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lectio haud dubie vera est, quoniam Deus | βασιλείαν αυτού. 13 αυτός οικοδομήσει μοι nunquam uni tribui imperium in reliquas | οίκον τω ονόματί μου, και ανορθώσω τον θρόνον concesserat.” Dathe. Sed res non est cum αυτού έως εις τον αιώνα. 14 εγώ έσομαι pulvisculo excutienda. Intelligendae sunt αυτώ εις πατέρα, και αυτός έσται μοι εις υιόν. ille tribus, que ante Davidis tempora και εάν έλθη η αδικία αυτού, και ελέγξω αυτόν summam imperii tenuerant, ut Ephraim, εν ράβδω ανδρών, και εν αφαίς υιών ανθρώπων Dan, Benjamin.
15 το δε έλεός μου ουκ αποστήσω απ' αυτού,
καθώς απέστησα άφ' ών άπέστησα έκ προσVer. 9--16.
16 και πιστωθήσεται ο οίκος 225 - 55? Πο? ΠΙΠΑ) 9
αυτού, και η βασιλεία αυτού έως αιώνος εν
ώπιόν μου και ο θρόνος αυτού έσται ανωρΠργη η22p apn πε59 θωμένος εις τον αιώνα 17 κατά πάντας τους της Ban Emp 13 λόγους τούτους, και κατά πάσαν την όρασιν όν:
: γ: ταύτην· ούτως ελάλησε Νάθαν πρός Δαυίδ. Α2: Απο 720 pop ship) Au. Ver.-9 And I was with thee whisharp Hopy-ap aspi: της 127 all thine enemies out of thy sight [Heb.,
thersoever thou wentest, and have cut off
: 7910in?? 792 from thy face), and have made thee a great πήρα την -by Bνωρis nos name, like into the name of the great men
that are in the earth. 2 ππ: ή την προ-599 hat are in the earth.
10 Moreover I will appoint a place for 25ης Ι 2 12 :ππ: φπα, ne my people Israel, and will plant them, that Then app, πως they may dwell in a place of their own, and
move no more; neither shall the children of του Ε2 της πας να wickedness aflict them any more, as before"ΠΩΦ: Νηπ 13 : npo time, inspo No2: 2292 293 2 manded Judges to be over my people Israel,
11 And as since the time that I com3Π) 25 ηπει 5 14 : episony and have caused thee to rest from all thine Πο? hip? ή 12: 9:ππ: enemies. Also the LORD teleth thee that
he will make thee an house.
worden“ 12 And when thy days be fulfilled, and AD22
TO) 15 thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set no p >>N Eye non up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed
out of thy bowels, and I will establish his
בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם :
: ηροφο kingdom.
16 וְנָאִמֵן בֵּיתְךְ וּמַמְלַכְתְּךָ עַד־עוֹלָם לְפָנֶיךָ כַּסְאֲךָ יִהְיֶה כָכָוֹן
13 He shall build an house for my name, :-*1v-ny and I will stablish the throne of his king
dom for ever. . 9 και ήμην μετά σου εν πάσιν οίς επoρεύου, 14 I will be his father, and he shall be και έξωλόθρευσα πάντας τους εχθρούς σου από my son. If he commit iniquity, I will προσώπου σου, και εποίησα σε ονομαστόν chasten him with the rod of men, and with κατά το όνομα των μεγάλων των επί της γης. | the stripes of the children of men: 10 και θήσομαι τόπον τω λαώ μου το Ισραήλ, 15 But my mercy shall not depart away και καταφυτεύσω αυτόν, και κατασκηνώσει | from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I καθ' εαυτόν, και ου μεριμνήσει ουκέτι και ου put away before thee. προσθήσει υιός αδικίας του ταπεινώσαι αυτόν, 16 And thine house and thy kingdom καθώς απ' αρχής, 11 από των ημερών ών shall be established for ever before thee ; έταξα κριτές επί τον λαόν μου Ισραήλ και thy throne shall be established for ever. αναπαύσω σε από πάντων των εχθρών σου και 17 According to all these words, and acαπαγγελεί σοι κύριος, ότι οίκον οικοδομήσεις | cording to all this vision, so did Nathan αυτώ. 12 και έσται εάν πληρωθώσιν αι speak unto David. ημέραι σου, και κοιμηθήση μετά των πατέρων Pool.—10 I will appoint a place, i. e., 1 σου, και αναστήσω το σπέρμα σου μετά σε, δς , will make room for them; whereas hitherto έσται εκ της κοιλίας σου, και ετοιμάσω την | they have been much constrained and dis
