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לְהָמִית וּמְלָא הַחֶבֶל לְהַחֲיוֹת וַתְּהִי Elizabeth's Bible
.גת ובנתיה ,21
. ? meaning of the name, Gath is the place meant. See 1 Chron. xviii. 1.
: Dr. Ailam Clarke.—David took Metheg και επάταξε Δαυίδ την Μωάβ, και διεμέammah.] This is variously translated. The apnoev avtoùs év oxo.vious, Koluigas aŭrojs Vulgate has, Tulit David franum tributi, επί την γην. και εγένετο τα δύο σχοινίσματα David removed the bondage of the tribute, του θανατώσαι, και τα δύο σχοινίσματα έζώwhich the Israelites paid to the Philistines. γρησε και εγένετο Μωάβ τώ Δαυίδ εις δούλους Some think it means a fortress, city, or strong pépovras &évia. town ; but no such place as Metheg-ammah Au. Ver.-2 And he smote Moab, and is known. Probably the Vulgate is nearest measured them with a line, casting them the truth. The versions are all different. down to the ground; even with two lines
Gesen.- 98 3. i. q cx No. 7, metropolis. measured he to put to death, and with one 2 Sam. viii. 1, and Durid took the bridle full line to keep alive. And so the Moabites (bit) of the metropolis out of the hand of the became David's servants, and brought gifts. Philistines, i.e., be subdued the metropolis Pool.--Wilh a line, i.e., as with line, the of the Philistines. Comp. the Arabic pro- particle as being oft understood, as Psal. verb: I give thee not my bridle, i. e., do not xi. 1 ; xxii. 6; xlv. l. The sense is, having subject myself to thee; see Schult. ad Job conquered the land, he made an estimate of xxx. 11, and Hariri Cons. iv., p. 24. See it, and, as it follows, distributed the towns also Gesch. der Hebr. Sprache, p. 41. and people into three parts.
. Nos, Gelh et ricos Dr. A. Clarke.- And measured them with ejus, ex scripturâ loci paralleli 1 Par. xviii. a line-even with two lines.] It has been
, . Etenim, cùm nihil unum generally conjectured that David, after he dicant veteres, ut in mendis fieri solet, et had conquered Moab, consigned two-thirds cùm ignoretur urbs Metheg...locus unus est of the inhabitants to the sword; but I think ex altero corrigendus. Opportune Philistæi the text will bear a meaning much more redicuntur fracti et humiles, urbe eorum Geth putable to that king. The first clause of the à Davide captâ. Nam Geth metropolis erat verse seems to determine the sense; he Philistæorum. Proptereà David in Cantico measured them with a line, casting them down super morte Saülis, dixit, nolite hæc annun- to the ground—to put to death, and with tiare in Geth.
one line to keep alive. Death seems here Dathe.-1 Posthac a) David victos a se to be referred to the cities by way of Philistæos sibi subjecit, eisque Gathum cum metaphor; and from this view of the vicis ejus b) eripuit.
subject we may conclude that two-thirds of a) Hoc caput non cohæret cum præ
the cities, that is, the strong places of Moab, cedenti, sed cum cap. 17 $99.
were erased; and not having strong places b) Sic verto ex loco parallelo 1 Chron. to trust to, the text adds, So the Moabites xviii. 1, in quo pro monanonx legitur became David's servants, and brought gifts,
De variis h. l. explicationibus i. e., were obliged to pay tribute. The word vide sis Glassium, p. 783.
line may mean the same here as our rod, Maurer.-'11 777 P, Et sumsit Davides i.e., the instrument by which land is frenum metropoleos (PN i. q. Ox xx. 19 ad measured. There are various opinions on q. cf.) a manu Philistæorum, i.e., metropolin this verse, with which I shall not trouble the Philistæorum in deditionem recepit. Pro- reader. Much may be seen in Calmet and verbialis dictio, cui simillima est Arabum : Dodd. tradidit capistrum suum alicui, i. e., arbitrio Bp. Horsley.-Casting them down to the ejus se permisit. Auctor Paralipomenon ground ; rather, laying them along upon the
: , . et ejus municipia, 1 Chron. xviii. 1, quam ar
Ged.-2. He also smote the Moabites : bitriariam mutationem non debebat recipere whom, being laid on the ground, he meaDathius.
sured with a line. Two line-lengths of them Ver. 2. he measured out to be put to death, and one
Thus the line-length to be kept alive. ?
