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had dwelt in Canaan about 400 years; as the credit due to some parts of this very old we learn from the sacred History, Joshua English version; as the sense of this passage xv. 63; Judg. i. 21 ; xix. 10; and from seems to have been greatly mistaken both Josephus, lib. vii., cap. 3.

before and since. That it has been changed The Jebusites then, absolutely depending for the worse since that edition is very on the advantage of their high situation and evident; and that it was improperly renthe strength of their fortification (which had dered before appears from Wickliffe's MS. secured them against the Israelites so many Version of 1383, where we read, Thou shalt hundred years) looked upon this of David's not enter hidur: no but thou do awey blond wen and as a vain attempt, which therefore they lame, &c. might safely treat with insolence and raillery. After this additional clause of Samuel in Full of this fond notion, they placed upon the speech of the Jebusites, the two histories the walls of the citadel the few blind and agree in saying, “David took the strong hold lame that could be found amongst them ; of Sion, which was afterwards called the city and told David, “he should not come of David." By this strong hold of Sion, or thither; for the blind and the lame were city of David, we are led by the words of sufficient to keep him off;” which they the text to understand, not the fortress or (these weak defenders) should effectually do, citadel (which was not yet taken, as appears only by their shouting 7377 117 112'NS, David from the order of the history in both shall not come hither, No David shall come chapters), but the town of the Jebusites, or hither, &c.

City of David, which was spread over the That the blind and the lame were con- wide hill of Sion: and is what Josephus temptuously placed upon the walls by the means, when he tells us, David first took Jebusites, as before described, we are assured the lower town, tnv katw holly, the town not only by the words of the sacred history which lay beneath the citadel ; after which before us, but also by the concurrent tes- he tells us, that the citadel yet remained to timony of Josephus in the following words, be taken, eti de ons Akpas dentrouerns.

τους πεπηρωμενους τας οψεις και τας βασεις Lib. vii. cap. 3. και παν το λελωβημενον στησαντων επι χλευη The two chapters having agreed in this του βασιλεως επι του τείχους, και λεγοντων | last circumstance of David's making himself κωλευειν αυτον εισελθειν τους αναπηρους, master of the town or city, they now vary as ταυτα δε επραττον καταφρονούντες τη των before; and here also the history in ChroTEIXWv Oxupotnti.”—Lib. vii. cap. 3. Now nicles is regular, though it takes no notice of that these blind and lame, who appear to some farther circumstances relating to the have been placed upon the walls, were to blind and lame: and indeed these latter cirinsult, and did insult David in the manner cumstances were to be omitted of course, as before-mentioned, seems very evident from the historian chose for brevity to omit the the words, “the blind and the lame shall former. But as to Samuel, there is in that keep thee off,by saying, &c., and also from book a deficiency of several words, which the impossibility of otherwise accounting for are necessary to complete the sense; which David's indignation against these (naturally words are preserved in the text of Chropitiable) wretches. And the not attending nicles. And as the difficulty here also lies to this remarkable circumstance seems one entirely in the text of Samuel, let us see principal reason of the perplexity so visible whether it may not be cleared up to satisamong the various interpreters of this passage. faction.

It is very remarkable, that the sense before David, having now possessed himself of given to Thion DNS, For the blind and the the strong town of the Jebusites situate upon lame shall keep thee off, is confirmed by the hill of Sion, proceeds, 1977 DPI, the same Josephus, who, in the words just cited from day, to attack the citadel or fortress; which him, has “Kwlevelv avtoy eLOENDELV tovs ava- was considered by the Jebusites as imampous." And it is farther remarkable, that pregnable. And probably the Israelites the same sense is given to these words in the would have thought it so too, and David had English Bible of Coverdale, printed in 1535, retired from before it, like his forefathers; if in which they are rendered, Thou shalt not he had not possessed himself of it by stratacome hither, but the blonde and lame shal drybe the gem, when he found he could not storm or

This is one great instance to prove take it by open force. For this seems in fact to have been the case; and the history | ΚΕΙΜΕΝΩΝ ΦΑΡΑΓΓΩΝ επι την Ακραν αναof this success may be properly introduced βαντι, και ταυτην ελοντι, στρατηγιαν απαντος by a similar case or two.

