God shall give unto him the throne of his Syr. version (at ver. 8) tells us was defather David; and he shall reign over the livered by a prophet, and the Arab. says, house of Jacob for ever: and of his king-"by the prophet Gad." This second mesdom there shall be no end." In ver. 16, sage was after David's many wars, when he Tis here rendered as ", on the autho- had shed much blood; and it was this rity of one Hebrew MS., with the Gr. and second message, that, out of all David's Syr. versions; and indeed nothing could be sons, appointed Solomon to be his successor. established for ever in the presence of David, At the time of the first message Solomon but in the presence of God only. So Dr. was not born; it being delivered soon after S. Clarke. David became king at Jerusalem: but SoloHaving thus shown, that the words fairly mon was born at the time of this second admit here the promise made to David, that message. For though our translation very from his seed should arise Messiah, the ever- wrongly says (1 Chron. xxii. 9), "A son lasting king; it may be necessary to add, shall be born to thee, and his name shall be that, if the Messiah be the person here Solomon ; yet the Hebrew text expressly meant, as suffering innocently for the sins of speaks of him as then born, "Behold, a others, Solomon cannot be; nor can this be son, (†, natus est) is born to thee; and a prophecy admitting such double sense, or therefore the words following must be renbe applied properly to two such opposite dered, "Solomon is his name, and I will characters. "Of whom speaketh the give peace in his days; he shall build an prophet this? of himself, or of some other house for my name, &c." man?" This was a question properly put by the Ethiopian treasurer (Acts viii. 34), who never dreamt, that such a description as he was reading could relate to different persons: and Philip shews him, that the person was Jesus only. So here, it may be asked, Of whom speaketh the prophet this? of Solomon, or of Christ? It must be answered, Of Christ: one reason is, because the description does not agree to Solomon; and therefore Solomon, being necessarily excluded in a single sense, must also be excluded in a double. Lastly: if it would be universally held absurd to consider the promise of Messiah made to Abraham as relating to any other person besides Messiah; why is there not an equal absurdity, in giving a double When guilt is laid upon him. sense to the promise of Messiah thus made, is the gerund, in the Niphal form, of to David? Now the verb, in Piel, signifies to find guilty, or to condemn, in a judicial process [see Psalm cxix. 78]. Hence, in Niphal, it should signify to be found guilty, or to be condemned. Here it denotes the imputation of guilt to the Messiah.

Bp. Horsley.-10 I will appoint—will plant-that may dwell—and move no more— neither shall; rather, I have appointed— have planted—and they dwell—and are disturbed no more-neither do.

11 Israel, and have caused thee to rest; rather, Israel: and I have given thee rest.

14 If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men: 15 But my mercy shall not depart away from him, &c.; rather, insomuch that when guilt is laid upon him, although I chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men; 15 Yet my mercy shall not depart from him, &c.

The rod of men, the rod due to men. See Kennicott's Posthumous Dissertations.

Next to our present very improper translation, the cause of the common confusion here has been, not distinguishing the promise here made, as to Messiah alone, from another made as to Solomon alone; the first brought by Nathan, the second by Gad; the first near the beginning of David's reign, the second near the end of it; the first, relating to Messiah's spiritual kingdom, everlasting without conditions; the second, been generally understood, with the rest of relating to the fate of the temporal kingdom the prophecy. This clause as it has been of Solomon, and his heirs, depending en- generally understood, is inapplicable to the tirely on their obedience or rebellion. Messiah. All the rest of the prophecy is 1 Chron. xxii. 8-13, and xxviii. 7. Let applicable to him, and some parts of it, in the first message be compared with this the full extent of the terms, is inapplicable second in 1 Chron. xxii. 8-13; which the to any one else. It is very remarkable,

This rendering of this clause entirely removes its apparent incoherence, as it has

. עות the verb

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. בהערתך

however, that the whole clause, if he commit pointed judges to be over my people, the

iniquity men, is omitted in the parallel place in the first Book of Chronicles.

16 Before thee. Read, with LXX, and some MSS. of Kennicott's and De Rossi's, , before me.

Thy house-thy kingdom-thy throne ;— his house-his kingdom-his throne. LXX. This whole verse is conceived in much stronger terms in the parallel place of the First Book of Chronicles, xvii. 14.

