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God shall give unto him the throne of his Syr. version (at ver. 8) tells us was defather David ; and he shall reign over the livered by a prophet, and the Arab. says, house of Jacob for ever : and of his king-" by the prophet Gad.” This second mesdom there shall be no end." In ver. 16, sage was after David's many wars, when he Tabs is here rendered as "), on the autho- had shed much blood; and it was this rity of one Hebrew MS., with the Gr. and second message, hat, out of all David's Syr. versions; and indeed nothing could be sons, appointed Solomon to be his successor. established for ever in the presence of David, At the time of the first message Solomon but in the presence of God only. So Dr. was not born; it being delivered soon after S, Clarke.
David became king at Jerusalem : but SoloHaving thus shown, that the words fairly mon was born at the time of this second admit here the promise made to David, that message. For though our translation very from his seed should arise Messiah, the ever- wrongly says (1 Chron. xxii. 9), “A son lasting king; it may be necessary to add, shall be born to thee, and his name shall be that, if the Messiah be the person here Solomon ; yet the Hebrew text expressly meant, as suffering innocently for the sins of speaks of him as then born, Behold, a others, Solomon cannot be; nor can this be son, (763, natus est) is born to thee ; and a prophecy admitting such double sense, or therefore the words following must be renbe applied properly to two such opposite dered, “Solomon is his name, and I will characters. “Of whom speaketh the give peace in his days; he shall build an prophet this ? of himself, or of some other house for my name, &c." man?” This was a question properly put by Bp. Horsley..-10 I will appoint — will the Ethiopian treasurer (Acts viii. 34), who plant—that may dwell- and move no morenever dreamt, that such a description as he neither shall; rather, I have appointedwas reading could relate to different persons : have planted—and they dwell—and are disand Philip shews him, that the person was turbed no more—neither do. Jesus only. So here, it may be asked, of 11 Israel, and have caused thee to rest ; whom speaketh the prophet this ? of Solomon, rather, Israel: and I have given thee rest. or of Christ? It must be answered, Of 14 If he commit iniquity, I will chasten Christ: one reason is, because the descrip- him with the rod of men, and with the stripes tion does not agree to Solomon ; and there- of the children of men :
15 But my mercy fore Solomon, being necessarily excluded in shall not depart away from him, &c.; rather, a single sense, must also be excluded in a insomuch that when guilt is laid upon him, double. Lastly: if it would be universally although I chasten him with the rod of men, held absurd to consider the promise of Mes- and with the stripes of the children of men; siah made to Abraham as relating to any 15 Yet my mercy shall not depart from him, other person besides Messiah ; why is there &c. not an equal absurdity, in giving a double When guilt is laid upon him. 197). sense to the promise of Messiah thus made 1972, is the gerund, in the Niphal form, of to David ?
the verb ny. Now the verb, in Piel, sigNext to our present very improper transla- nifies to find guilty, or to condemn, in a tion, the cause of the common confusion judicial process (see Psalm cxix. 78). Hence, here has been, not distinguishing the promise in Niphal, it should signify to be found here made, as to Messiah alone, from ano- guilty, or to be condemned. Here it denotes ther made as to Solomon alone; the first the imputation of guilt to the Messiah. brought by Nathan, the second by Gad; the The rod of men, the rod due to men. first near the beginning of David's reign, See Kennicott's Posthumous Dissertations. the second near the end of it; the first, This rendering of this clause entirely rerelating to Messiah's spiritual kingdom, moves its apparent incoherence, as it has everlasting without conditions; the second, been generally understood, with the rest of relating to the fate of the temporal kingdom the prophecy. This clause as it has been of Solomon, and his heirs, depending en- generally understood, is inapplicable to the tirely on their obedience or rebellion. Messiah. All the rest of the prophecy is 1 Chron, xxii. 8–13, and xxviii. 7. Let applicable to him, and some parts of it, in the first message be compared with this the full extent of the terms, is inapplicable second in 1 Chron. xxii. 8–13; which the to anyone else. It is
very remarkable, ever, the
however, that the whole clause, if he commit pointed judges to be over my people, the iniquity – men, is omitted in the parallel Israelites. To thyself, too, I will give tranplace in the first Book of Chronicles.
quillity from all thine enemies. The Lord 16 Before thee. Read, with LXX, and moreover assureth thee, that he will build a some MSS. of Kennicott's and De Rossi's, house for thee: (12) for when thine own obs, before me.