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του λαου δωσειν επηγγειλατο, &c.” –Lib. vii. And first, Dr. Prideaux (in his “Con- cap. 3. Here then we have υποκειμεναι nexion,” part 1, book 2) tells us of the city papaytes (the subterraneous cavities) most of Babylon, that, when it was besieged by remarkably answering to the vtrovopos and Cyrus, the inhabitants thinking themselves 7133; and putting this interpretation upon a secure in their walls and their stores, looked very solid footing. I shall only add upon on the taking of the city by a siege as an this point, that the true sense of the obscure impracticable thing; and therefore from the word 7139 in this place remarkably occurs in top of their walls scoffed at Cyrus, and derided the commentary of Hugo de Vienna beforehim for every thing he did towards it. (A mentioned; where it is explained by “Cunicircumstance most exactly parallel to that of culos subterraneos, per quos erat ascensus the history before us.) But yet, that Cyrus usque ad tecta.” broke down the great bank or dam of the That the preposition à prefixed to 7138 river, both where it ran into the city, and sometimes signifies per, is evident from where it came out; and as soon as the Noldius; and that it signifies so in this place channel of the river was drained, in the is certain from the nature of the context, middle of the night, while Belshazzar was and the testimony of Josephus, who (as we carousing at the conclusion of an annual have seen) expresses it by ôla. The verb festival, the troops of Cyrus entered through 1701 in this sentence is very properly future ; these passages in two parties, and took the as Hebrew verbs in that tense are known to city by surprise.

be frequentative, or to express the conAnd there is a second remarkable case re- tinuance of doing any thing ; and therefore lated by Polybius, which will farther illustrate that tense is with great propriety used here the present history; and was communicated to express the frequent repetition of the to me by a learned friend. “Rabatamana," insolent speech used by the blind and the says Polybius, “ a city of Arabia, could not lame upon the walls of the fortress. be taken, till one of the prisoners showed It only remains here to make an observa. the besiegers (τον Υπονομον, δι' ου κατεβαινον tion or two on the reward proposed by ETC Thy v&pelay ol Todoprovuevoi) a sub. David, and the person who obtained it. The terraneous passage, through which the be- text of Chronicles tells us, David said, sieged came down for water.” Ed. Casaubon, “ Whosoever smiteth the Jebusites first, 8vo., vol. i., p. 578.

shall be chief and captain," or head and Now this fortress of the Jebusites seems prince. We are to recollect that Joab the to have been circumstanced like Rabatamana; son of Zeruiah (David's sister) had been in having also a subterraneous passage, which general of his army during the civil war is called in the original 13, a word, which between the men of Judah, under David, occurs but once more in the Bible, and does and the Israelites commanded by Abner in not seem commonly understood in this place. favour of Ishbosheth the son of Saul: but The English version calls it the gutter, the that the Israelites having now submitted to Vulgate, fistulas ; Vatablus, canales ; Jun. David, he was king over the whole twelve and Trem., emissarium ; Poole, tubus aquæ; tribes. David, we know, frequently endeaand Bochart, alveus, &c. But, not to mul- voured to remove Joab from his command tiply quotations, most interpreters agree in of the army, on account of his haughtiness making the word signify something hollow, and for several murders, but complained and in applying it to water : just the case that this son of Zeruiah was too hard for of the utovouos of Rabatamana; a sub- him. One of these attempts of David's terraneous passage, or great hollow, through seems to have been made at the time Israel which men could

repass for water. came in to David, by the persuasion of That this 7193 in the text was such an under- Abner; when it is probable the condition ground passage might be strongly presumed on Abner's side was to have been made from the text itself; but it is proved to have David's captain-general: and perhaps Joab been so by Josephus. For, speaking of this suspected so much, and therefore murdered very transaction, he says, mns Akpas him. The next attempt seems to have been λειπομενης, βασιλευς τω ΔΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΥΠΟ- made at the taking this strong citadel of the

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Jebusites. For David proposes the reward) at first also in Samuel, and are therefore to absolutely to every officer of his army ; be restored. The necessity of thus restoring “ Whoever smiteth the Jebusites first," i. e., the words not found in the present copies of whosoever will ascend first, put himself at Samuel is apparent; and we may add, that the head of a detachment, and march up St. Jerome in his “ Quæstiones seu Trathrough the subterraneous passage into the ditiones Hebraicæ in lib. Regum' citadel, “shall be head and captain.” “ Subauditur quod liber paralipomenon de

