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לְהָמִית וּמְלָא הַחֶבֶל לְהַחֲיוֹת וַתְּהִי Elizabeth's Bible. Whatever may be the

מוֹאָב לְדָוִד לַעֲבָדִים נְשְׂאֵי מִנְחָה:

meaning of the name, Gath is the place meant. See 1 Chron. xviii. 1.

.מתג האמה-.Houb

Au. Ver.-2 And he smote Moab, and measured them with a line, casting them down to the ground; even with two lines measured he to put to death, and with one full line to keep alive. And so the Moabites became David's servants, and brought gifts.

Dr. Adam Clarke.-David took Metheg καὶ ἐπάταξε Δαυὶδ τὴν Μωὰβ, καὶ διεμέammah.] This is variously translated. The τρησεν αὐτοὺς ἐν σχοινίοις, κοιμίσας αὐτοὺς Vulgate has, Tulit David franum tributi, ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν. καὶ ἐγένετο τὰ δύο σχοινίσματα David removed the bondage of the tribute, τοῦ θανατῶσαι, καὶ τὰ δύο σχοινίσματα ἐζώwhich the Israelites paid to the Philistines. γρησε· καὶ ἐγένετο Μωὰβ τῷ Δαυὶδ εἰς δούλους Some think it means a fortress, city, or strong pépovtas §évia. town; but no such place as Metheg-ammah is known. Probably the Vulgate is nearest the truth. The versions are all different. Gesen. 3. i. q e No. 7, metropolis. 2 Sam. viii. 1, and David took the bridle (bit) of the metropolis out of the hand of the Philistines, i.e., be subdued the metropolis of the Philistines. Comp. the Arabic proverb: I give thee not my bridle, i. e., do not subject myself to thee; see Schult. ad Job xxx. 11, and Hariri Cons. iv., p. 24. See also Gesch. der Hebr. Sprache, p. 41. Nos, Geth et ricos rjus, ex scripturâ loci paralleli 1 Par. xviii. Etenim, cùm nihil unum dicant veteres, ut in mendis fieri solet, et cùm ignoretur urbs Metheg...locus unus est ex altero corrigendus. Opportune Philistæi dicuntur fracti et humiles, urbe eorum Geth à Davide captâ. Nam Geth metropolis erat Philistæorum. Proptereà David in Cantico super morte Saülis, dixit, nolite hæc annuntiare in Geth.

Pool. With a line, i. e., as with line, the particle as being oft understood, as Psal. xi. 1; xxii. 6; xlv. 1. The sense is, having conquered the land, he made an estimate of it, and, as it follows, distributed the towns and people into three parts.

Dathe Posthæc a) David victos a se Philistæos sibi subjecit, eisque Gatham cum vicis ejus b) eripuit.

Dr. A. Clarke.-And measured them with a line-even with two lines.] It has been generally conjectured that David, after he had conquered Moab, consigned two-thirds of the inhabitants to the sword; but I think the text will bear a meaning much more reputable to that king. The first clause of the verse seems to determine the sense; he measured them with a line, casting them down to the ground-to put to death, and with one line to keep alive. Death seems here to be referred to the cities by way of metaphor; and from this view of the subject we may conclude that two-thirds of the cities, that is, the strong places of Moab, were erased; and not having strong places to trust to, the text adds, So the Moabites became David's servants, and brought gifts, i. e., were obliged to pay tribute. The word line may mean the same here as our rod, i.e., the instrument by which land is measured. There are various opinions on this verse, with which I shall not trouble the

a) Hoc caput non cohæret cum præcedenti, sed cum cap. v. 17 sqq.

b) Sic verto ex loco parallelo 1 Chron. xviii. 1, in quo pro npn legitur . De variis h. 1. explicationibus vide sis Glassium, p. 783. Maurer, Et sumsit Davides frenum metropoleos ( i. q. DN xx. 19 ad q. cf.) a manu Philistæorum, i. e., metropolin Philistæorum in deditionem recepit. Pro- reader. Much may be seen in Calmet and verbialis dictio, cui simillima est Arabum: Dodd.

גת ובנתיה 21

tradidit capistrum suum alicui, i. e., arbitrio Bp. Horsley.-Casting them down to the ejus se permisit. Auctor Paralipomenon ground; rather, laying them along upon the

.Gatham ground, אֶת־צַת וּבְנֹתֶיהָ dedit אֶת־מֶתֶג הָאַמָּה pro

Ver. 2.