days shall be completed, and when with thy Thy house-lhy kingdom—thy throne ;- forefathers thou shalt sleep, I will place on his house—his kingdom—his throne. LXX. thy throne a son of thine own seed, of thine
This whole verse is conceived in much own body begotten; and his kingdom I will stronger terms in the parallel place of the establish. (13) He will build a house for First Book of Chronicles, xvii. 14.
my name; and I will establish,
for “ But I will establish him in my house throne of his kingdom. (14) I will be his and in my kingdom for ever, and his throne father, and he shall be my son: if he shall be firm for evermore."
commit iniquity, I will chastise him with the Commentaries and Essays.—16 And thy rod of men, and with human stripes : (15) but house and thy kingdom shall be established my benevolence I will not (LXX, Syr., for ever before thee; thy throne, &c. There Arab., Vulg., and two MSS.] withdraw from is a considerable difference between Samuel him, as I did from Saul, whom I rejected and Chronicles in their parallel accounts of from before me [LXX, Syr., and four this prophecy. In Samuel, these words seem MSS.]: (16) but his [LXX] house and to be spoken of David, thy house, thy king- his (LXX) kingdom shall, for ever, be dom, thy throne. In 1 Chron. xvii. 14, the established, before me : his [LXX] throne prophecy relates to the son of David, I will shall be, for ever, established. seltle him, in my house, and in my kingdom ; Booth.-9 And I have been with thee and his throne, 8c. That this relates to the whithersoever thou wentest, and have cut off son of David is most probable from the from before thee all thine enemies. Also context, as the prophecy relates not to David thy name I will make as great as the name himself, but the son of David; and that it of the great ones, who are on the earth. was originally his house, his kingdom, his 10 Moreover I will appoint a place for my throne, here, in Samuel, appears from the people Israel, and will so plant them, that Greek version, which has ó Oikos aŭtov, kat they may dwell in their own place, and move ý Bao dela aŭtov and ó Opovos aútov Fur- no more; nor shall wicked men afflict them ther, instead of before thee, the Greek has any more, as formerly; 11 As from the before me, which is undoubtedly right, (so time I appointed judges over my people also Syriac, and one MS. reads now , and Israel. To thee also will I give rest from fortè another,) as it certainly refers to God, thine enemies. Moreover, I Jehovah declare the speaker here, before me, and so David to thee, that I will build up thy house. understood it, as appears from verse 29. 12 For when thy days shall be completed, This verse then in Samuel, should run thus, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will and his house and his kingdom shall be estab- raise up thy seed after thee, the offspring of blished for ever before me, and (the LXX. thine own body, and I will establish his kingread the »), his throne shall be for ever firm, dom. 13 He shall build a house for my and the reading in Chronicles should be name, and I will establish the throne of his setile him in his house, and in his kingdom, kingdom for ever. 14 I will be his father, and his throne, &c. The LXX have here and he shall be my son. If he commit iniβασιλεια αυτου. .
