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had dwelt in Canaan about 400 years; as the credit due to some parts of this very old we learn from the sacred History, Joshua English version; as the sense of this passage xv. 63; Judg. i. 21; xix. 10; and from seems to have been greatly mistaken both Josephus, lib. vii., cap. 3. before and since. That it has been changed for the worse since that edition is very evident; and that it was improperly rendered before appears from Wickliffe's MS. Version of 1383, where we read, Thou shalt not enter hidur: no but thou do awey blynd wen and lame, &c.
After this additional clause of Samuel in the speech of the Jebusites, the two histories agree in saying, “David took the strong hold of Sion, which was afterwards called the city
The Jebusites then, absolutely depending on the advantage of their high situation and the strength of their fortification (which had secured them against the Israelites so many hundred years) looked upon this of David's as a vain attempt, which therefore they might safely treat with insolence and raillery. Full of this fond notion, they placed upon the walls of the citadel the few blind and lame that could be found amongst them; and told David, "he should not come of David." By this strong hold of Sion, or thither; for the blind and the lame were city of David, we are led by the words of sufficient to keep him off;" which they the text to understand, not the fortress or (these weak defenders) should effectually do, citadel (which was not yet taken, as appears only by their shouting 727 717 8778, David from the order of the history in both shall not come hither, No David shall come chapters), but the town of the Jebusites, or hither, &c. City of David, which was spread over the wide hill of Sion: and is what Josephus means, when he tells us, David first took the lower town, тην катw поλw, the town which lay beneath the citadel; after which he tells us, that the citadel yet remained to be taken, er de Tηs Akpas λeitoμevns.— Lib. vii. cap. 3.
That the blind and the lame were contemptuously placed upon the walls by the Jebusites, as before described, we are assured not only by the words of the sacred history before us, but also by the concurrent testimony of Josephus in the following words, τους πεπηρωμένους τας οψεις και τας βασεις και παν το λελωβημενον στησαντων επι χλεύη The two chapters having agreed in this του βασιλέως επι του τειχους, και λεγοντων last circumstance of David's making himself κωλεύειν αυτον εισελθειν τους αναπηρους, master of the town or city, they now vary as ταυτα δε επραττον καταφρονουντες τη των before; and here also the history in Chroτειχων οχυροτητι.”—Lib. vii. cap. 3. Now nicles is regular, though it takes no notice of that these blind and lame, who appear to some farther circumstances relating to the have been placed upon the walls, were to blind and lame: and indeed these latter cirinsult, and did insult David in the manner cumstances were to be omitted of course, as before-mentioned, seems very evident from the historian chose for brevity to omit the the words, "the blind and the lam shall former. But as Samuel, there is in that keep thee off," by saying, &c., and also from book a deficiency of several words, which the impossibility of otherwise accounting for are necessary to complete the sense; which David's indignation against these (naturally words are preserved in the text of Chropitiable) wretches. And the not attending nicles. And as the difficulty here also lies to this remarkable circumstance seems one entirely in the text of Samuel, let us see principal reason of the perplexity so visible whether it may not be cleared up to satisamong the various interpreters of this passage. faction.