Moabites became David's subjects, and
.Gatham ground ,אֶת־בַּת וּבְנֹתֶיהָ dedit אֶת־מֶתֶג הָאַמָּה pro
וַיַּךְ אֶת־מוֹאָב וַיְמַקְדֶם בַּחֶבֶל הַשְׁכֵּב .brought him presents אוֹתָם אֵרְצָה וַיְמַד שְׁנֵי־חֲבָלִים
וַךְ הָלַד אֶת־הֲדַדְעֶזֶר בֶּן־רְחב מֶלֶךְ -word . The word is well retained in Chroni צוֹבָה בְּלֶכְתּוֹ לְהָשִׁיב יָדְוֹ בִּנְהַר־, :
.v פרת קרי ולא כתיב
Booth.—2 And he smote the Moabites ; that they read to stablish. Only the Targum whom, being laid on the ground, he mea- agrees with the present corruption of the sured with a line. He measured two line. Hebrew. The next word 7, should, in both lengths; a line-length to put to death, and places, have been rendered border, or in one full line-length to keep alive. Thus the both dominion. The transcriber of the Book Moabites became David's servants, and of Samuel carelessly omitted the word, brought gifts.
Euphrates, at the end of the verse ; and the
superstitious Jews continue to omit the word, Ver. 3.
only leaving a space for it, and writing,
7? under the line, the points that belong to the :
cles, and from thence well supplied in this
place by our translators; as it is retained in και επάταξε Δαυίδ τον 'Αδρααζάρ υιόν Ρααβ all the ancient versions, even in the Chaldee βασιλέα Σουβά, πορευομένου αυτού επιστήσαι itself. την χείρα αυτού επί τον ποταμών Ευφράτην. .
Boothroyd's Heb. Bible.—3 Hallet proAu. Ver.—3 David smote also Hadad-poses to read here as in 1 Chron. xviii. 3 ; ezer (or, Hadarezer, 1 Chron. xviii. 3), the but on examining the narrative, I conceive son of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to that each account is correct; and that the recover his border at the river Euphrates. text in Chronicles is synonymous with this ; Hadadezer.
that insa there does not refer to David, but Ged.-Hadarezer, 1 Chron. xviii. 3. to Hadarezer-7313. This is supposed to be
Pool.-Hadadezer, called Hadarezer, Nesibis. Saul had probably wrested from 1 Chron. xviii. 3, the Hebrew letters daleth him, or his predecessor, a part of his terriand resch being alike, and so oft inter- tory (see 1 Sam. xiv. 47), which he now changed [s0 Bochart, Patrick). As he attempted to recover. By the re-conquest went. Quest. Who? Answ. Either, first, of his territory, and the subjection of the Hadarezer (so Clarke, Ged., Booth., Dathe, Syrians of Damascus, the Israelites were Maurer]; who, being already very potent, now, and not until now, in the possession and going to enlarge his dominion further, of the promised land in its full extent. David thought fit to oppose him. Or, Comp. Gen. xv. 18, Deut. i. 7, Josh. i. 4. secondly, David (so Patrick], who remem- Bp. Horsley.-To recover; rather, to bering the grant which God had made to his establish. 1 Chron. xviii. 3, LXX, and people of all the land as far as Euphrates, Vulgate. and having subdued his neighbouring Gel.-3 David also smote Hadar-ezer, enemies, went to recover his rights, and king of Zoba; who came to re-establish his stablish his dominion as far as Euphrates. power by the river Euphrates.
Bp. Patrick.-As he went to recover his Gesen.-Hiph, aon 7. Seq. Sp, se, to border at the river Euphrates.] That is, as turn to, towards, upon any one, e. g. a) David went to extend the limits of his king- it l'un, to turn one's hand upon or dom (according to the ancient prophecy, against any one, Is. i. 25; Am. i. 8; Ps. Gen. xv. 18) towards the river Euphrates, lxxxi. 15 ; seq. - id. 2 Sam. viii. 3. he smote this king, who came out, perhaps, Dathe.—3 Porro profligavit Hadadeserum, to oppose him. See 1 Chron. xviii. 3, where Rechobi filium, regem Nesibensem, qui ultra it is said, "he went to establish his dominions Euphratem imperii sui limites propagare by the river Euphrates:" which seems to tentavit. relate to David, not to Hadadezer.