This proposal, we may observe, was clarat, hoc modo dicens, erit princeps et general; and yet, how much soever David dux: ascendit igitur primus Joab, filius might wish Joab safely removed, it is rea- Saruiæ, et factus est princeps.” sonable to think that he made Joab the first The English version then of these texts offer. And, we find, that however dangerous in Chronicles is, And the inhabitants of and dreadful this enterprise appeared, yet Jebus said to David, Thou shalt not come Joab had prudence enough to undertake it, hither. But David took the strong hold of and courage enough to execute it : by Sion, which is the city of David. And 101“and Joab went up first,” or at the David said, Whosoever first smiteth the head of a party, and was accordingly de Jebusites, shall be head and captain. So clared head, or chief-captain, or in the Joab the son of Zeruiah went up first, und modern style) captain-general of the united was chief-captain. And the English version armies of Israel and Judah.

of these texts in Samuel is, And they It is not unlikely that the men of Israel spake unto David, saying, Thou shalt not expected that though Abner their general come hither; for the blind and the lame had been basely murdered by Joab, yet shall keep thee off, by saying, David shall David's chief-captain should be chosen from not come hither. But Duvid took the strong amongst them, or at least they should have a hold of Sion, which is the city of David. chance for that first post of honour, as well as And David said on that day, Whosoever the men of Judah.

And if they had (first) smileth the Jebusites, and through the declared any expectation of this kind, subterraneous passages reacheth the blind David seems to have taken the wisest step and the lame, which are hated of David's for determining so important a point, by soul, because the blind and the lame condeclaring, that neither relation, nor fortune, tinued to say, He shall not come into this nor friendship should recommend upon the houseshall be head and captain. So Joab occasion; but, that as the bravest man and the son of Zeruiah went up first, and was the best soldier ought to be commander-in-head, or captain-general. chief, so this honour should be the reward Parkhurst [who is followed by Bishop of the greatest merit; that there was now a Horsley).—7139 An aqueduct, drain, or subfair opportunity of signalizing themselves in terraneous passage for water, "Tubus per the taking this important fortress; and, quem aqua in declive fertur, puta ex monte therefore, his resolution was, that “who- vel ex tecto.” Bochart. occ. 2 Sam. v. 8; soever would head ” a detachment up this where Vulg., fistulas, pipes, French translat., subterraneous passage, and should first make le canal, and Eng., the gutter. Ver. 6 And himself master of the citadel, by that pas- the king and his men went to Jerusalem, to sage, or by scaling the walls, or by any other the Jebusite, the inhabitant of the land; and method, should be head and captain, i.e., he (the Jebusite) spake to David, saying, captain-general.

Thou shalt not come in hither (Ton CN '?), It is remarkable, that the text in Samuel except thou remove the blind and the lame is very incomplete in this place: David's (with whom I suppose they had, in bravado proposal to the army is just begun, and a and contempt of David and his men, manned circumstance or two mentioned; but the their walls) to declare, or meaning, David reward proposed, and the person rewarded, shall not come in hither. 7 Nevertheless are totally omitted. We may presume the David took the strong hold of Zion, the same text could not have been thus imperfect is the city of David. 8 And, or, For David originally, since no ellipsis can supply what said on that day (in which he took it, is here wanting; and therefore the words in namely), Let every one smite, or (be) smiting the coinciding chapter of Chronicles which the Jebusite, and let him reach by, or through regularly fill up this omission, were doubtless, the subterraneous passage both the lame and

the blind, who hate the person of David ; Gesen.-7128 m. (r. 2) a cataract, waterbecause they said, The blind and lame (man, fall