Dathius.

et ejus municipia, 1 Chron. xviii. 1, quam ar- Ged. 2 He also smote the Moabites: bitriariam mutationem non debebat recipere whom, being laid on the ground, he measured with a line. Two line-lengths of them he measured out to be put to death, and one line-length to be kept alive. Thus the Moabites became David's subjects, and

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Booth.-2 And he smote the Moabites; that they read to stablish. Only the Targum whom, being laid on the ground, he mea- agrees with the present corruption of the sured with a line. He measured two line- Hebrew. The next word T, should, in both lengths; a line-length to put to death, and places, have been rendered border, or in one full line-length to keep alive. Thus the both dominion. The transcriber of the Book Moabites became David's servants, and of Samuel carelessly omitted the word, brought gifts. Euphrates, at the end of the verse; and the superstitious Jews continue to omit the word, only leaving a space for it, and writing, under the line, the points that belong to the

Ver. 3.

וַיַּךְ דָּוִד אֶת־הֲדַדְעֶזֶר בֶּן־רְחָב מֶלֶךְ -word. The word is well retained in cluroni צוֹבָה בְּלֶכְתּוֹ לְהָשִׁיב יָדוֹ בִּנְהַר־,:

.3 .v פרת קרי ולא כתיב

IT

cles, and from thence well supplied in this kaì étáraέe David tòv 'Adpaaţàp viòv 'Paùß all the ancient versions, even in the Chaldee place by our translators; as it is retained in βασιλέα Σουβὰ, πορευομένου αὐτοῦ ἐπιστῆσαι itself. τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμὸν Εὐφράτην.

Ged.-Hadarezer, 1 Chron. xviii. 3.

Boothroyd's Heb. Bible.-3 Hallet pro-
poses to read here as in 1 Chron. xviii. 3 ;
but on examining the narrative, I conceive
that each account is correct; and that the
text in Chronicles is synonymous with this;
that there does not refer to David, but
to Hadarezer—. This is supposed to be
Pool.-Hadadezer, called Hadarezer, Nesibis. Saul had probably wrested from
1 Chron. xviii. 3, the Hebrew letters daleth him, or his predecessor, a part of his terri-
and resch being alike, and so oft inter- tory (see 1 Sam. xiv. 47), which he now
changed [so Bochart, Patrick]. As he attempted to recover. By the re-conquest
went. Quest. Who? Answ. Either, first, of his territory, and the subjection of the
Hadarezer [so Clarke, Ged., Booth., Dathe, Syrians of Damascus, the Israelites were
Maurer]; who, being already very potent, now, and not until now, in the possession
and going to enlarge his dominion further, of the promised land in its full extent.
David thought fit to oppose him. Or, Comp. Gen. xv. 18, Deut. i. 7, Josh. i. 4.
secondly, David [so Patrick], who remem-
bering the grant which God had made to his
people of all the land as far as Euphrates,
and having subdued his neighbouring
enemies, went to recover his rights, and
stablish his dominion as far as Euphrates.
Bp. Patrick.-As he went to recover his Gesen. Hiph. . 7. Seq.,, to
border at the river Euphrates.] That is, as turn to, towards, upon any one, e. g.
David went to extend the limits of his king-in, to turn one's hand upon or
a)
dom (according to the ancient prophecy, against any one, Is. i. 25; Am. i. 8; Ps.
Gen. xv. 18) towards the river Euphrates, lxxxi. 15; seq. id. 2 Sam. viii. 3.
he smote this king, who came out, perhaps,
to oppose him. See 1 Chron. xviii. 3, where
it is said, "he went to establish his dominions
by the river Euphrates:" which seems to
relate to David, not to Hadadezer.

Dathe-3 Porro profligavit Hadadeserum,
Rechobi filium, regem Nesibensem, qui ultra
Euphratem imperii sui limites propagare
tentavit.

Au. Ver.-3 David smote also Hadadezer [or, Hadarezer, 1 Chron. xviii. 3], the son of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to recover his border at the river Euphrates.

Hadadezer.

Hallet.-3 It is said, he (meaning Hadadezer) went to recover his border at the river Euphrates. 1 Chron. xviii. 3, it is, he (meaning David) went to stablish his dominion by the river Euphrates. The difference between the Hebrew in these places, is but in one letter. In Samuel the word is aw, to recover, in Chronicles it is 2, to stablish. The old versions of Samuel shew

Bp. Horsley.-To recover; rather, to establish. 1 Chron. xviii. 3, LXX, and Vulgate.

Ged.-3 David also smote Hadar-ezer, king of Zoba; who came to re-establish his power by the river Euphrates.