Israelites. To thyself, too, I will give tranquillity from all thine enemies. The Lord moreover assureth thee, that he will build a house for thee: (12) for when thine own days shall be completed, and when with thy forefathers thou shalt sleep, I will place on thy throne a son of thine own seed, of thine own body begotten; and his kingdom I will establish. (13) He will build a house for my name; and I will establish, for ever, the throne of his kingdom. (14) I will be his father, and he shall be my son: if he commit iniquity, I will chastise him with the rod of men, and with human stripes: (15) but

"But I will establish him in My house and in my kingdom for ever, and his throne shall be firm for evermore."

Commentaries and Essays.-16 And thy house and thy kingdom shall be established my benevolence I will not [LXX, Syr., for ever before thee; thy throne, &c. There Arab., Vulg., and two MSS.] withdraw from is a considerable difference between Samuel him, as I did from Saul, whom I rejected and Chronicles in their parallel accounts of from before me [LXX, Syr., and four this prophecy. In Samuel, these words seem MSS.]: (16) but his [LXX] house and to be spoken of David, thy house, thy king- his [LXX] kingdom shall, for ever, be dom, thy throne. In 1 Chron. xvii. 14, the established, before me: his [LXX] throne prophecy relates to the son of David, I will shall be, for ever, established. settle him, in my house, and in my kingdom; Booth.-9 And I have been with thee and his throne, &c. That this relates to the whithersoever thou wentest, and have cut off son of David is most probable from the from before thee all thine enemies. Also context, as the prophecy relates not to David thy name I will make as great as the name himself, but the son of David; and that it of the great ones, who are on the earth. was originally his house, his kingdom, his 10 Moreover I will appoint a place for my throne, here, in Samuel, appears from the people Israel, and will so plant them, that Greek version, which has ó oikos avтov, kaι they may dwell in their own place, and move ἡ βασιλεια αὐτου and ὁ θρονος αὐτοῦ· Fur- no more; nor shall wicked men afHict them ther, instead of before thee, the Greek has any more, as formerly; 11 As from the before me, which is undoubtedly right, (so time I appointed judges over my people also Syriac, and one MS. reads now, and Israel. To thee also will I give rest from fortè another,) as it certainly refers to God, thine enemies. Moreover, I Jehovah declare the speaker here, before me, and so David to thee, that I will build up thy house. understood it, as ap ears from verse 29. 12 For when thy days shall be completed, This verse then in Samuel, should run thus, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will and his house and his kingdom shall be estab-raise up thy seed after thee, the offspring of blished for ever before me, and (the LXX. thine own body, and I will establish his kingread the 1), his throne shall be for ever firm, dom. 13 He shall build a house for my and the reading in Chronicles should be name, and I will establish the throne of his settle him in his house, and in his kingdom, kingdom for ever. 14 I will be his father, and his throne, &c. The LXX have here and he shall be my son. If he commit iniβασιλεια αυτου. quity, I will chastise him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men: 15 But my kindness I will not [LXX., Vulg., Syr., Arab., and two MSS.] withdraw from him as I did from Saul, whom I removed from before thee. 16 And his house and his kingdom shall be established for ever before me: his throne shall be established for ever. Houb.

Ged.-9 I have been with thee, in all thy expeditions, and have cut off, from before thee, all thine enemies. Thy name I will render as great as the names of the grandees of the earth (10) a place, also, I will secure for my people, the Israelites, and so plant them in it, that they shall no more be removed, but remain in their own place: nor shall iniquitous men any more oppress them, 9 Ego, quocunque ivisti, una (11) as formerly, from the time when I ap- tecum fui, et delevi ante te omnes inimicos

