knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he would raise up Christ to sit on his throne.'

pare Dr. Kennicott's Posth. Dr. Kennicott, not perceiving the identity of the two words and , was not aware that the two passages render the very same sense, with Bp. Horsley.-19 "And is this the man- no other difference than the advantage of ner of man, O Lord God?"


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1 8 2 Sam. vii. 19.


perspicuity, and perhaps of accuracy, in
reciting David's very words, on the side of
the author of the Book of Chronicles.
owe, however, to Dr. Kennicott the im-
portant hint, that 77, in Samuel, and

אדני יהוה

.17 .Chr. xvii 1 וראיתני כתור * האדם

,in Chronicles, allude to Christ, האדם המעלה המעלה יהוה אלהים

and to none else, which led me to the right
understanding of both passages.

Such is the custom, &c., i. e., as I understand it. This condescension is great indeed! for God to conform himself to our human usages, and show the same solicitude about my posterity, as a parent shows for his own.

When these two passages are considered in their respective contexts, it is manifest that they are exactly parallel; and both, Ged.-19 And, as if this were but a small when rightly understood, must render the thing, in thy sight, O Lord God! thou hast very same sense. The varieties in the ex-spoken of thy servant's house, for a great pression being only such, as the writer in while to come! Such, O Lord God! is the the Book of Chronicles has introduced, ac- custom of mankind! cording to his manner for the sake of greater accuracy in relating the words of another, or to explain words and phrases that might seem doubtful in the narrative of the more ancient author. Hence it is to be inferred that the words in Samuel, and in the Book of Chronicles, are words of the very same import, and are to be referred to the same root, differing only in the gender, which is feminine in Samuel, and masculine in Chronicles. The writer of the Book of Chronicles probably preferred the masculine form, to prevent the necessity of referring the noun to the root, from which the femininen may, but the masculine cannot, be derived. The true root, therefore, in the judgment of the inspired writer of the Book of Chronicles, was ; and the two passages may be thus expounded:

2 Sam. vii. 19. "And this [namely, what was said about his house in distant times] is the arrangement about the MAN, O Lord


Booth.-18 Who am I, O Lord Jehovah ! and what is my house, that hitherto thou hast so promoted me? 19 And, as if this was but a small thing in thine eyes, O God Jehovah, thou hast spoken also of thy servant's house, for a great while to come. And is this the manner of man, O God Jehovah?

19 And is this the manner.] Geddes renders, "Such, O Lord God, is the custom of mankind." So Houbigant and others, and they suppose that David wondered that God should show the same solicitude about his posterity, that parents do about their own children. Our version considers it as denoting that the kindness which God had shown, was far beyond what man has either the inclination, or the ability to bestow; and this seems as probable as any.

Houb.-19 Sed et parum tibi hoc fuit, Domine, Deus, meus: Tu enim de domo servi tui in posterum longè provides, ut mos est filiorum hominum.

1 Chron. xvii. 17. "And thou hast regarded me in the arrangement about the MAN that is to be from above, O God Jehovah." That is, in forming the scheme of the incarnation, regard was had to the nnnan, Ut mos est...Hæc leguntur

honour of David and his house as

, וראיתני בתור האדם המעלה,17 .a | sic in I Paral. xvii

secondary object, by making it a part of fecisti me aspectabilem, secundum formam the plan, that the Messiah should be born viri excellentis. Incertum nobis est, utrum in his family. This is indisputably the varia ex scriptura. Sed sententia utraque cum sense of both passages, though far more bona sit, nihil hoc loco mutandum. ́Admiclearly expressed by the later writer. Com-ratur David, Deum velle sibi benefacere, vel mortuo, ut mos est hominum, qui benevolentiam suam erga proximos testamento sanseems to be the better reading of the two. The ciunt, voluntque in filios derivari, et esse

Some of Kennicott's MSS. have,

sense according to either will be the same.



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Dathe.-19 Atque hoc tibi parum visumy inby binan

est, nisi quoque posteris meis longe remotis promiseris, quæ legis instar a te latæ hominis

bus erunt observanda.