Hadadeserum. In hujus nominis scripHallet.-3 It is said, he (meaning Hada- tione codd. Hebræi variant. Kennicottus dezer) went to recover his border at the river 25 codd. citavit, in quibus scriptum legatur Euphrates. 1 Chron. xviii. 3, it is, he Hadareser. Sic quoque o ó, Vulg., Syrus, (ineaning David) went to stablish his do- Arabs. minion by the river Euphrates. The dif- Euphratem. Vocem no, quam codd. ference between the Hebrew in these places, Masorethici tantum in margine ponunt, leis but in one letter. In Samuel the word is gerunt omnes interpretes veteres in suis 2*w), to recover, in Chronicles it is 39997), to codd., et Kennicottus in 32 codd. in textu stablish. The old versions of Samuel shewl invenit. Sensus idem est, si quoque omit
וַיִּלְכֹּד דָּוִד מִמֶנוּ אֶלֶף וּשְׁבַע־מֵאוֹת ;It is not said what shall be their reward פָּרָשִׁים וְעֶשְׂרִים אֶלֶף אִישׁ רַגְלֵי וַיְעַקְר
tatur, cum constet, 17 kar’ Foxnu in cod., Chariots are here put for chariot horses, as Hebræo de flumine Euphrate dici.
they are 1 Sam. xiii. 5; 2 Sam. x. 18; Maurer.—3 1772 it, auto, Ut dominium Psal. lxxvi. 6. suum ad Euphratem restauraret, i.e., eam Bp. Patrick.- A thousand chariots.] The Euphratensis regni partem, quam Saulo word chariots is not in the Hebrew : but it rege (cf. 1 Sam. xiv. 47) amiserat, in di- is well supplied by our translators, out of tionem suam reciperet. Alii, in his Ros. 1 Chron. xvi. 4, in which book many things Archæol. i. 2, p. 249, suffixum in inaa et are explained which are briefly related here. if non ad Hadadeserum sed ad Davidem Seven hundred horsemen.] Here again is referunt, ut sensus prodeat hic: ut eam an ellipsis, as in the foregoing words: for in Euphratensis regni partem, quam Saulo rege 1 Chron. xviii. 4, it is said seven thousand. Israelitæ occuparant (cf. 1 Sam. xiv. 47), But as after a thousand something is to be postea vero inclinatis valde Israelitarum understood, viz. chariots : so after seven rebus (1 Sam. xxxi.) Hadadeserus receperat, hundred something is to be understood, viz., iterum in potestatem suam redigeret. Præter captains (as Abarbinel explains it), under necessitatem pro na Masorethæ legi jubent whom a great many others served, so that .
commanders and soldiers made in all, seven Ver. 4.
thousand. Such an ellipsis is observed in
this very book, v. 8,“ Whosoever smites the )
Jebusites, and the blind, and the lame," &c. ? ; Tingnan ang pan-born 119 where it is said, he shall be chief (see l’Em
which is plainly mentioned i Chron. xi. 6,
:37 pereur on Bava-kama, cap. 7, sect. 7). και προκατελάβετο Δαυίδ των αυτού χίλια Here again is the same ellipsis, for there is
David houghed all the chariot horses.] άρματα, και επτά χιλιάδας ιππέων, και είκοσι χιλιάδας ανδρών πεζών. και παρέλυσε Δαυίδ no word in the Hebrew for horses. Yet the πάντα τα άρματα, και υπελείπετο εαυτώ εκατόν meaning can be nothing else, but that he άρματα.
cut the hamstrings of the horses that drew
their chariots, and made them unserviceable Au. Ver.-4 And David took from him hereafter (see Josh. xi. 9). Thus, in x. 18, [or, of his] a thousand chariots (as 1 Chron. David is said to have slain seven hundred xviii. 4], and seven hundred horsemen, and chariots; that is, the horses of so many twenty thousand footmen : and David chariots: and in Psalm lxviii. 18, by houghed all the chariot horses, but reserved chariots of the Lord,” some understood of them for an hundred chariots.
horsemen : and lxxvi. 6, “the chariot and Seven hundred horsemen.