quity, I will chastise him with the rod of Ged.-9 I have been with thee, in all thy men, and with the stripes of the children of expeditions, and have cut off, from before men: 15 But my kindness I will not (LXX., thee, all thine enemies. Thy name I will Vulg., Syr., Arab., and two MSS.) withdraw render as great as the names of the grandees from him as I did from Saul, whom I reof the earth : (10) a place, also, I will secure moved from before thee. 16 And his house for my people, the Israelites, and so plant and his kingdom shall be established for ever them in it, that they shall no more be re- before me: his throne shall be established moved, but remain in their own place : nor for ever. shall iniquitous men any more oppress them, Houb. 9 Ego, quocunque ivisti, una (11) as formerly, from the time when I ap-tecum fui, et delevi ante te omnes inimicos tuos ; ego feci tibi nomen magnum, ut nomen templum ædificabit, huic thronum regni sui est eorum, qui in terra magni fuerunt. 10 stabiliam in perpetuum. 14 Ego patris Præterea constitui populo meo Israel locum; instar ei ero, ipse mihi instar filii. Si deego plantavi eum, ut, ubi est, habitet, neque liquerit, castigabo eum, sed disciplina paterna, amplius moveatur, neque eos filii iniquitatis plagis humanis. 15 Gratiam vero meam ei adhuc opprimant ; ut fecerunt antea, et jam non subtraham, quemadmodum eam subtraxi inde ex quo præfeceram populo meo Israel Saulo, quem prorsus b) repudiavi. 16 FaJudices. 11 Ego etiam te ab omnibus hos- milia tua regnum per me (LXX, Syr.] obtibus tutum feci. Dominus autem tibi in- tinebit sempiternum, thronus tuus stabilietur super declarat, se domum tibi ædificaturum. in perpetuum. 12 Postquam tu dies tuos expleveris, et cum a) Quoniam ex vers. 1 dubio caret, Dapatribus tuis decubueris; ego excitabo post te videm hanc promissionem accepisse sub finem semen tuum, qui ex lumbis tuis egredietur, vitæ suæ, sequitur, Salomonem eo tempore regnumque ejus confirmabo. 13 Ille ædifi- jam natum fuisse. Igitur non rem, sed vesti cabit domum nomini meo; ego autem regni est legendum. Quod recte monuit Michaelis. ejus solium stabiliam ad perpetuitatem. b) Pro Tipboi ó, Vulgatus, Syrus lege14 Ego ero illi pater, et ipse erit mihi filius; runt app. Chaldæus receptam lectionem qui cum delinquet, ego eum percutiam virga expressit, quæ etiam defendi potest, sed virorum, et plagis filiorum hominum. 15 Sed priori favet contextus. non subtraham ab eo benevolentiam meam, Maurer.-15 7: nio reng, Quem requomodo eam subtraxi a Saüle, quem amovi, movi e conspectu tuo, removi a regno, ut tibi tibi loco cessurum. 16 Erit domus tua locum faceret. Cf. I. parall. 1 Chron. stabilis et regnum tuum coram me (LXX., xvii. 13. Igitur non audiendi sunt, qui pro Syr.] perpetuum; thronus tuus stabit ad te legi jubent 'pbo. 16 72] Magis perpetuitatem.
placeret 2p. Cf. vs. 26. Sed potest etiam 10 & 11. Ona joko: 1210173: Male inter 7 defendi. hæc verba punctum majus. Etenim sen
Ver. 17. tentia sic continuatur, (non eum oppriment Au. Ver.-Nathan. amplius,) ut in principio, et ex die, quo... Ged.-Nathan the prophet (Syr.]. Interpunctio major post 5878", collocanda est; propterea nos versum 10uin. continua
Ver. 18. mus usque ad populum meum Israel.
? 14 01972 TUN: Nos, qui cum delinquet, obsecuti veteribus, nec non sententiæ, quanquam non ipsis verbis, quæ quidem ad
gram- και εισήλθεν ο βασιλεύς Δαυίδ, και εκάmaticæ normas adduci non possunt. Græci Olgev evÓTLOV Kuplov, K.T.N. Intt. και εάν έλθη η αδικία αυτού, et si venerit Au. Ver.-18 Then went king David in, iniquitas ejus, ex scriptura n97 X3 DNI, pa- and sat before the Lord, and he said, Who rum Hebraica. Forte olim legebatur 101", am I, O LORD God? and what is my house, iniya et ingredietur in sua iniquitate, vel cum that thou hast brought me hitherto ? in sua iniquitate ambulabit; nam , nectens Pool.-Sat : this word may note either, membra orationis, sæpe est cum, vel si. first, His bodily gesture ; for there is no
Dathe.-9 Tibi adfui in rebus tuis omnibus, certain gesture to which prayer is limited ; perdidi hostes tuos, tantumque tibi nomen feci, and we have examples of saints praying in quantum solet summorum in terrarum orbe that posture, Exod. xvii. 12; 1 Kings regum. 10 Sedes certas assignavi populo xix. 4; or he might sit for a season whilst meo Israëlitico, in quibus sine ullo timore he was meditating upon these things, and constanti felicitate frui possit, neque amplius then alter this posture (though it be not here ab improbo hoste affligetur, uti olim 11 aut expressed), and betake himself to prayer. eo tempore, quo judices ei præfeceram. Et Or rather, secondly, His continuance there, tibi quoque quietem concessi ab hostibus tuis as this Hebrew word is oft used, as Gen: omnibus. Præterea tibi promitto, te posteros xxvii. 44; Lev. xiv. 8; 1 Sam. i. 22; habiturum esse, in quibus regia dignilas ser- xx. 19, that he did not barely present himvabilur. 12 Completis diebus tuis, si cum self before God but abode there for some majoribus tuis obdormieris, filio tuo a te competent time, that he might with God's nato a) regnum confirmabo. 13 Is mihi leave pour out his soul freely before him.