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אֲשֶׁר פָּרִיתָ 24 וַתְּכוֹנֵן לְךָ אֶת־עַמָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵלוּ לְךָ לְעָם עַד־עוֹלָם וְאַתָּה יְהוָה הָיִיתָ Que legis, fc. Ex tot interpretationibus allatis זאת תּוֹרַת הָאָדָם ad verba hec difficilia

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.23 .v ל' דגושה

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eam eligo, quam obiter dedit Celeb. Schnurrerus in fascic. ii. animadv. ad Jobum, p. 9. Nomen rectum sæpe denotat eum, ad quem 23 καὶ τίς ὡς ὁ λαός σου Ἰσραὴλ ἔθνος ἄλλο lex pertinet, ut Levit. xii. 7 mm Ι, ἐν τῇ γῇ; ὡς ὡδήγησεν αὐτὸν ὁ θεὸς τοῦ hac est lex, quæ spectat puerperam ; Levit. λυτρώσασθαι αὐτῷ λαὸν, τοῦ θέσθαι σε ὄνομα, κιν. 2 π π mm ni; Num. vi. 13, τοῦ ποιῆσαι μεγαλωσύνην καὶ ἐπιφάνειαν, τοῦ Sic in nostro loco DNA mm, lex ἐκβαλεῖν σε ἐκ προσώπου τοῦ λαοῦ σου, οὓς hominibus observanda, et sensus verborum ἐλυτρώσω σεαυτῷ ἐξ Αἰγύπτου ἔθνη καὶ σκηest: promissio hæc tua vim legis habebit νώματα; 24 καὶ ἡτοίμασας σεαυτῷ τὸν λαόν apud homines, quam abs te latam nemo σου Ἰσραὴλ εἰς λαὸν ἕως αἰῶνος, καὶ σὺκύριε mortalium poterit reddere irritam. éyévov avtois eis Ocóv.

, הורה הנזיר


24 For thou hast confirmed to thyself thy people Israel to be a people unto thee for ever: and thou, LORD, art become their God.

Maurer.-19 DIN in ] Schnurrerus, Au. Ver.-23 And what one nation in Schulzius, Dathius hunc horum verborum the earth is like thy people, even like Israel, sensum esse statuunt: et hæc erit lex homi- whom God went to redeem for a people to num, hominibus observanda, i. e., promissio himself, and to make him a name, and to do hæc tua vim legis habebit apud homines, for you great things and terrible, for thy land, quam abs te latam nemo mortalium poterit before thy people, which thou redeemedst to reddere irritam. Coll. Lev. xii. 7: in thee from Egypt, from the nations and their ni, hæc est lex puerperæ, h. e., quæ spectat puerperam, ib. xiv. 2: mia mga nai v, hæc esto lex leprosi, leproso servanda al. At enim vero, quum nostro hoc loco in antecedentibus non, ut in ll. ll. de lege, sed de promissione sermo sit, scriptori, si dicere voluisset, promissionem illam apud posteros vim legis habituram esse, haud dubie dicendum fuisset: Dingaan. Equidem assentior Grotio ita interpretanti: atqui hæc est consuetudo hominis, non dei (p, E, agendi ratio), i. e., ita familiariter mecum agis, ut homines cum hominibus agere solent. Cf. vs. 14. Quam interpretationem etiam Gesenio et Winero probari video.

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Ver. 23, 24.


Hallet.-23 In this verse there are three errors of the transcribers.

1. They have written D, i. e., God, they went, as if the word Elohim, required a verb of the plural number. But in the parallel place of the Chronicles, 1 Chron. xvii. 21, the verb is, as it should be, in the singular number, DT, he went. The transcribers have taken the from the beginning of the latter word, turned it into a 1, and then placed it at the end of the former word. See on Gen. xxxi. 53.

2. The transcribers have put in the word, you, and quite spoiled the grammar of this verse. When David was retired from all the world, and speaking to God, it cannot be thought he would, in the manner as here represented, address himself to the Israelites. Every reader will see the error, when he reads this part of the sentence, thus, God went to do for you great things—before thy people. The sense demonstrates, we should read, them, i. e., thy people Israel, before mentioned. For , it should be : so the Vulgar Latin reads, and the Arabic.