tressed by their enemies. Or, I will establish | selves. For the foregoing words in this (for so that verb sometimes signifies) a place verse, and in ver. 10, do all concern the for them, i. e., I will establish them in their people of Israel; but these words seem to place or land. Some learned men render the concern David alone, to whom the speech verse thus, and the Hebrew words will bear it: returns after a short digression concerning And I have appointed (or assigned, or given) the people of Israel. And they may be a place for my people Israel, (to wit, the land rendered either thus, and I have caused thee of Canaan,) and have planted them in it, to rest, &c., or, and I will cause thee to rest, that they may dwell in their own place, and &c., to wit, more fully and perfectly than be no more driven to and fro; or rather, and yet thou dost. He will make thee an house ; they shall dwell in their own place, &c. ; i. e., for thy good intentions to make him an as I did long ago appoint it to them, and house, he will make thee an house, to wit, a afterwards planted them, or put them into sure house, as is expressed, 1 Kings xi. 38, actual possession ; so now they shall continue i. e., he will increase and uphold thy posor dwell in it, in spite of all their enemies. terity, and continue thy kingdom in thy For my people Israel. Among the favours family. which God had vouchsafed, and would 12 I will set up thy seed after thee; I will vouchsafe to David, he reckons his blessings set up in thy stead and throne thy posterity, to the people of Israel, because they were first Solomon, and then others successively, great blessings to David; partly because the and at last the Messias. So the following strength and happiness of a king consists in words may be understood diversely, part of great part in the multitude and happiness of his posterity in general or indefinitely taken, his people; and partly because David was a part of Solomon, and part of Christ only, man of a pious and public spirit, and there- according to the differing nature of the fore no less affected with Israel's felicity several passages. than with his own. In a place of their own, 13 He shall build an house : this is meant i. e., in their own land, not in strange lands, literally and immediately of Solomon, who nor mixed with other people. As beforetime; alone did build the material house or temple; either, first, as in the land of Egypt; and but mystically and ultimately of Christ, who so he goes downward to the judges. Or, is the builder of God's spiritual house or secondly, as in Saul's time; and so he temple, Heb. iii. 3, 6; 1 Pet. ii. 5. For my ascends to the judges.
name, i. e., for my service, and worship, and 11 Nor as they did under the judges, glory. I will stablish the throne of his neither so oft nor so long. But all this is to kingdom : this is not meant of Solomon, for be understood with a condition, except they his kingdom was not for ever. And though should notoriously forsake God, or rebel the phrase for ever is sometimes used of the against him; which being so oft declared by time of a man's life, yet it cannot be so God in other places, it was needless to understood here, because the mercy here mention it here. Or this may relate to the promised to David's son is of another nature,
of the world, when the people of and of far longer continuance, than that Israel shall be converted to Christ, and re- which was given to Saul, ver. 15, who yet called out of captivity, and planted in their enjoyed the kingdom as long as he lived. own place; when they shall enjoy a far But it is to be understood of David's posgreater degree of tranquillity than ever they terity in general, but with special respect to did before. And this agrees best with the Christ, in whose person the kingdom was to future tense, I will appoint--and will plant be lodged for ever, Isa. ix. 7 ; Dan. ii. 44; them, &c.; otherwise the work was already Luke i. 32, 33. done, God had already appointed this land 14 I will carry myself towards him as for them, and actually planted them in it. becomes a father, with all affection and And have caused thee to rest from all thine tenderness, and I will own him as my son. enemies, i.e., and until this time in which I This is intended both of Solomon, as a type have given thee rest. But these words, of Christ; and of Christ himself, as is though according to our translation they be evident from Heb. i. 5. If he commit enclosed in the same parenthesis with the iniquity: this agrees only to Solomon and foregoing clauses, may seem to be better some others of David's posterity; but not to put without it, and to be taken by them- Christ, who never committed iniquity, as