horse,' &c.; that is, as well the horses that Lud. Capellus, Grotius, Toub., Hallet, drew the chariot, as they that rode in it (see Ged., Booth.-Seven thousand [LXX, Jo- Bochartus, in his Hieroz., par. i., lib. ii., sephus, and p. p. 1 Chron. xviii. 4] horse
Hallet.—4 And David took from him a Pool.-Chariots ; which word is fitly sup- thousand chariots, and seven hundred horseplied out of 1 Chron xviii. 4, such sub- Our translators have well noted, that stantives being oft understood in the Hebrew there is no word for chariots in this place, language, as Gen. xxvi. 30; 2 Sam. xxi. 16. in the Hebrew, by causing it to be printed Seven hundred horsemen, or seven hundred in a different letter. It is well supplied out companies of horsemen, i.e., in all seven of 1 Chron. xviii. 4. The Greek and Syriac thousand; as it is 1 Chron. xviii. 4; there versions of Samuel retain the word, and being ten in each company, and each ten there can be no doubt, but it originally behaving a ruler or captain, Exod. xviii. 21; longed to the text of Samuel: since no Deut. i. 15. Or these seven hundred were figure of speech will bear out a writer in the chief and the rulers of the rest, and the saying a thousand were taken, when he does remaining six thousand three hundred were not let his readers know whether they were the common horsemen, subject to their chariots, asses, mules, &c., or 1,700 horsecommanders. Houghed all the chariot men. This shows how merry Bishop horses, except
the following reserve. Patrick's note is on this omission. It is
supplied, says he, out of Chron., “in which purpose. For houghing, plucking up, rooting book many things are explained, which are up, and digging down, are various methods briefly related here.” His next is equally of spoiling or hurting things. The word surprising, viz. :
may as well be applied to a chariot, as it “ And seven hundred horsemen.] Here again confessedly is to a plant, a town, or a wall. is an ellipsis, as in the foregoing words. For It will signify that the chariots were spoiled, in 1 Chron. xviii. 4, it is said, seven thou- or rendered useless; and we may allow that sand.” This figure ellipsis will, it seems, do the manner of spoiling them was like that wonders. It will excuse a writer when he of spoiling the horses, viz., cutting the cords omits the most essential words of a sentence. or leathers that fastened one part of the I do not see then, why the same excuse chariot to another. should not be made for a transcriber, when he omits a whole sentence, and the omission
Ken.—2 Sam. viii. and x., compared with be called by the soft name of an ellipsis,
1 Chron. xviii. and xix. when it is really a blunder. Supposing the
The very great utility of comparing transcribers had been guilty of the same parallel places may be further ascertained, ellipsis or omission in Chronicles as they have by a comparison of some parts of the chapin Samuel, it would not have been possible ters above specified. (if the old versions had been laid aside), to Sam. viii. 1 David took Metheg-ammah. have known what those thousand things Chron. xviii. 1 David took Gath and her were which David took. We might as well Sam.
3 David smote Hadadezer. have supposed they were horses as chariots, Chron. towns. 3 David smote Hadarezer. especially since he next mentions the horse- Sam. 4 And David took from him 1,000
The other instances there produced Chron. 4 And David took from him 1,000 by the Bishop are of the same kind, except Sam.
and 700 horsemen, and that about David's houghing the chariots, in Chron. chariots, and 7,000 horsemen, and this same verse. As to which he says,
6 Then David put “The meaning can be nothing else, but that Chron. 20,000 foot. 6 Then David put he cut the hamstrings of the horses that Sam. garrisons in Syria. 8 And from drew their chariots." I see no necessity to Chron.
in Syria. 8 And from suppose that horses are here intended. Both Sam. Betah and Berothai cities of HaSamuel and Chronicles exactly agree in Chron. Tibbath and
Chun cities of Hareading 237,7 55 7870" which ought to be ren- Sam. dadezer. 9 When Toi heard, that dered, he destroyed all the chariots, or made Chron. darezer. 9 When Tou heard, that them useless. To show the justness of this Sam. David had smitten Hadadezer, rendering, it must be observed, that the Chron. David had smitten Hadarezer, word 773 is used seven times in the Old Sam. 10 Then Toi sent Joram his son. Testament. In two places it signifies, to Chron. 10 He sent Hadoram his son. hough horses, or to cut their hamstrings, Sam. 12 Syria and Moab. 13 Syrians, Josh. xi. 6, 9. In both which places the Chron. 11 Edom and Moab. 12 Edomites, word horses is expressly mentioned. In two Sam. in the valley of salt, 18,000. other places it is rendered, to pluck up, or Chron. in the valley of salt, 18,000. root up; Eccles. iii. 2, a time to pluck up Sam. 17 Ahimelech and Seraiah was the that which is planted; Zeph. ii. 4, Ekron Chron. 16 Abimelech and Shavsha was shall be rooted up. In the fifth place it is Sam. scribe. x. 16 Shobach the captranslated, to dig down, Gen. xlix. 6, they Chron. scribe. xix. 16 Shophach the capdigged down a wall: which the Bishop Sam. tain. 17 David passed over Jordan, inclines to think is the true rendering of that Chron. tain. 17 David passed over Jordan, place, and not the marginal. The other two Sam. and came Joan to Helam. 18 David places where this word is used are those now Chron. and came on's upon them. 18 David under consideration. It appears from this Sam. slew
700 chariots of view of the use of the word py, that when Chron. slew of the Syrians 7,000 chariots horses are not mentioned with it, there is no Sam. the Syrians, and 40,000 horsemen; occasion for us to think of them. The Chron.
and 40,000 footmen; general meaning of the word appears to be Sam. and smote Shobach, &c. spoiling, hurting, destroying, or to that Chron. and killed Shophach, &c.