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The LXX omit the word, and so did the בָּאֶרֶץ אֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ־אֱלֹהִים לִפְדּוֹת־לוֹ .tranuscriber of Chronicles לְעָם וְלָשׂוּם לְוֹ שָׁם וְלַעֲשׂוֹת לָכֶם


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3. The words, for thy land, come in oddly, | appeal to God, must have been one and the and disturb the sense.

for thy land, it should be , to drive out,

.same originally, לארצך Instead of

ומי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ .as it is in the parallel place, 1 Chron אשר הלך האלהים לפדות לו לעם xvii. 21. And then there will be no occasion ולשום לו שם ולעשות להם הגדולות to supply the word, from, in the last clause ונוראות לגרש מפני עמך אשר פדית | of the verse, as our translators have here

done; but all would run smooth and easy, as

לך ממצרים גוים ואלהיהם: ותכונן | in Chron. thus ; to do for them great things לך את עמך ישראל לך לעם עד and terrible, to drive out before thy people עולם ואתה .c&

(which thou redeemedst to thee from Egypt) the nations and their gods; i. e., to drive out the nations and their gods before thy people. Ken.-23, 24 Among all the methods of discovering the errors in the present Heb. text, the best is to compare parallel places; the great use of which has been already demonstrated, and will the more fully appear, the more carefully such places are compared. The verses, parallel to those here referred to, are 1 Chron. xvii. 21, 22; and the following comparison of them will discover some corruptions, not variations only, but corruptions, properly so called. For this thanksgiving, or prayer, of David was spoke in only one certain manner; consequently where two copies of it express the same parts in a different manner, it may be presumed that one of the copies is there corrupted.

And what one nation on earth is like thy people, like Israel! whom God went to redeem for a people to himself, and to make great and terrible, to drive out from before himself a name, and to do for them things thy people (whom thou redeemedst to thee out of Egypt) the nations and their gods! And thou hast confirmed to thyself thy people for thou, JEHOVAH, hast been their God. Israel, to be a people unto thee for ever;

I shall now compare the variations, with which the name of God is expressed in these two copies of David's prayer.

2. S. 19.

3. S. 19.


יהוה .18 .S .1 Adonai Jehovah אדני Jehovah Elohim יהוה אלהים .16 . Adonai Jehovah אדני

Adonai Jehovah אדני

Adonai Jehovah אדני

אלהים .17 .C

.Sam ומי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד Jehovah Elohim יהוה אלהים .17 .C .Chron ומי כעמך ישראל גוי אחד יהוה .20 .S .4 אלהים אשר הלכו .Sam בארץ אשר הלך האלהים .Chron בארץ

C. 19.

Jehovah יהוה Jehovah Elohim יהוה אלהים .22 .S .5 Jehovah יהוה

C. 20.

Jehovah Elohim יהוה אלהים .25 .S .6

Jehovah יהוה

יה .


C. 23. 7. S. 26.

יה: צבאות אלהי ישראל .24 .

אלהים על ישראל

אלהים לישראל

S. 26.

C. 24.

.Sam לפדות לו לעם ולשום לו לשים לך עם .Chron לו .Sam שם ולעשות לכם הגדולה . . גדלות .Chron שם

.Sam ונראות לארצך מפני עמך מפני עמך לגרש .Chron ונוראות .Sam אשר פדית לך ממצרים גוים

.Chron אשר פרית • . ממצרים גוים יהוה צבאות אלהי ישראל .27 .S .8

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.Sam ישראל לך לעם .c&
.Chron ישראל לך לעם .c& יהוה .29 .S .10 Adonai Jehovah אדני

Jehovah יהוה

C. 27.

There being mistakes here in both copies, I shall subjoin what seems to have been the true text; for certainly both places, as they contain the same parts of one and the same

The first remark on these strange variations may be, that " Adonai, being a word of very inferior dignity (used by a servant to

for them [see note of Hallet above] great and terrible things, to drive out [see note of Hallet] before thy people, whom thou redeemedst to thyself from Egypt, the nations and their gods? 24 For thou hast confirmed to thyself thy people Israel to be thy people for ever; and thou Jehovah art become their God.