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tuos; ego feci tibi nomen magnum, ut nomen | templum ædificabit, huic thronum regni sui est eorum, qui in terra magni fuerunt. 10 stabiliam in perpetuum. 14 Ego patris Præterea constitui populo meo Israel locum; instar ei ero, ipse mihi instar filii. Si deego plantavi eum, ut, ubi est, habitet, neque liquerit, castigabo eum, sed disciplina paterna, amplius moveatur, neque eos filii iniquitatis plagis humanis. 15 Gratiam vero meam ei adhuc opprimant; ut fecerunt antea, et jam non subtraham, quemadmodum eam subtraxi inde ex quo præfeceram populo meo Israel Saulo, quem prorsus b) repudiavi. 16 FaJudices. 11 Ego etiam te ab omnibus hos-milia tua regnum per me [LXX, Syr.] obtibus tutum feci. Dominus autem tibi in- tinebit sempiternum, thronus tuus stabilietur super declarat, se domum tibi ædificaturum. in perpetuum. 12 Postquam tu dies tuos expleveris, et cum a) Quoniam ex vers. 1 dubio caret, Dapatribus tuis decubueris; ego excitabo post te videm hanc promissionem accepisse sub finem semen tuum, qui ex lumbis tuis egredietur, vitæ suæ, sequitur, Salomonem eo tempore regnumque ejus confirmabo. 13 Ille ædifi- jam natum fuisse. Igitur non, sed cabit domum nomini meo; ego autem regni est legendum. Quod recte monuit Michaëlis. ejus solium stabiliam ad perpetuitatem. b) Pro Toi ó, Vulgatus, Syrus lege14 Ego ero illi pater, et ipse erit mihi filius; runt . Chaldæus receptam lectionem qui cum delinquet, ego eum percutiam virga expressit, quæ etiam defendi potest, sed virorum, et plagis filiorum hominum. 15 Sed priori favet contextus.

non subtraham ab eo benevolentiam meam, Maurer.-15 TIP DIDO WY, Quem requomodo eam subtraxi a Saüle, quem amovi, movi e conspectu tuo, removi a regno, ut tibi tibi loco cessurum. 16 Erit domus tua locum faceret. Cf. 1. parall. 1 Chron. stabilis et regnum tuum coram me [LXX., xvii. 13. Igitur non audiendi sunt, qui pro Syr.] perpetuum; thronus tuus stabit ad T legi jubent pp. perpetuitatem. placeret. Cf. vs. 26. Sed potest etiam

.defendi לְפָנֶיךָ Male inter : בראשונה : ולמן היום .11 & 10

hæc verba punctum majus. Etenim sententia sic continuatur, (non eum oppriment amplius,) ut in principio, et ex die, quo... Interpunctio major post, collocanda est; propterea nos versum 10um. continuamus usque ad populum meum Israel.

Ver. 17.

Magis [לְפָנֶיךָ 16

Au. Ver.-Nathan.
Ged.-Nathan the prophet [Syr.].

Ver. 18.

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14: Nos, qui cum delinquet,
obsecuti veteribus, nec non sententiæ, quan-
quam non ipsis verbis, quæ quidem ad gram-
maticæ normas adduci non possunt. Græciθισεν ἐνώπιον κυρίου, κ.τ.λ.

Intt. καὶ ἐὰν ἔλθῃ ἡ ἀδικία ἀυτοῦ, et si venerit
iniquitas ejus, ex scriptura
N, pa-
rum Hebraica. Forte olim legebatur,
wet ingredietur in sua iniquitate, vel cum
in sua iniquitate ambulabit; nam, nectens
membra orationis, sæpe est cum, vel si.

Dathe.-9 Tibi adfui in rebus tuis omnibus, perdidi hostes tuos, tantumque tibi nomen feci, quantum solet summorum in terrarum orbe regum. 10 Sedes certas assignavi populo xix. 4; or he might sit for a season whilst meo Israëlitico, in quibus sine ullo timore he was meditating upon these things, and constanti felicitate frui possit, neque amplius then alter this posture (though it be not here ab improbo hoste affligetur, uti olim 11 aut expressed), and betake himself to prayer. eo tempore, quo judices ei præfeceram. Et Or rather, secondly, His continuance there, tibi quoque quietem concessi ab hostibus tuis as this Hebrew word is oft used, as Gen: omnibus. Præterea tibi promitto, te posteros xxvii. 44; Lev. xiv. 8; 1 Sam. i. 22; habiturum esse, in quibus regia dignitas ser- xx. 19, that he did not barely present himvabitur. 12 Completis diebus tuis, si cum self before God but abode there for some majoribus tuis obdormieris, filio tuo a te competent time, that he might with God's nato a) regnum confirmabo. 13 Is mihi leave pour out his soul freely before him.