Solomon did, who therein was no type of Have caused thee to rest.] Given him a Christ, and therefore this branch is ter- quiet possession of the whole kingdom of minated in Solomon; whereas in those Israel; which never was in so happy a conthings wherein Solomon was a type of Christ, dition as now. the sense passeth through Solomon unto 12 I will set up thy seed.] To sit upon
his Christ. With the rod of men; either, first, throne. With such rods as men use to correct their Which shall proceed out of thy bowels.] sons, or to beat other men; which are here This shows that he speaks of one who was opposed to the rods or strokes which an not yet born, viz., Solomon : and that Abangry God inflicts. See Job xxiii. 6 ; Psal. salom, Adonijah, and the rest who pretended xxxix. 11; Isa. xlvii. 3 ; Rom. ix. 22 ; Heb. to the kingdom, were not designed for it : X. 31; xii. 29. Or, secondly, With such being already proceeded from him. rods as are gentle and moderate, and suited I will establish his kingdom.] He reigned a to man's weakness; as a tolerable and re- long time himself; and so did his posterity sistible temptation is called human, or com- after him. mon to men, 1 Cor. x. 13.
13 The latter part of this verse can belong 15 My mercy, or, my kindness, i.e., the to none but the Messiah ; if the words for kingdom which I have mercifully and kindly ever be taken in their full extent. promised to thee and thine. As I took it 14 I will be his father.] This the Apostle from Saul; in regard of his posterity, for shows is meant of Christ, Heb. i. 5. For the kingdom was continued to his person though Solomon was called Jedidiah, in during life.
token that he was beloved of God, yet, in 16 Before thee; thine eyes in some sort the complete sense of the word, Christ only beholding it; for he lived to see his wise is intended : who is “God's beloved Son, in and godly son Solomon actually placed in whom he is well pleased.” the throne, with great reputation and general If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him applause, 1 Kings i. 39, 40, which was in with the rod of men, &c.] This is a mixed itself a good presage of the continuance of prophecy, some part of which belongs to the kingdom in his family; and being con- Christ, and the other part to Solomon, and sidered, together with the infallible certainty his successors in the kingdom of Israel : who, of God's promise to him and his for ever, of it is plain, is solely intended in these words. the accomplishment whereof this was an And by “the rod of men, and the stripes of earnest, gave him good assurance thereof; the children of men,' is meant gentle especially considering that he had his eyes correction ; such as parents
give their and thoughts upon the Messiah, Psal. cx. 1, children. &c., whose day he saw by faith, as Abraham 15 He promises not to translate the kingdid, John viii. 56, and whoin he knew that dom into another family; as he took it from God would raise out of the fruit of his loins Saul, to give it to David: but the kingdom to sit on his throne, as is affirmed, Acts ii. 30, shall continue in his line. and that for ever; and so the eternity of his 16 That is, saith Kimchi, for a long time, kingdom is rightly said to be before him. between four and five hundred years, which The LXX and Syriac read before me, which was a rare thing, and seldom known, that is a usual phrase, which makes no great the kingly authority continued in any one variation in the Hebrew text.
family so long. But this is chiefly intended Bp. Patrick.—10 ( will appoint a place.] of the kingdom of Christ, as Procopius Or, “I have constituted (or established) a Gazærus here observes: from whence the place for my people,” viz., the land of Jews said (John xii. 34), “We have heard Canaan.
out of the law that Christ abideth for ever.” Neither shall the children of wickedness.] This is confirmed by the rule which MaiThe idolatrous people round about them. monides lays down in his More Nevochim,
Afflict them—as beforetime.] When they that though olam alone doth not necessarily were in the land of Egypt.