, so called from its rushing sound, Ps. sing.) shall not come into the house or castle. xlii. 8; a water-course, 2 Sam. V. 8. Chald. Thus have I endeavoured fairly to construe id. this very difficult passage just as it stands in Ged.—(6) Now when king David [LXX, Forster's Hebrew Bible, without presuming Syr., Arab., and two MSS.] and his men either to make the least alteration in the went unto Jerusalem against the Jebusites, text, or to transpose the words of it, and add the ancient inhabitants of the land; these, an extraordinary supplement, as in our thinking that David could not get in, accommon translation; and on the 8th verse Icosted him thus: “In hither thou shalt not desire it may be particularly observed, that come, unless thou canst remove the senthe lame and the blind, i.e., the invalids who tinels and patrols.” (7) David, nevertheless, manned the walls, are said to be those wiv took the citadel of Zion; which is still (who) hated (7038 being understood before called the city of David. (8) For, that day, the verb wu, as usual; or if with Walton's David said: “Whosoever shall the first, and the Complutensian Bible, and with supplied from p. p. 1 Chron. xi. 6,] reach twelve of Dr. Kennicott's Codices, we read the summit of the citadel, and smite the NJW, hating, the sense will be exactly the Jebusite sentinels and patrols, who hold same, without any supplement at all) Ub), David in such contempt,” (because the senthe person of David, ja by, because they said, tinels and patrols had said: “In hither thou The blind and the lame (sing.) shall not come shalt not come,”') " he shall be chief-captain." in hither; which if it does not absolutely So Joab, being the first who went up, was prove, makes it at least highly probable that made chief-captain (supplied from p. p. David himself was become lame, and had his 1 Chron. xi. 6). sight affected, or perhaps had lost an eye by 6–8. Sentinels and patrols. This I take the severe hardships he had undergone, or to be the true meaning of the words comby the wounds he had received in frequent monly rendered the blind, and the lame. engagements in which he had been con- The rest of the passage, which is confessedly cerned; and this personal insult on the king very difficult, I have endeavoured to make by the invalids well accounts for his com- intelligible, by inserting the necessary supmanding them in particular to be attacked. plements from Chronicles, where the same There are several other instances in history, history is told in a clear though more concise both ancient and modern, of cities or manner. fortresses being taken by the enemy's enter- Booth.6 And the king and his men ing through subterranean passages. Thus, went to Jerusalem against the Jebusites, the “all parts of Naples are copiously supplied inhabitants of the land; and they said, with water by an ancient aqueduct, which Thou canst not come in hither, unless thou has more than overbalanced its services by canst remove the sentinels and patrols, affording a passage for besiegers to enter the thinking David could not come in thither. city: through it Belisarius introduced soldiers 7 Nevertheless, David took the citadel of that surprised the Gothic garrison; Alphon- Zion, which is now called the city of David. sus the first repeated the stratagem with 8 For David said on that day, Whosoever first success." 2d vol. of "Swinburne's Travels smiteth the Jebusites, and through the secret in the Two Sicilies,” in “ Annual Register" passage reacheth the sentinels and patrols, for 1784-5, Account of Books, p. 176. In who detest the person of David, (because "Macpherson's History of Great Britain," the sentinels and patrols had said, Into this voi. i., p. 407, we are told “some were ap- house he shall not come,) he shall be chiefpointed to seize the castle of Stirling by an captain [1 Chron. xi. 6]. So Joab, being old gulter or sally-port toward Ballangwith, the first who went up, was made chiefwhere no sentinels were ever placed.” So captain [1 Chron. xi. 6]. our King Edward III. entered the castle of Houb.-6Postea rex cum suis venit JeruNottingham, through a subterraneous passage, salem ad Jebusæos, qui in terra habitabant. which is still to be seen, and surprised his Nli ei hæc dicebant; non hùc intrabis, nisi mother and Mortimer. See “Rapin's abstuleris cæcos et claudos : quibus verbis hoc History of England, by Tindal,” vol. i., significabant, David hùc non intrabit. 7 Nip. 413, fol., and " Taylor's Concordance." hilominus David arcem Sion expugnavit, quæ nunc est urbs David. 8 Eodem autem invisos animo David; cum debuisset, qui die David tale mandatum fecerat: quisquis oderant David : neque enim legitur 035 N0, Jebuseum cæsurus est, irrunt cum pugione in invisos animo, sed u xw, invisam habentes claudos et in cæcos, qui oderunt animam animam (David). Paulo aliter hæc narDavid : proptereà hoc proverbium est; cæcus rantur, 1. Par. ii. 6, sed ita, ut duo loci et claudus non intrabit domum.