וַיָּבֹא הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד וַיֵּשֶׁב לִפְנֵי יְהוָה
For howsoever one may in some cases pray ticularly Vetablus, upon 1 Chron. xvii. 16. sitting, yet it is most probable that David And others, who allow the king might sit in would in this holy place, and upon this oc- the temple, yet confess he might not sit at casion, use a more humble and reverent prayer; and therefore expound this place gesture, such as kneeling is, which therefore thus : “He took his seat in the taberDavid prescribeth or adviseth, Psal. xcv. 6, nacle before the ark ;” and then he made and Solomon accordingly practiseth, 1 Kings the following prayer, standing up, viii. 54; 2 Chron. vi. 13.
the manner was, when they worshipped Bp. Patrick.-18 Then went king David God. in, and sat before the Lord.] That is, before Ken.— And king David went in and sat the ark; which, as I have often said, was before the Lord, &c. It seems very strange, the symbol of his Divine presence. Sitting, that David, when coming before the ark, to among the heathens, was thought a posture express his solemn thanks, should sit and proper enough in the Divine service; as not rather stand, as Solomon did, 1 Kings Vossius hath observed, lib. ii. De Orig. et iii. 15. The original word here has two Progressu Idololat., cap. 34. Quippe index significations, as derived from different verbs; animi magis compositi, et hoc agentis; in the first verse of this chapter it signifies “ being an indication of a more composed he sat; but in the twentieth verse of the mind, and attending to what they were preceding chapter it signifies, and is properly about.” But among the Israelites none translated, he returned. David was come were allowed to sit in the temple, except the back from the ark to his own house, there king: unto whom this was indulged, if we he passed the night, there he was visited the can believe the Talmudists; whose general next day by Nathan, and then he returned maxim was this, “ It was not lawful for any to the ark, there to offer up to God his one to sit in the court of the house of God; thanksgiving. but only for the king of the house of David” Dr. Adam Clarke.—Sat before the Lord). (see Selden, lib. ii. De Synedriis, cap. xiii., Sometimes, when a Hindoo seeks a favour sect. 4). But they have framed this notion from a superior, he sits down in his presence merely from this single passage; there being in silence; or if he solicits some favour of no other place in the whole Scripture to a god, as riches, children, &c., he places support this assertion, that the king might himself before the idol, and remains in a sit at prayer ; but, on the contrary, on the waiting posture, or repeats the name of the sabbath, and on festival days, when he came god, counting the beads in his necklace.to the temple, he stood by the exterior pillar Ward. of the inward court of the house of God; as
Ged.-Then David went into the tabermay be learnt from Ezek. xlvi. 1, 2, com- nacle; where placing himself before the pared with 2 Kings xi. 14, and 2 Chron. Lord, he said, &c. xxiii. 13. Nor is their any other posture of Booth.-Sat before Jehovah]. Sitting as worship mentioned in Scripture, but stand the Arabs do was expressive of the greatest ing, or kneeling, or falling on the face. humiliation, and therefore no improper posAnd therefore Abarbinel ingenuously con- ture for one that appeared before the ark of fesses, that this is not the opinion of all God. their doctors, several of which in this forsake Dathe.-18 Tum hic locum sacrum rurthe Talmudists; and allege a weighty reason sum adiit et sic coram Jova est precatus. for it: because the angels themselves, who Rursum adiit. Pro ans, et consedit, aliis are higher than kings, are not permitted to punctis subjectis, lego aran. Frustra laborant sit before the Lord: but Isaiah saith, vi. 2, interpretes in afferenda ratione, cur Davidi that the seraphim stood about the throne ; licuerit, in loco sacro sedere. Sic quoque and Micaiah saith, he saw the host of heaven Michaelis. Nec tamen diffiteor, ex stand before the Lord, 1 Kings xxii. 19, and loquendi in hac constructione illud zu lesee Zech. iii. 7. From which they conclude, gendum esse ante x3??. if there be no sitting allowed above, by what right was it granted to the kings of David's
Ver. 19. ? fore translate the Hebrew word jashab, not the app ONE Tij jepni sat, but remained before the Lord ; par-I7777nach Dj
עוד יְהוֹה וַתְּדַבֵּר
-7N7 nin nog? pizzy ligibly, and is this the manner of man?
