum Chald., quo Salomonis aulici recensentur. In his Vulg., Syr. pro 'n7371 reponendum esse by verbis Comm. 4 iterum comparent ?? pizam, ut sententia sit: et Benojas...prebis, quibus Comm. 5 additur : ima 71317 fectus erat satellitibus regiis, et filii Davidis 7797 179? ya, et Sabud, filius Nathani, erat erant .!. (Huius indicis scripturam sacerdos isque amicus regis (non: Sabud etiam alio in loco laborare, et pro Ahimelech sacerdos erat amicus regius, in quam sen- filius Ebjathar legendum esse Ebjathar filius

). Itaque Ahimelech, ostendit Korbius in Wineri Theol., efficitur ex duobus his locis, in aula Davidis Journal iv., p. 295). Eodein igitur loco et Salomonis complures fuisse sacerdotes, comparent filii Davidis, quo in duobus locis qui partim sacris administrandis præessent præcedentibus Ira, sacerdos Davidis et Sabud,

ille quidem recentiorum disputationibus | וְצָדוֹק וְאֶבְיָתָר כֹּהֲנִים : וְגַם עִירָא הַיָּאֵרִי :habentur

וּבְנָיָהוּ בֶּן־יְהוֹיָדָע וְהַכְּרֵתִי וְהַפְּלֵתִי וּבְנֵי דָוִד :sequitur

hunc simili modo atque illos sacer-

.(הַכֹּהֵן tentiam scribendum fuisset

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