Hadadeserum. In hujus nominis scriptione codd. Hebræi variant. Kennicottus 25 codd. citavit, in quibus scriptum legatur Hadareser. Sic quoque oi ó, Vulg., Syrus, Arabs.

Masorethici tantum in margine ponunt, le-
Euphratem. Vocem, quam codd.
gerunt omnes interpretes veteres in suis
codd., et Kennicottus in 32 codd. in textu
invenit. Sensus idem est, si quoque omit-

IVI

tatur, cum constet, Kar'
Hebræo de flumine Euphrate dici.
Maurer.-322 in 2, Ut dominium
suum ad Euphratem restauraret, i.e., eam Bp. Patrick.—A thousand chariots.] The
Euphratensis regni partem, quam Saulo word chariots is not in the Hebrew: but it
rege (cf. 1 Sam. xiv. 47) amiserat, in di- is well supplied by our translators, out of
tionem suam reciperet. Alii, in his Ros. 1 Chron. xvi. 4, in which book many things
Archæol. i. 2, p. 249, suffixum in i et are explained which are briefly related here.
non ad Hadadeserum sed ad Davidem Seven hundred horsemen.] Here again is
referunt, ut sensus prodeat hic: ut eam an ellipsis, as in the foregoing words: for in
Euphratensis regni partem, quam Saulo rege 1 Chron. xviii. 4, it is said seven thousand.
Israelitæ occuparant (cf. 1 Sam. xiv. 47), But as after a thousand something is to be
postea vero inclinatis valde Israelitarum understood, viz. chariots: so after seven
rebus (1 Sam. xxxi.) Hadadeserus receperat, hundred something is to be understood, viz.,
iterum in potestatem suam redigeret. Præter captains (as Abarbinel explains it), under
necessitatem pro Masorethæ legi jubent whom a great many others served, so that
commanders and soldiers made in all, seven
thousand. Such an ellipsis is observed in
this very book, v. 8, "Whosoever smites the
Jebusites, and the blind, and the lame," &c.

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oxu in cod. | Chariots are here put for chariot horses, as
they are 1 Sam. xiii. 5; 2 Sam. x. 18;
Psal. lxxvi. 6.

Ver. 4.

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which is

mentioned 1 Chron. xi. 6,

- where it is said, he shall be chief (see l'Em-
pereur on Bava-kama, cap. 7, sect. 7).
David houghed all the chariot horses.]

καὶ προκατελάβετο Δαυὶδ τῶν αὐτοῦ χίλια Here again is the same ellipsis, for there is

no word in the Hebrew for horses. Yet the

ἅρματα, καὶ ἑπτὰ χιλιάδας ἱππέων, καὶ εἴκοσι χιλιάδας ἀνδρῶν πεζῶν. καὶ παρέλυσε Δαυὶδ πάντα τὰ ἅρματα, καὶ ὑπελείπετο ἑαυτῷ ἑκατὸν

meaning can be nothing else, but that he

ἅρματα.

cut the hamstrings of the horses that drew
their chariots, and made them unserviceable
hereafter (see Josh. xi. 9). Thus, in x. 18,
David is said to have slain seven hundred
chariots; that is, the horses of so many
chariots: and in Psalm 1xviii. 18, by "the
chariots of the Lord," some understood
horsemen and lxxvi. 6, "the chariot and
horse," &c.; that is, as well the horses that
drew the chariot, as they that rode in it (see
Bochartus, in his Hieroz., par. i., lib. ii.,
cap. 6).

Au. Ver. 4 And David took from him [or, of his] a thousand chariots [as 1 Chron. xviii. 4], and seven hundred horsemen, and twenty thousand footmen : and David houghed all the chariot horses, but reserved of them for an hundred chariots.

Seven hundred horsemen.

Lud. Capellus, Grotius, Houb., Hallet, Ged., Booth.-Seven thousand [LXX, Josephus, and p. p. 1 Chron. xviii. 4] horse

men.