It is very remarkable, that the sense before given to TOON, For the blind and the lame shall keep thee off, is confirmed by Josephus, who, in the words just cited from him, has “ κωλευειν αυτον εισελθειν τους ανα
povs." And it is farther remarkable, that the same sense is given to these words in the English Bible of Coverdale, printed in 1535, in which they are rendered, Thou shalt not come hither, but the hlynde and lame shal dryve the awate. This is one great instance to prove
David, having now possessed himself of the strong town of the Jebusites situate upon the hill of Sion, proceeds, or, the same day, to attack the citadel or fortress; which was considered by the Jebusites as impregnable. And probably the Israelites would have thought it so too, and David had retired from before it, like his forefathers; if he had not possessed himself of it by stratagem, when he found he could not storm or take it by open force. For this seems in
fact to have been the case; and the history|ΚΕΙΜΕΝΩΝ ΦΑΡΑΓΓΩΝ επι την Ακραν αναof this success may be properly introducedβαντι, και ταυτην ελοντι, στρατηγιαν απαντος by a similar case or two. του λαου δωσειν επηγγείλατο, &c.”-Lib. vii. And first, Dr. Prideaux (in his "Con- cap. 3. Here then we have υποκειμεναι nexion," part 1, book 2) tells us of the city papayres (the subterraneous cavities) most of Babylon, that, when it was besieged by remarkably answering to the vоvoμos and Cyrus, the inhabitants thinking themselves ; and putting this interpretation upon a secure in their walls and their stores, looked very solid footing. I shall only add upon on the taking of the city by a siege as an this point, that the true sense of the obscure impracticable thing; and therefore from the word in this place remarkably occurs in top of their walls scoffed at Cyrus, and derided the commentary of Hugo de Vienna beforehim for every thing he did towards it. (A mentioned; where it is explained by “Cunicircumstance most exactly parallel to that of culos subterraneos, per quos erat ascensus the history before us.) But yet, that Cyrus usque ad tecta." broke down the great bank or dam of the river, both where it ran into the city, and where it came out; and as soon as the Noldius; and that it signifies so in this place channel of the river was drained, in the is certain from the nature of the context, middle of the night, while Belshazzar was and the testimony of Josephus, who (as we carousing at the conclusion of an annual have seen) expresses it by dia. The verb festival, the troops of Cyrus entered through in this sentence is very properly future; these passages in two parties, and took the city by surprise.
That the preposition prefixed to sometimes signifies per, is evident from
as Hebrew verbs in that tense are known to be frequentative, or to express the continuance of doing any thing; and therefore that tense is with great propriety used here
It only remains here to make an observa
Επι тηy vôрelav oi пoλioρкovμevoi) a subterraneous passage, through which the besieged came down for water." Ed. Casaubon, Svo., vol. i., p. 578.
And there is a second remarkable case related by Polybius, which will farther illustrate the present history; and was communicated to express the frequent repetition of the to me by a learned friend. "Rabatamana," insolent speech used by the blind and the says Polybius, "a city of Arabia, could not lame upon the walls of the fortress. be taken, till one of the prisoners showed the besiegers (τον Υπονομον, δι' ου κατεβαινον tion or two on the reward proposed by David, and the person who obtained it. The text of Chronicles tells us, David said, "Whosoever smiteth the Jebusites first, shall be chief and captain," or head and Now this fortress of the Jebusites seems prince. We are to recollect that Joab the to have been circumstanced like Rabatamana; son of Zeruiah (David's sister) had been in having also a subterraneous passage, which general of his army during the civil war is called in the original, a word, which between the men of Judah, under David, occurs but once more in the Bible, and does and the Israelites commanded by Abner in not seem commonly understood in this place. favour of Ishbosheth the son of Saul: but The English version calls it the gutter, the that the Israelites having now submitted to Vulgate, fistulas; Vatablus, canales; Jun. David, he was king over the whole twelve and Trem., emissarium; Poole, tubus aqua; tribes. David, we know, frequently endeaand Bochart, alveus, &c. But, not to mul- voured to remove Joab from his command tiply quotations, most interpreters agree in of the army, on account of his haughtiness making the word signify something hollow, and for several murders, but complained and in applying it to water: just the case that this son of Zeruiah was too hard for of the vоvoμos of Rabatamana; a sub- him. One of these attempts of David's terraneous passage, or great hollow, through seems to have been made at the time Israel which men could pass and repass for water. came in to David, by the persuasion of That this in the text was such an under- Abner; when it is probable the condition ground passage might be strongly presumed on Abner's side was to have been made from the text itself; but it is proved to have David's captain-general: and perhaps Joab been so by Josephus. For, speaking of this suspected so much, and therefore murdered very transaction, he says, ETL δε Tηs Akpas him. The next attempt seems to have been λειπομενης, βασιλευς τω ΔΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΥΠΟ-made at the taking this strong citadel of the
absolutely to every officer of his army; "Whoever smiteth the Jebusites first," i. e., whosoever will ascend first, put himself at the head of a detachment, and march up through the subterraneous passage into the citadel," shall be head and captain."
Jebusites. For David proposes the reward at first also in Samuel, and are therefore to be restored. The necessity of thus restoring the words not found in the present copies of Samuel is apparent; and we may add, that St. Jerome (in his "Quæstiones seu Traditiones Hebraicæ in lib. Regum") tells us,
Subauditur quod liber paralipomenon declarat, hoc modo dicens, erit princeps et dux: ascendit igitur primus Joab, filius Saruiæ, et factus est princeps."