his master) is a mean word to be substituted | earth is like thy people Israel, whom thou, O instead of that name, "which is above every God, wentest to redeem for a people to thyname," the awful and incommunicable name self, and to make thyself a name, and to do Jehovah. That the Jews have superstitiously omitted the latter, and supplied it by the former, has been observed page 158 and 321. And from some places it appears, that where they have retained the word Jehovah, they have put in Adonai before it, to strike the reader's eye first, and so to prevent his pronouncing the word Jehovah after it. We have here several instances, in which the Houb.-23 Nam quæ una gens in terrâ, words have been changed into "ut populus tuus Israel, unquam fuit, quam , as appears from Chronicles, where the Deus per viam deduxerit, ut sibi populum word is not found once; but even in vindicaret, ut ei nomen faceret, ut patraret Samuel the words D, are preserved res mirabiles ac stupendas; ut cùm tu coram in the fifth and sixth instances. That the populo tuo, quem Egypto redemeras, exwords in the first instance were formerly in pulisti gentes et ipsarum Deos? 24 Et cum Samuel, as they are now in Chron., appears populum tuum Israel tu tibi proprium in perfrom the Syr. version, the Vulgate, and the petuum fecisti, ut tu, Domine, esses eorum Chald. paraphrase; which same authorities Deus? are uniform in the second, third, and fourth 23 D, Durit eum Deus; melius instances. That Chron. had formerly, in voce Hiphil, quam exhibent Græci in the second instance, may be presumed from the Chald. paraphrase; and that it had DN in the fourth is confirmed by Kupie o Oeos in the Gr. version. As to the seventh instance, the words have perhaps been inserted by mistake; for they are not in Sam. and seem redundant. The eighth instance seems greatly defective in Chronicles. And the ninth and tenth instances seem to have been in both copies; Camb. MS. 1 has it so in ver. 28, in Samuel. In the six places in Samuel now 8, the points belong to ; so that these were certainly the words when the points were first invented: and these are now the words in the Chald. paraphrase. I shall only add, that there appears to be a necessity for allowing, that, in these two copies of the same prayer, spoke once only, the preceding invocations were at first the same.

Ged.-23 For what one nation on the earth is like thy people, the Israelites? What nation is there, which any god hath gone to redeem for a peculiar people; hath, thereby, acquired so great a name, or done so great and wonderful things, as thou hast done, by expelling from before thy people, whom thou redeemedst, for thyself, out of Egypt, whole nations, and their gods? (24) For thy people, the Israelites, thou hast decreed to be thy people for ever; and thou, O Lord! art to be their God.

Booth.-23 And what one nation on the

Intt. hoc modo: ódýynoev avròv, duxit eum. Illi qui habent, ut verbum plurale iverunt, quique inde colligunt nomen, cum Deum verum notat, non respuere numerum pluralem, pugnant cum affixo singulari, quod mox sequitur, et præterea sententiæ rectum tramitem deserunt, quæ vult duxit eum (ut redimeret), non autem ivit, quod ivit non bene consociatur cum eodem ut redimeret...moh, et ut faceret vobis, lege, illis, tertia in persona, quam sequuntur Vulgatus et Syrus. Davidis sermo est ad Deum, non ad populum; itaque non dixerit, vobis..." : hæc duo verba dissociabilia sunt.

Nam, a facie (po

puli tui) causam aliquam indicat, quam notare non potest nomen substantivum terræ tuæ. Est, opinor, antiqua scriptio, T, ut expelleres, nisi, ut currere faceres, vel ut verteres in fugam a facie (populi tui gentes.) Legitur loco parallelo w, ad expellendum, quod ejusdem sententiæ est, non tamen huc inferendum, quia non satis simile mendo .

Dathe.-23 Ad quem tibi vindicandum tu ipse processisti ad nomen tibi faciendum, atque ut propter eum magna et terribilia patrares, expellendo nempe propter populum tuum, quem tibi ex Ægypto redemisti, gentes Cananæas earumque Deos. 24 Hunc igitur tuum populum stabilies, ut populum tibi sacrum in perpetuum, erisque ejus Deus.

Propter eum. Pro legendum puto

. Sic Vulgatus et Syrus. Apostrophe ammah [or, the bridle of Ammah] out of ad populum directa nimis dura videtur. the hand of the Philistines. Metheg-ammah.