paralleli non pugnent, et ut ad hanc nostram 6, 8, O'NOD7 07197 TOT ON 5, Nisi ab- interpretationem facile accommodentur. stuleris cæcos et claudos. Quoniam postea Dathe.-6. Deinde oppugnavit cum exerexplicatur, quid dicere vellent Jebusæi, hoc citu suo llierosolymam, quam Jebusite tunc ipso intelligitur, id eos in proverbio dixisse ; tenebant. Sed hi responderunt: eum urbem non igitur intelligendum esse, ipsos cæcos et non esse expugnaturum, nisi cæcos et claudos claudos, qui erant in Jerusalem, esse in repulerit. Quibus verbis indicabant, nunmænibus pugnaturos, et Davidi cum eis esse quam urbem ab eo capi posse. 7 Sed cepit decertandum. Enimvero nec cæci, nec David arcem Sionem, quæ postea ab eo nomen claudi, milites esse solent. Sed Jebusæi sic habuit. 8 Nam tunc David in exercitu suo dicere videbantur, priusquam David urbem edixerat: qui Jebusitas percusserit atque caperet, abducendos ei esse captivos cæcos usque ad canales penetraverit, ad claudos et claudos, qui media in urbe erant, quique istos et cæcus sibi tam erosos, hunc ducem a militibus circuin mænia fusis protege- exercitus futurum esse. Hinc in proverbio bantur ; quod quia fieri non poterat, nisi dici solet: Cæcus et claudus domum ne capta urbe, opportune subjungitur, Philistæos intrent (a). perinde dixisse, atque tu urbem non capies. (a) Fateor, me hunc locum non intelligere, Postea autem David jubet ut sui irruant...in quidquid interpretes ad eum illustrandum cæcos el claudos, qui oderunt (830, qui ode- dixerint. Cæcis illis et claudis nondum est runt, ut Masora emendat, non XD) animam remedium allatum, ut eos sanos conspicere David. Quo ipso docemur nec Davidem in- possimus : et quid sibi velit illud proverbium : tellexisse, cum hæc diceret, ipsos cæcos et Cæcus et claudus domum ne intrent, adhucclaudos : neque enim isti plus cæteris Je- dum ænigma est. 1 Chron. xi. 4, ubi eadem busæis Davidem oderant; sed Davidem per historia narratur, nihil de cæcis istis et claudis contemptum nominare Jebusæos cæcos et legitur. Ex eo loco supplevi, quæ h. 1. claudos, quia illi ipsi Jebusæi milites, qui desunt, ut sensus sit perfectus, nieza wn't T. hæc loquebantur, futuri erant instar cæcorum dur erit exercitus. et claudorum, ut pote ex urbe mox eripiendi, Maurer.-6'101.777 via ms] Ilic non intrabis, nec aliis armis, quam pugione, debellandi; urbem non expugnabis, nisi cæcos et claudos sic tanquam cæci, qui hostem appropin- repuleris, h. e., vel cæci et claudi te repellent. quantem cum non videant, pugione facile “ Ita feroces Jebusitæ loci fiducia atque arce occiduntur, aut tanquam claudi, qui hostem potissimum urbi imminente freti, quam et insequentem fugere cum non possint, evitare natura et arte munitam inexpugnabilem for non queunt non modo tela et sagittas, sed sperabant, contemtim jactitabant.” Schulz. neque ipsum pugionem. 7139, ut fecere Græci Intt. qui tapafipidi, verba scriptoris : quibus verbis indicabant : pugione ; deinde O'Don nx, claudos, non ndi... urbem a Davide capi non posse. Clericus merito admiratur Samuelem Bo-77 vip; 03:] Hic locus haud dubie corchartum, qui hæc intelligere se crediderit, ruptus est. Quum igy Ps. xlii. 8 secundum et per fas et nefas converterit; cujus quidem LXX, Vulg. et orationis contextum sit Bocharti interpretatio non tanti est, ut eam canalis, aquæductus s. catarracta (ut in hic exponamus. Sed nos admiramur ipsum Chald. lingua), plerique interpretes hoc Clericum, qui cæcos et claudos intellexerit quoque loco sub isto vocabulo canalem inDeorum Jebusæorum esse statuas, quia Je- telligunt, nempe Siloamensem, qui e Sionis busæi imitarentur sermonem Hebræorum, arce aquas in urbem subjectam derivabat, qui Diis Jebusæorum dicebant esse oculos, monentes, hostem, canali hoc ac fonte ejus nec tamen eos videre; esse pedles, nec tamen potitum, obsidionem fortiter urgere arcemque incedere. Id enim quam contortum et im- expugnare potuisse ; apodosin autem ex loco probabile ! Addimus, quam falsum! Num parallelo 1 Chron. xi. 6 supplendam existienim statuæ illæ Deorum olerant animam mant hoc modo: qui Jebusæos percusserit Davidis ? Convertit Clericus 717 Un ww, atque usque ad canalem penetraverit, ad (?)

sunt לֵאמר לֹא־יָבוֹא דָוִד הֵנָּה Sic interpretamur Que sequuntur

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