The English version then of these texts in Chronicles is, And the inhabitants of Jebus said to David, Thou shalt not come hither. But David took the strong hold of Sion, which is the city of David. And David said, Whosoever first smiteth the Jebusites, shall be head and captain. So Joab the son of Zeruiah went up first, and was chief-captain. And the English version of these texts in Samuel is, And they It is not unlikely that the men of Israel spake unto David, saying, Thou shalt not expected that though Abner their general come hither; for the blind and the lame had been basely murdered by Joab, yet shall keep thee off, by saying, David shall David's chief-captain should be chosen from not come hither. But David took the strong amongst them, or at least they should have a hold of Sion, which is the city of David. chance for that first post of honour, as well as And David said on that day, Whosoever the men of Judah. And if they had (first) smiteth the Jebusites, and through the declared any expectation of this kind, subterraneous passages reacheth the blind David seems to have taken the wisest step and the lame, which are hated of David's for determining so important a point, by soul, because the blind and the lame condeclaring, that neither relation, nor fortune, tinued to say, He shall not come into this nor friendship should recommend upon the house-shall be head and captain. So Joab occasion; but, that as the bravest man and the son of Zeruiah went up first, and was the best soldier ought to be commander-in-head, or captain-general.
chief, so this honour should be the reward Parkhurst [who is followed by Bishop of the greatest merit; that there was now a Horsley].— An aqueduct, drain, or subfair opportunity of signalizing themselves in terraneous passage for water, "Tubus per the taking this important fortress; and, quem aqua in declive fertur, puta ex monte therefore, his resolution was, that "who- vel ex tecto." Bochart. occ. 2 Sam. v. 8; soever would head" a detachment up this where Vulg., fistulas, pipes, French translat., subterraneous passage, and should first make le canal, and Eng., the gutter. Ver. 6 And himself master of the citadel, by that pas- the king and his men went to Jerusalem, to sage, or by scaling the walls, or by any other the Jebusite, the inhabitant of the land; and method, should be head and captain, i. e., he (the Jebusite) spake to David, saying, captain-general. Thou shalt not come in hither (TIDA ON 3), It is remarkable, that the text in Samuel except thou remove the blind and the lame is very incomplete in this place: David's (with whom I suppose they had, in bravado proposal to the army is just begun, and a and contempt of David and his men, manned circumstance or two mentioned; but the their walls) to declare, or meaning, David reward proposed, and the person rewarded, shall not come in hither. 7 Nevertheless are totally omitted. We may presume the David took the strong hold of Zion, the same text could not have been thus imperfect is the city of David. 8 And, or, For David originally, since no ellipsis can supply what said on that day (in which he took it, is here wanting; and therefore the words in namely), Let every one smite, or (be) smiting the coinciding chapter of Chronicles which the Jebusite, and let him reach by, or through regularly fill up this omission, were doubtless the subterraneous passage both the lame and
This proposal, we may observe, was general; and yet, how much soever David might wish Joab safely removed, it is reasonable to think that he made Joab the first offer. And, we find, that however dangerous and dreadful this enterprise appeared, yet Joab had prudence enough to undertake it, and courage enough to execute it:
"and Joab went up first," or at the head of a party, and was accordingly declared head, or chief-captain, or (in the modern style) captain-general of the united armies of Israel and Judah.