Expellendo. Pro in loco parallelo 1 Chron. xvii. 21 legitur . Sic quoque οἱ ὁ : τοῦ ἐκβαλεῖν σε.

Maurer.-23 ] est dativus commodi s. pleonasticus quem dicunt (ut prius vs. 24), ad referendus, et hanc ipsam ob causam in plurali positus (ut præcedens ), nisi fortasse legendum est . Transitus a persona tertia ad secundam, quæ etiam in seqq. servatur, nihil miri habet. Plerique pronomen ad populum referentes legi volunt antecc. ita junge: quem tibi redemisti ex Ægypto (ejus), gentibus ejusque diis.

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Ver. 28.

Houb., Dathe, Hallet, Booth.-Gath and her towns [pp. 1 Chron. xviii. 1].

Ged.-1 After this, David smote the Philistines, and subdued them: for out of the hands of the Philistines he took Gath, their metropolis.

Pool.-Metheg-ammah, i. e., Gath and her towns, as it is expressed in the parallel place, 1 Chron. xviii. 1, which are called Methegammah, or the bridle of Ammah, because Gath was situate in the mountain of Ammah; and because this being the chief city of the Philistines, and having a king, which none of the rest had, was the bridle which had hitherto kept the Israelites in subjection, but now was taken out of their mouths.

Bp. Patrick.-Metheg-ammah.] That is,

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the famous city of Gath, and the territories הָאֱלֹהִים וגו':

καὶ νῦν κύριέ μου κύριε, σὺ εἶ θεός, κ.τ.λ. Au. Ver.-28 And now, O Lord GOD, thou art that God, and thy words be true, and thou hast promised this goodness unto thy servant.

thereof (as it is expounded, 1 Chron. xviii. 1), which is called Metheg-ammah, because it stood upon mount Ammah; and was as a bridle to the whole country, whereby it was kept in obedience. So our translators Commentaries and Essays.—And now, O understand the word Metheg in the margin Lord God, thou art that God. This version of our Bibles. But R. Solomon takes it for by no means expresses the true meaning a goad, or a staff; this city domineering and force of the original; which is over the Philistines. For we read of no DON, Thou art He, the God, the God by way of eminence, the true and only God. It might therefore be better expressed perhaps in our idiom, and thou, O Lord God, art the only God, or God alone, 1 is often understood, when not written, especially, when there is an emphasis in the expression, as here, . So Ruth i. 17, death alone. The phrase here therefore answers in its true meaning to the parallel one, Is. xxxvii. 16, where is expressed,


king in any of their other cities; either in
Gaza, or Ashdod, or Ekron, or Askelon; but
only in this: where Achish formerly reigned,
but, it is likely, was dead. There are several
other interpretations in Bochart's Hiero-
zoicon, lib. ii., cap. 18, par. i.

Hallet.-Whoever will take the pains to
compare this chapter with 1 Chron. xviii.,
which relates the very same history, and, for
the greatest part, in the very same words,
will not be able, I should think, to avoid
being convinced, that the Jews have been
guilty of many errors in transcribing this
chapter. In ver. 1 it is said, "David took
The critics have not

האלהים לברך

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-ammah is. Bishop Patrick says, It is e וַיַּכְנִיעַם וַיִּקְח דָּוִד אֶת־מֶתֶג הָאַמָּה

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καὶ ἐγένετο μετὰ ταῦτα, καὶ ἐπάταξε Δαυίδ τοὺς ἀλλοφύλους, καὶ ἐτροπώσατο αὐτούς. καὶ ἔλαβε Δαυὶδ τὴν ἀφωρισμένην ἐκ χειρὸς τῶν ἀλλοφύλων.

been able to determine what this Metheg

pounded to be Gath, and its territories,
1 Chron. xviii. 1." He should have said,
that Metheg-ammah is one of the errata of
the scribes, and that they should have written
in Sam. as it is in Chron. Gath, and her



את is oddly turned into את גת ובנתיה

Au. Ver.-1 And after this it came to pass, that David smote the Philistines, and Bp. Horsley.-Metheg-ammah, frenum trisubdued them and David took Metheg-buti, Vulg.; the bridle of bondage, Queen

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