Pool.-Chariots; which word is fitly supplied out of 1 Chron xviii. 4, such substantives being oft understood in the Hebrew language, as Gen. xxvi. 30; 2 Sam. xxi. 16. Seven hundred horsemen, or seven hundred companies of horsemen, i.e., in all seven thousand; as it is 1 Chron. xviii. 4; there being ten in each company, and each ten having a ruler or captain, Exod. xviii. 21; Deut. i. 15. Or these seven hundred were the chief and the rulers of the rest, and the remaining six thousand three hundred were the common horsemen, subject to their chariots, asses, mules, &c., or 1,700 horsecommanders. Houghed all the chariot men. This shows how merry Bishop horses, except the following reserve. Patrick's note is on this omission. It is

Hallet.-4 And David took from him a thousand chariots, and seven hundred horsemen. Our translators have well noted, that there is no word for chariots in this place, in the Hebrew, by causing it to be printed in a different letter. It is well supplied out of 1 Chron. xviii. 4. The Greek and Syriac versions of Samuel retain the word, and there can be no doubt, but it originally belonged to the text of Samuel: since no figure of speech will bear out a writer in saying a thousand were taken, when he does not let his readers know whether they were

4 B

VOL. II.

supplied, says he, out of Chron., "in which purpose. For houghing, plucking up, rooting book many things are explained, which are up, and digging down, are various methods briefly related here." His next is equally of spoiling or hurting things. The word surprising, viz.: may as well be applied to a chariot, as it confessedly is to a plant, a town, or a wall. It will signify that the chariots were spoiled, or rendered useless; and we may allow that the manner of spoiling them was like that of spoiling the horses, viz., cutting the cords or leathers that fastened one part of the chariot to another.

“And seven hundred horsemen.] Here again is an ellipsis, as in the foregoing words. For in 1 Chron. xviii. 4, it is said, seven thousand." This figure ellipsis will, it seems, do wonders. It will excuse a writer when he omits the most essential words of a sentence. I do not see then, why the same excuse should not be made for a transcriber, when he omits a whole sentence, and the omission be called by the soft name of an ellipsis, when it is really a blunder. Supposing the transcribers had been guilty of the same ellipsis or omission in Chronicles as they have in Samuel, it would not have been possible ters above specified.

8 And from

(if the old versions had been laid aside), to Sam. viii. 1 David took Metheg-ammah. have known what those thousand things Chron. xviii. 1 David took Gath and her were which David took. We might as well Sam. 3 David smote Hadadezer. have supposed they were horses as chariots, Chron. towns. 3 David smote Hadarezer. especially since he next mentions the horse- Sam. 4 And David took from him 1,000 men. The other instances there produced Chron. 4 And David took from him 1,000 by the Bishop are of the same kind, except Sam. and 700 horsemen, and that about David's houghing the chariots, in Chron. chariots, and 7,000 horsemen, and this same verse. As to which he says, Sam. 20,000 foot. 6 Then David put "The meaning can be nothing else, but that Chron. 20,000 foot. 6 Then David put he cut the hamstrings of the horses that Sam. garrisons in Syria. drew their chariots." I see no necessity to Chron. in Syria. 8 And from suppose that horses are here intended. Both Sam. Betah and Berothai cities of HaSamuel and Chronicles exactly agree in Chron. Tibbath and Chun cities of Hareading which ought to be ren- Sam. dadezer. 9 When Toi heard, that dered, he destroyed all the chariots, or made Chron. darezer. 9 When Tou heard, that them useless. To show the justness of this Sam. David had smitten Hadadezer, rendering, it must be observed, that the Chron. David had smitten Hadarezer, word is used seven times in the Old Sam. 10 Then Toi sent Joram his son. Testament. In two places it signifies, to Chron. 10 He sent Hadoram his son. hough horses, or to cut their hamstrings, Sam. 12 Syria and Moab. 13 Syrians, Josh. xi. 6, 9. In both which places the Chron. 11 Edom and Moab. 12 Edomites, word horses is expressly mentioned. In two Sam. in the valley of salt, 18,000. other places it is rendered, to pluck up, or Chron. in the valley of salt, 18,000. root up; Eccles. iii. 2, a time to pluck up Sam. 17 Ahimelech and Seraiah was the that which is planted; Zeph. ii. 4, Ekron Chron. 16 Abimelech and Shavsha was shall be rooted up. In the fifth place it is Sam. scribe. x. 16 Shobach the captranslated, to dig down, Gen. xlix. 6, they Chron. scribe. xix. 16 Shophach the capdigged down a wall: which the Bishop Sam. tain. 17 David passed over Jordan, inclines to think is the true rendering of that Chron. tain. 17 David passed over Jordan, place, and not the marginal. The other two Sam. and came in to Helam. 18 David places where this word is used are those now Chron. and came upon them. 18 David under consideration. It appears from this Sam. slew 700 chariots of view of the use of the word, that when Chron. slew of the Syrians 7,000 chariots horses are not mentioned with it, there is no Sam. the Syrians, occasion for us to think of them. The Chron. general meaning of the word appears to be Sam. and smote Shobach, &c. spoiling, hurting, destroying, or to that Chron. and killed Shophach, &c.

and 40,000 horsemen ; and 40,000 footmen;

Ken.—2 Sam. viii. and x., compared with 1 Chron. xviii. and xix.