signify eternally, yet when it is joined with 11. Since the time that I commanded ath, either before or after it, it doth so sigjudges.] In whose days they were sorely nify. And that is the case here; this kingafflicted by the Moabites, Canaanites, Mi-dom is said to be established ath olam : dianites, and other people.
which can belong to none but Christ; for
David's kingdom had an end, but Christ's every one knows that Christ was born a Jew; nath none (par. ii. cap. 28).
and consequently descended from Jacob, the Ken.—This chapter is one of the most grandson of Abraham. And we all know, important in the Old Testament; and yet that the promise given to Abraham concernsome of its most interesting verses are very ing the Messiah is recorded in the history of improperly rendered in our translation : it Abraham's life, in Gen. xxii. 18. Christ therefore demands our most careful con- being also to descend from David, there sideration. And as, in the course of these can be no doubt, but that this promise, as remarks, I propose to consider, and hope to made to David, was recorded likewise in the explain some of the prophecies descriptive history of David. "Tis remarkable, that of the Messiah, which were fulfilled in Jesus David's life is given more at large than that Christ ; amongst which prophecies, that of any other person in the Old Testament; contained in this chapter is worthy of par- and it cannot be supposed, that the historian ticular attention : I shall introduce it, with a omitted to record that promise, which was general state of this great argument. more honourable to David than any other
It having pleased God, that, between the circumstance. The record of this promise, time of a Messiah being first promised, and if written at all, must have been written in the time of his coming, there should be de- this chapter; in the message from God by livered by the prophets a variety of marks, Nathan to David, which is here inserted. by which the Messiah was to be known, and Here (I am fully persuaded), the promise distinguished from every other man; it was was, and still is, recorded : and the chief impossible for any one to prove himself the reason why our divines have so frequently Messiah, whose character did not answer to missed it, or been so much perplexed about these marks: and of course it was necessary, it, is owing to our very improper translation that all these criteria, thus divinely foretold, of the 10th and 14th verses. should be fulfilled in the character of Jesus This wrong translation, in a part of ScripChrist. That these prophetic descriptions of ture so very interesting, has been artfully the Messiah were numerous, appears from laid hold of, and expatiated upon splendidly, Christ and his apostles (Luke xxiv. 27, 44; by the deistical author of “The Grounds Acts xvii. 2, 3 ; xxviii. 23, &c.), who re- and Reasons of the Christian Religion,” ferred the Jews to the Old Testament, as who pretends to demonstrate, that the containing abundant evidence of his being promise of a Messiah could not be here rethe Messiah, because he fulfilled all the pro- corded. His reasons (hitherto I believe unphecies descriptive of that singular cha- answered) are three. 1st Because, in racter. The chief of these prophecies re- ver. 10, the prophet speaks of the future lated to
prosperity of the Jews, as to be afterwards His being miraculously born of a virgin ; fixed, and no more afflicted; which circumThe time, and place, of his birth; stances are totally repugnant to the fate of The tribe, and family, he was to descend the Jews, as connected with the birth and from ;
death of Christ; 2dly Because the son, here The miracles he was to perform ; promised, was (ver. 13) to build an house; The manner of his preaching;
which house, it is pretended, must mean the His humility and mean appearance ;
temple of Solomon ; and of course Solomon The perfect innocence of his life; must be the son here promised ; and 3dly, The greatness of his sufferings;
Because ver. 14 supposes, that this son The treachery of his betrayer;
might commit iniquity; which could not be The circumstances of his trial;
supposed of the Messiah. The first of these The nature of his death and burial; objections is founded on our wrong trans
And, to his miraculous resurrection. lation of verse 10; where the words should Now amongst all the circumstances, which be expressed as relating to the time past or form this chain of prophecy; the first re- present. For the prophet is there declaring ference made in the New Testament relates what great things God had already done for to his descent: for the New Testament David and his people—that he had raised begins with asserting, that “ Jesus Christ David from the sheepfold to the throne—and was the son of David, the son of Abraham.” that he had planted the Israelites in a place As to the descent of Christ from Abraham ; of safety; at rest from all those enemies, who had so often before afflicted them. very promise in Samuel concerning a son to That the verbs "nour and 'nros may be ren. David, and of the house which he should dered in the time past or present, is allowed build ; when he says (iii. 6):—“Christ, as by our own translators; who here (ver. 11) a sun, over his own house ; whose house are render 'NiTj.71 and have caused thee to rest, we.” and also render 72071 and telleth; which con- As to the third and greatest difficulty, that struction, made necessary here by the con- also may be removed by a more just transtext, might be confirmed by other proofs lation of verse 14; for the Hebrew words almost innumerable. The translation there- do not properly signify what they are now fore should run thus: “I took thee from the made to speak. 'Tis certain, that the prinsheepcote—and have made thee a great name cipal word n2.72 is not the active infinitive -and I have appointed a place for my people of Kal, which would be inra; but non from Israel; and have planted them, that they 7y is in Niphal, as 015207 from aba.