the blind, who hate the person of David; Gesen. m. (r. ) a cataract, waterbecause they said, The blind and lame (man, fall, so called from its rushing sound, Ps. sing.) shall not come into the house or castle. xlii. 8; a water-course, 2 Sam. v. 8. Chald. Thus have I endeavoured fairly to construe | id. this very difficult passage just as it stands in Forster's Hebrew Bible, without presuming either to make the least alteration in the text, or to transpose the words of it, and add an extraordinary supplement, as in our common translation; and on the 8th verse I desire it may be particularly observed, that the lame and the blind, i.e., the invalids who manned the walls, are said to be those w (who) hated (being understood before the verb wow, as usual; or if with Walton's and the Complutensian Bible, and with twelve of Dr. Kennicott's Codices, we read
, hating, the sense will be exactly the same, without any supplement at all), the person of David, p, because they said, The blind and the lame (sing.) shall not come in hither; which if it does not absolutely prove, makes it at least highly probable that David himself was become lame, and had his sight affected, or perhaps had lost an eye by the severe hardships he had undergone, or by the wounds he had received in frequent engagements in which he had been concerned; and this personal insult on the king by the invalids well accounts for his commanding them in particular to be attacked. There are several other instances in history, both ancient and modern, of cities or fortresses being taken by the enemy's entering through subterranean passages. Thus, "all parts of Naples are copiously supplied with water by an ancient aqueduct, which has more than overbalanced its services by affording a passage for besiegers to enter the city: through it Belisarius introduced soldiers that surprised the Gothic garrison; Alphonsus the first repeated the stratagem with success." 2d vol. of "Swinburne's Travels in the Two Sicilies," in "Annual Register" for 1784-5, Account of Books, p. 176. In who detest the person of David, (because "Macpherson's History of Great Britain," the sentinels and patrols had said, Into this voi. i., p. 407, we are told "some were ap-house he shall not come,) he shall be chiefpointed to seize the castle of Stirling by an captain [1 Chron. xi. 6]. So Joab, being old gutter or sally-port toward Ballangwith, the first who went up, was made chiefwhere no sentinels were ever placed." So captain [1 Chron. xi. 6]. our King Edward III. entered the castle of Nottingham, through a subterraneous passage, which is still to be seen, and surprised his mother and Mortimer. Rapin's History of England, by Tindal," vol. i., p. 413, fol., and "Taylor's Concordance." hilominus David arcem Sion expugnavit,
Houb.-6 Postea rex cum suis venit Jeru
Ged.-(6) Now when king David [LXX, Syr., Arab., and two MSS.] and his men went unto Jerusalem against the Jebusites, the ancient inhabitants of the land; these, thinking that David could not get in, accosted him thus: "In hither thou shalt not come, unless thou canst remove the sentinels and patrols." (7) David, nevertheless, took the citadel of Zion; which is still called the city of David. (8) For, that day, David said: "Whosoever shall the first, [supplied from p. p. 1 Chron. xi. 6,] reach the summit of the citadel, and smite the Jebusite sentinels and patrols, who hold David in such contempt," (because the sentinels and patrols had said: "In hither thou shalt not come,") "he shall be chief-captain.” So Joab, being the first who went up, was made chief-captain [supplied from p. p. 1 Chron. xi. 6].
6-8. Sentinels and patrols. This I take to be the true meaning of the words commonly rendered the blind, and the lame. The rest of the passage, which is confessedly very difficult, I have endeavoured to make intelligible, by inserting the necessary supplements from Chronicles, where the same history is told in a clear though more concise manner.
Booth.-6 And the king and his men went to Jerusalem against the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land; and they said, Thou canst not come in hither, unless thou canst remove the sentinels and patrols, thinking David could not come in thither. 7 Nevertheless, David took the citadel of Zion, which is now called the city of David. 8 For David said on that day, Whosoever first smiteth the Jebusites, and through the secret passage reacheth the sentinels and patrols,
salem ad Jebusæos, qui in terra habitabant. Illi ei hæc dicebant; non hùc intrabis, nisi abstuleris cæcos et claudos: quibus verbis hoc significabant, David hùc non intrabit. 7 Ni