καὶ εἰσῆλθεν ὁ βασιλεὺς Δαυὶδ, καὶ ἐκά

Au. Ver.-18 Then went king David in, and sat before the LORD, and he said, Who am I, O LORD God? and what is my house, that thou hast brought me hitherto?

Pool.-Sat: this word may note either, first, His bodily gesture; for there is no certain gesture to which prayer is limited; and we have examples of saints praying in that posture, Exod. xvii. 12; 1 Kings

For howsoever one may in some cases pray ticularly Vetablus, upon 1 Chron. xvii. 16.
sitting, yet it is most probable that David And others, who allow the king might sit in
would in this holy place, and upon this oc- the temple, yet confess he might not sit at
casion, use a more humble and reverent prayer; and therefore expound this place
gesture, such as kneeling is, which therefore thus: "He took his seat in the taber-
David prescribeth or adviseth, Psal. xcv. 6, nacle before the ark;" and then he made
and Solomon accordingly practiseth, 1 Kings the following prayer, standing up,
viii. 54; 2 Chron. vi. 13.
the manner was, when they worshipped


Ken.-And king David went in and SAT

Bp. Patrick.-18 Then went king David in, and sat before the Lord.] That is, before the ark; which, as I have often said, was before the Lord, &c. It seems very strange, the symbol of his Divine presence. Sitting, that David, when coming before the ark, to among the heathens, was thought a posture express his solemn thanks, should sIT and proper enough in the Divine service; as not rather stand, as Solomon did, 1 Kings Vossius hath observed, lib. ii. De Orig. et iii. 15. The original word here has two Progressu Idololat., cap. 34. Quippe index significations, as derived from different verbs; animi magis compositi, et hoc agentis; in the first verse of this chapter it signifies "being an indication of a more composed he sat; but in the twentieth verse of the mind, and attending to what they were preceding chapter it signifies, and is properly about." But among the Israelites none translated, he returned. David was come were allowed to sit in the temple, except the back from the ark to his own house, there king: unto whom this was indulged, if we he passed the night, there he was visited the can believe the Talmudists; whose general next day by Nathan, and then he returned maxim was this, "It was not lawful for any to the ark, there to offer up to God his one to sit in the court of the house of God; thanksgiving. but only for the king of the house of David" Dr. Adam Clarke.-Sat before the Lord]. (see Selden, lib. ii. De Synedriis, cap. xiii., Sometimes, when a Hindoo seeks a favour sect. 4). But they have framed this notion from a superior, he sits down in his presence merely from this single passage; there being in silence; or if he solicits some favour of no other place in the whole Scripture to a god, as riches, children, &c., he places support this assertion, that the king might himself before the idol, and remains in a sit at prayer; but, on the contrary, on the waiting posture, or repeats the name of the sabbath, and on festival days, when he came god, counting the beads in his necklace.— to the temple, he stood by the exterior pillar Ward. of the inward court of the house of God; as may be learnt from Ezek. xlvi. 1, 2, com-nacle; where placing himself before the pared with 2 Kings xi. 14, and 2 Chron. Lord, he said, &c. xxiii. 13. Nor is their any other posture of Booth.-Sat before Jehovah]. Sitting as worship mentioned in Scripture, but stand- the Arabs do was expressive of the greatest ing, or kneeling, or falling on the face. humiliation, and therefore no improper posAnd therefore Abarbinel ingenuously con- ture for one that appeared before the ark of fesses, that this is not the opinion of all God. their doctors, several of which in this forsake the Talmudists; and allege a weighty reason for it because the angels themselves, who are higher than kings, are not permitted to sit before the Lord: but Isaiah saith, vi. 2, that the seraphim stood about the throne; and Micaiah saith, he saw the host of heaven stand before the Lord, 1 Kings xxii. 19, and see Zech. iii. 7. From which they conclude, if there be no sitting allowed above, by what right was it granted to the kings of David's family here below? Many great men therefore translate the Hebrew word jashab, not

Ged. Then David went into the taber


Dathe.-18 Tum hic locum sacrum rursum adiit et sic coram Jova est precatus.

Rursum adiit. Pro 1, et consedit, aliis punctis subjectis, lego . Frustra laborant interpretes in afferenda ratione, cur Davidi licuerit, in loco sacro sedere. Sic quoque Michaelis. Nec tamen diffiteor, ex usu loquendi in hac constructione illud legendum esse ante .