'Tis dwell in a place of their own, and move no also certain, that a verb which in the active more. Neither do the children of wickedness voice signifies to commit iniquity, may in the afflict them any more; as before time, and passive signify to suffer for iniquity : and as since the time that I commanded judges hence it is, that nouns from such verbs to be over Israel; and I have caused thee to sometimes signify iniquity, sometimes punishrest from all thine enemies."
ment. See Lowth's Isaiah, p. 187, with Objection the 2d is founded on a mistake many other authorities, which shall be proin the sense.
David indeed had proposed to duced hereafter. The way being thus made build an house to God; which God did not clear, we are now prepared for abolishing admit. Yet, approving the piety of David's our translation, "if he commit iniquity;" intention, God was pleased to reward it by and also for adopting the true one, "even in promising, that he would make an house for his suffering for iniquity.” The Messiah, David; which house, to be thus erected by who is thus the person possibly here spoken God, was certainly not material, or made of of, will be made still more manifest from the stones; but a spiritual house, or family, to whole verse thus translated :-"I will be his be raised up for the honour of God and the father, and he shall be my son : even in his salvation of mankind. And this house, suffering for iniquity, I shall chasten him which God would make, was to be built by with the rod of men (with the rod due to David's seed; and this seed was to be raised men) and with the stripes (due to) the chilup, after David slept with his fathers : which dren of Adam.” And this construction is words clearly exclude Solomon, who was set well supported by Isaiah liii. 4, 5, " He hath up, and placed upon the throne, before carried our sorrow's (i. e., the sorrows due to David was dead. This building, promised us, and which we must otherwise have sufby God, was to be erected by one of David's fered); he was wounded for our transdescendants, who was also to be an ever-gressions, he was bruised for our iniquities : lasting king: and indeed the house and the the chastisement of our peace was upon him; kingdom were both of them to be estab- and with his stripes we are healed.” See lished for ever. Now that this house or Note, p. 479, in Hallet, on Heb. xi. 26. spiritual building was to be set up, together Thus then God declares himself the father with a kingdom, by the Messiah, is clear of the Son here meant (see also Heb. i. 5); from Zachariah; who very emphatically and promises, that, even amidst the suffersays (vi. 12, 13):4" Behold the man whose ings of this Son (as they would be for the name is the Branch; he shall build the sins of others, not for his own), his mercy temple of the Lord. Even he shull build should still attend him: nor should his the temple of the Lord; and he shall bear favour be ever removed from this king, as it the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his had been from Saul. And thus (as it folthrone," &c. Observe also the language of lows) “ thine house (О David) and thy kingthe New Testament. In 1 Cor. iii. 9—17, dom shall (in Messiah) be established for St. Paul says, “Ye are God's building- ever, before me (before God): thy throne Know ye not, that ye are the temple of God? | shall be established for ever.” Thus the ---the temple of God is holy, which temple angel, delivering his message to the virgin ye are.” And the author of the Epistle to mother (Luke i. 32, 33) speaks, as if he was the Hebrews seems to have his eye upon this quoting from this very prophecy, “The Lord