quæ nunc est urbs David. 8 Eodem autem | invisos animo David; cum debuisset, qui die David tale mandatum fecerat: quisquis oderant David : neque enim legitur Nw, Jebusæum cæsurus est, irruat cum pugione in invisos animo, sed, invisam habentes claudos et in cæcos, qui oderunt animam animam (David). Paulo aliter hæc narDavid: proptereà hoc proverbium est; cæcus rantur, 1 Par. ii. 6, sed ita, ut duo loci et claudus non intrabit domum. paralleli non pugnent, et ut ad hanc nostram 6, 8, ' TO ON, Nisi ab- interpretationem facile accommodentur. stuleris cæcos et claudos. Quoniam postea Dathe.-6 Deinde oppugnavit cum exerexplicatur, quid dicere vellent Jebusæi, hoc citu suo Hierosolymam, quam Jebusitæ tunc ipso intelligitur, id eos in proverbio dixisse; tenebant. Sed hi responderunt: eum urbem non igitur intelligendum esse, ipsos cæcos et non esse expugnaturum, nisi cæcos et claudos claudos, qui erant in Jerusalem, esse in repulerit. Quibus verbis indicabant, nunmoenibus pugnaturos, et Davidi cum eis esse quam urbem ab eo capi posse. 7 Sed cepit decertandum. Enimvero nec cæci, nec David arcem Sionem, quæ postea ab eo nomen claudi, milites esse solent. Sed Jebusæi sic habuit. 8 Nam tunc David in exercitu suo dicere videbantur, priusquam David urbem edixerat: qui Jebusitas percusserit atque caperet, abducendos ei esse captivos cæcos usque ad canales penetraverit, ad claudos et claudos, qui media in urbe erant, quique istos et cæcos sibi tam exosos, hunc ducem a militibus circum moenia fusis protege- exercitus futurum esse. Hine in proverbio bantur; quod quia fieri non poterat, nisi dici solet: Cocus et claudus domum ne capta urbe, opportune subjungitur, Philistæos intrent (a). perinde dixisse, atque tu urbem non capies. Postea autem David jubet ut sui irruant...in cæcos et claudos, qui oderunt (*, qui oderunt, ut Masora emendat, non ) animam David. Quo ipso docemur nec Davidem intellexisse, cum hæc diceret, ipsos cæcos et claudos: neque enim isti plus cæteris Jebusæis Davidem oderant; sed Davidem per contemptum nominare Jebusæos cæcos et claudos, quia illi ipsi Jebusæi milites, qui hæc loquebantur, futuri erant instar cæcorum et claudorum, ut pote ex urbe mox eripiendi, Maurer.-6'7 i 85] Hic non intrabis, nec aliis armis, quam pugione, debellandi; urbem non expugnabis, nisi cæcos et claudos sic tanquam cæci, qui hostem appropin- repuleris, h. e., vel cæci et claudi te repellent. quantem cum non videant, pugione facile "Ita feroces Jebusitæ loci fiducia atque arce occiduntur, aut tanquam claudi, qui hostem potissimum urbi imminente freti, quam et insequentem fugere cum on possint, evitare natura et arte munitam inexpugnabilem fore non queunt non modo tela et sagittas, sed sperabant, contemtim jactitabant." Schulz. neque ipsum pugionem.
(a) Fateor, me hunc locum non intelligere, quidquid interpretes ad eum illustrandum dixerint. Cœcis illis et claudis nondum est remedium allatum, ut eos sanos conspicere possimus: et quid sibi velit illud proverbium : Cocus et claudus domum ne intrent, adhucdum ænigma est. 1 Chron. xi. 4, ubi eadem historia narratur, nihil de cocis istis et claudis legitur. Ex eo loco supplevi, quæ h. 1. desunt, ut sensus sit perfectus, dux erit exercitus.
sunt לֵאמֹר לֹא־יָבוֹא דָוִד הֵנָּה Sic interpretamur
, ut fecere Græci Intt. qui naрağıpidi, verba scriptoris: quibus verbis indicabant : pugione; deinde □ 8, claudos, non ... urbem a Davide capi non posse. Clericus merito admiratur Samuelem Bo-] Hic locus haud dubie corchartum, qui hæc intelligere se crediderit, ruptus est. Quum i Ps. xlii. 8 secundum et per fas et nefas converterit; cujus quidem LXX, Vulg. et orationis contextum sit Bocharti interpretatio non tanti est, ut eam canalis, aquæductus s. catarracta (ut in hic exponamus. Sed nos admiramur ipsum Chald. lingua), plerique interpretes hoc Clericum, qui cæcos et claudos intellexerit quoque loco sub isto vocabulo canalem inDeorum Jebusæorum esse statuas, quia Je- telligunt, nempe Siloamensem, qui e Sionis busæi imitarentur sermonem Hebræorum, arce aquas in urbem subjectam derivabat, qui Diis Jebusæorum dicebant esse oculos, monentes, hostem, canali hoc ac fonte ejus nec tamen eos videre; esse pedes, nec tamen potitum, obsidionem fortiter urgere arcemque incedere. Id enim quam contortum et im- expugnare potuisse; apodosin autem ex loco probabile! Addimus, quam falsum! Num parallelo 1 Chron. xi. 6 supplendam existienim statuæ illæ Deorum oderant animam mant hoc modo: qui Jebusæos percusserit Davidis? Convertit Clericus, atque usque ad canalem penetraverit, ad (?)