Ver. 19.

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228 BINO Azim ni?ligibly, and is this the manner of man? this now rendered very unintel




literally וזאת תורת האדם Whereas the words יְהוָה:

Au. Ver.-19 And this was yet a small thing in thy sight, O LORD God; but thou hast spoken also of thy servant's house for a great while to come. And is this the manner [Heb., law] of man, O LORD God?

καὶ κατεσμικρύνθην μικρὸν ἐνώπιόν σου κύριέ signify, and this is (or must be) the law of μου κύριε, καὶ ἐλάλησας ὑπὲρ τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ the man, or of the Adam, i. e., this promise δούλου σου εἰς μακράν. οὗτος δὲ ὁ νόμος τοῦ must relate to the law, or ordinance, made ἀνθρώπου κύριέ μου κύριε. by God to Adam, concerning the seed of the woman; the man, or the second Adam: as the Messiah is expressly called by St. Paul, 1 Cor. xv. 45, 47. This meaning will be yet more evident from the parallel place, 1 Chron. xvii. 17: where the words of David are now miserably rendered thus, "and thou hast regarded me, according to the estate of a man of high degree." Whereas the words literally signify, and thou hast regarded me, according to the order of the ADAM THAT IS FUTURE, Or, THE MAN THAT IS FROM ABOVE (for the word on very remarkably signifies hereafter as to time, and from above as to place): and thus St. Paul, including both senses, "the second man is the Lord from heaven "—and, " Adam is the figure of him that was to come, or the future," Rom. v. 14. See the preface of the late learned Mr. Peters, on Job, referred to, and confirmed as to this interesting point, in a note subjoined to my sermon on "A virgin shall conceive," &c., p. 49-52, 8vo. 1765, a part of that note here follows:-"The speech of David (2 Sam. vii. 18—29) is such, as one might naturally expect from a person overwhelmed with the greatness of the promised blessing for it is abrupt, full of wonder, and fraught with repetitions. And now, what can David say unto thee?' What, indeed! For thou, Lord God, knowest thy servant: thou knowest the hearts of all men, and seest how full my own heart is. For thy word's sake,' for the sake of former prophecies; 'and according to thine own heart,' from the mere motive of thy wisdom and goodness; 'hast thou done all these great things, to make thy




Bp. Patrick.-19 Next, he magnifies the loving-kindness of God, who did not think it enough that he had made him a great king, but promised his posterity, and at last the Lord Christ, should sit upon his throne. So Abarbinel himself expounds these words, a great while to come;" intimating, saith he, the Messiah, the son of David. He ac- servant know them.' I now perceive the knowledges there was no example of such reason of those miraculous providences, kindness to be found in this world: where which have attended me from my youth up; kingdoms are not perpetuated, as Abarbinel'taken from following the sheep,' and conobserves; but this is the manner of angels, ducted through all difficulties to be ruler who always continue in their dignity. of thy people;' and shall I distrust the promise now made me? 'Thy words be true.' If the preceding remarks on this whole passage are just, and well-grounded; then may we see clearly the chief foundation of what St. Peter tells us (Acts ii. 30) concerning David, 'that, being a prophet, and 4 A

Ken.-From David's address to God, after receiving the message by Nathan, 'tis plain that David understood the son promised to be the Messiah; in whom his house was to be established for ever. But the words, which seem most expressive of this, are in


Pool. Is this the manner of man, O Lord God? do men use to deal so freely and kindly with their inferiors, as thou hast done with me? No: this is the prerogative of Divine grace, to give such promises and largesses as this. So these are words of admiration; which very well suit with the foregoing and following words. Or, And is this the manner, or law, or custom of mean or obscure men, &c.? as the Hebrew adam is confessed sometimes to signify, as Psalm xlix. 2; lxii. 9; Isaiah ii. 9; i. e., Is this the manner of men's dealing with mean and obscure persons, such as I am? So the Hebrew haadam is the genitive case of the object, which is frequent in the Hebrew and other languages. And this seems more probable, because it exactly agrees with the parallel place, 1 Chron. xvii. 17, where the words are, thou hast regarded me according to the estate of a man of high degree, i. e. thou hast dealt with me as if I had not been a poor mean shepherd, but the son of some great monarch, to whom such honours best agree.

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