: kai kateo pikpúvónv piekpòv évómióv Gov kúpié signify, and this is (or must be) the law of μου κύριε, και ελάλησας υπέρ του οίκου του the man, or of the Adam, i. e., this promise δούλου σου εις μακράν. ούτος δε ο νόμος του must relate to the law, or ordinance, made ανθρώπου κύριέ μου κύριε. .
by God to Adam, concerning the seed of the Au. Ver.--19 And this was yet a small woman; the man, or the second Adam : as thing in thy sight, O Lord God; but thou the Messiah is expressly called by St. Paul, hast spoken also of thy servant's house for a 1 Cor. xv. 45, 47. This meaning will be yet great while to come. And is this the man- more evident from the parallel place, ner (Heb., law] of man, O Lord God? 1 Chron. xvii. 17 : where the words of David
Pool.-Is this the manner of man, O Lord are now miserably rendered thus, "and thou God? do men use to deal so freely and hast regarded me, according to the estate of kindly with their inferiors, as thou hast a man of high degree.” Whereas the words done with me? No: this is the prerogative On O7N7 1103 any literally signify, and of Divine grace, to give such promises and thou hast regarded me, according to the order largesses as this. So these are words of of the ADAM THAT IS FUTURE, or, the Man admiration; which very well suit with the That is FROM ABOVE (for the word asyon foregoing and following words. Or, And is very remarkably signifies hereafter as this the manner, or law, or custom of mean time, and from above as to place): and thus or obscure men, &c. ? as the Hebrew adam St. Paul, including both senses, “The second is confessed sometimes to signify, as Psalm man is the Lord from heaven”—and, “ Adam xlix. 2; Ixii. 9; Isaiah ii. 9; i. e., Is this is the figure of him that was to come, or the the manner of men's dealing with mean and future,” Rom. v. 14. See the preface of the obscure persons, such as I am? So the late learned Mr. Peters, on Job, referred to, Hebrew haadam is the genitive case of the and confirmed as to this interesting point, in object, which is frequent in the Hebrew and a note subjoined to my sermon on “ A virgin other languages. And this seems more pro- shall conceive," &c., p. 49–52, 8vo. 1765, a 'bable, because it exactly agrees with the part of that note here follows :-“The parallel place, 1 Chron. xvii. 17, where the speech of David (2 Sam. vii. 18—29) is words are, thou hast regarded me according such, as one might naturally expect from a to the estate of a man of high degree, i. e. person overwhelmed with the greatness of thou hast dealt with me as if I had not been the promised blessing : for it is abrupt, full a poor mean shepherd, but the son of some of wonder, and fraught with repetitions. great monarch, to whom such honours best' And now, what can David say unto thee ?' agree.
What, indeed! * For thou, Lord God, Bp. Patrick.-19 Next, he magnifies the knowest thy servant :' thou knowest the loving-kindness of God, who did not think hearts of all men, and seest how full my own it enough that he had made him a great heart is. “For thy word's sake,' for the king, but promised his posterity, and at last sake of former prophecies; and according the Lord Christ, should sit upon his throne. to thine own heart,' from the mere motive So Abarbinel himself expounds these words, of thy wisdom and goodness; hast thou “ a great while to come;" intimating, saith done all these great things, to make thy he, the Messiah, the son of David. He ac- servant know them.' I now perceive the knowledges there was no example of such reason of those miraculous providences, kindness to be found in this world : where which have attended me from my youth up ; kingdoms are not perpetuated, as Abarbinel' taken from following the sheep, and conobserves; but this is the manner of angels, ducted through all difficulties ' to be ruler who always continue in their dignity. of thy people;' and shall I distrust the
Ken.-From David's address to God, after promise now made me? Thy words be receiving the message by Nathan, 'tis plain true.' If the preceding remarks on this that David understood the son promised to whole passage are just, and well-grounded; be the Messiah; in whom his house was to then may we see clearly the chief foundation be established for ever. But the words, of what St. Peter tells us (Acts ii. 30) conwhich seem most expressive of this, are in cerning David, "that, being a prophet, and