The very great utility of comparing parallel places may be further ascertained, by a comparison of some parts of the chap

horsemen it may easily be imagined 400 were killed.

Houghed all the chariot-horses; rather,

Without remarking all the differences in these passages, it may be observed in general --that I by no means suppose every variation here to be a corruption, and yet that I cannot "crippled all the chariots, except that he suppose these passages uncorrupted. Are reserved of them," &c. "Crippled," namely we to believe, that the same man is properly by breaking the wheels, or the axles. See LXX, Queen Elizabeth's Bible, and Parkhurst, .

called Hadadezer and Hadarezer—or Ahimelech and Abimelech, &c. Are we to say, with Bishop Patrick, that Methegammah in Samuel, is expounded to be Gath and its territories in Chronicles—or, that 700 in Samuel and 7,000 in Chronicles agree in sense, only the number in Samuel is expressed by an ellipsis? Other interrogatories might be put, and the impossibility of supposing the text entire in these passages might be largely insisted on. But as judicious remarks have been made on some of these mistakes by Mr. Hallet, I shall only mention one. The text in Chronicles tells us that “David took 1,000 chariots, and he did so, it was both unreasonable and in7,000 horsemen, and 20,000 footmen." But human; for, as he had so complete a vicin Samuel that "David took 1,000 (what?) tory, there was no danger of these horses and 700 horsemen, and 20,000 footmen." falling into the enemy's hands; and if he The omission of the word 27, chariots, seems did not choose to keep them, which indeed indubitable: LXX, Xiλia appaтa. But, how the law would not permit, he should have are we to account for the surprising variation killed them outright; and then the poor in the numbers; since av, 700, and innocent creatures would have been put out

David houghed all the chariot horses.] If

Dr. A. Clarke.—A thousand chariots.] It is strange that there were a thousand chariots, and only seven hundred horsemen taken, and twenty thousand foot. But as the discomfiture appears complete, we may suppose that the chariots, being less manageable, might be more easily taken, while the horsemen might, in general, make their escape. The infantry also seem to have been surrounded, when twenty thousand of them were taken prisoners.

now, 7,000, differ widely in letters and of pain. But does the text speak of houghsignification? We have here then another ing horses at all? It does not. Let us confirmation of what was supposed, page 96, hear: 711 ", And David dis&c., that the Jews formerly expressed the jointed all the chariots, except a hundred Bible numbers by single letters; and then chariots which he reserved for himself. the mistake is easy-i being 7,000, and † 700. Now, this destruction of the chariots was a The same mistake occurs in 2 Sam. x. 18, matter of sound policy, and strict piety. 7001, which in 1 Chron. xix. 18, is 7,000 i. God had censured those who trusted in Will any other hypothesis so naturally solve chariots; piety therefore forbade David the this repeated difficulty? use of them and lest they should fall into the enemy's hands, and be again used against him, policy induced him to destroy them. The Septuagint render the words nearly as I have done, kai mapeλvσe Aavid

Bp. Horsley. A thousand chariots, and seven hundred horsemen, and, &c. The word chariots is very properly inserted, upon the authority of the parallel place in Chronicles, and the version of the LXX here. In the παντα τα άρματα. parallel place in the book of Chronicles, and He kept however one hundred; probably in the version of the LXX, the number of as a sort of baggage or forage wagons. horsemen is 7,000, instead of 700, as we Gesen.- Piel, to hamstring, to hough, read here in the Hebrew text. I am much in- e. g., a horse, i.e., to cut the sinews of the clined to think that the true reading in both hind feet, by which the animal is rendered places is thus, "seven hundred chariots and wholly useless and unable to stand, Josh. a thousand horsemen." If these horsemen xi. 6, 9; 2 Sam. viii. 4; 1 Chron. xviii. 4; were, as I vehemently suspect, men riding of a bullock, Gen. xlix. 6. Sept., vevpoastride on the horses that drew the cars, if KOTTEIV. This was often and is still done in each car was drawn by a pair of horses, the war by the victors, when unable to carry off number of horsemen, if all were taken, with them the horses captured.—Arab. should be double the number of the cars. See 1 Sam. xiii. 5. But of 1,400 such id.

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