Without remarking all the differences in | horsemen it may easily be imagined 400 these
passages, it may be observed in general were killed. -that I by no means suppose every variation Houghed all the chariot-horses; rather, here to be a corruption, and yet that I cannot "crippled all the chariots, except that he suppose these passages uncorrupted. Are reserved of them," &c. “Crippled," namely we to believe, that the same man is properly by breaking the wheels, or the axles. See called Hadadezer and Hadarezer-or Ahi- LXX, Queen Elizabeth's Bible, and Parkmelech and Abimelech, &c. Are we to say, hurst, 72. with Bishop Patrick, that Methegammah in Dr. A. Clarke.--A thousand chariots.] It Samuel, is expounded to be Gath and its is strange that there were a thousand chariots, territories in Chronicles — or, that 700 in and only seven hundred horsemen taken, and Samuel and 7,000 in Chronicles agree in twenty thousand foot. But as the discomsense, only the number in Samuel is ex-fiture appears complete, we may suppose pressed by an ellipsis? Other interroga- that the chariots, being less manageable, tories might be put, and the impossibility of might be more easily taken, while the horsesupposing the text entire in these passages men might, in general, make their escape. might be largely insisted on. But as judi. The infantry also seem to have been surcious remarks have been made on some of rounded, when twenty thousand of them these mistakes by Mr. Hallet, I shall only were taken prisoners. mention one. The text in Chronicles tells David houghed all the chariot horses.] If us that “David took 1,000 chariots, and he did so, it was both unreasonable and in7,000 horsemen, and 20,000 footmen.” But human; for, as he had so complete a vicin Samuel that “ David took 1,000 (what?) tory, there was no danger of these horses and 700 horsemen, and 20,000 footmen." falling into the enemy's hands; and if he The omission of the word 137, chariots, seems did not choose to keep them, which indeed indubitable: LXX, xıla apuara. But, how the law would not permit, he should have are we to account for the surprising variation killed them outright; and then the poor in the numbers ; since naa yav, 700, and innocent creatures would have been put out D'Din nyaw, 7,000, differ widely in letters and of pain. But does the text speak of houghsignification? We have here then another ing horses at all? It does not.
Let us confirmation of what was supposed, page 96, hear: 2577 x 717 peny, And David dis&c., that the Jews formerly expressed the jointed all the chariots, except a hundred Bible numbers by single letters; and then chariots which he reserved for himself. the mistake is easy- i being 7,000, and 7 700. Now, this destruction of the chariots was a The same mistake occurs in 2 Sam. x. 18, matter of sound policy, and strict piety. 700), which in 1 Chron. xix. 18, is 7,000 i. God had censured those who trusted in Will
any other hypothesis so naturally solve chariots ; piety therefore forbade David the this repeated difficulty ?
use of them : and lest they should fall into Bp. Horsley.-A thousand chariots, and the enemy's hands, and be again used seven hundred horsemen, and, fc. The word against him, policy induced him to destroy chariots is very properly inserted, upon the them. The Septuagint render the words authority of the parallel place in Chronicles, nearly as I have done, kai trapelvoe Aavið and the version of the LXX here. In the travra ta åpuata. parallel place in the book of Chronicles, and He kept however one hundred; probably in the version of the LXX, the number of as a sort of baggage or forage wagons. horsemen is 7,000, instead of 700, as we Gesen.—728 Piel, to hamstring, to hough, read here in the Hebrew text. I am much in- e. g., a horse, i.e., to cut the sinews of the clined to think that the true reading in both hind feet, by which the animal is rendered places is thus, “ seven hundred chariots and wholly useless and unable to stand, Josh. a thousand horsemen.” If these horsemen xi. 6, '9; 2 Sam. viii. 4; 1 Chron. xviii. 4; were, as I vehemently suspect, men riding of a bullock, Gen. xlix. 6. Sept., vevpoastride on the horses that drew the cars, if Koreiv. This was often and is still done in each car was drawn by a pair of horses, the war by the victors, when unable to carry off number of horsemen, if all were taken, should be double the number of the cars with them the horses captured.—Arab. á See 1 Sam. xii. 5. But of 1,400 such id.