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Bp. Patrick.-Before the Lord;] The ark of God's presence was not in Hebron; and therefore it is a question how it could be said, that he made a league before the Lord. But see what I have said of this, Judg. xx. 1. [Judg. xx. 1, As for that phrase, unto the Lord, it is no argument that either the ark was here, or so much as a place of for where all the people of God were assembled in any place, there God was in a special manner present; as when they all assembled to make David their king, it is said, he made a league with them "in Hebron before the Lord," though there was no ark nor altar there (2 Sam. v. 3).]


came to the king to Hebron; and king David made a league with them in Hebron

8 καὶ

before the LORD: and they anointed David| 6 καὶ ἀπῆλθε Δαυὶδ καὶ οἱ ἄνδρες αὐτοῦ εἰς king over Israel. ̔Ιερουσαλὴμ πρὸς τὸν ̓Ιεβουσαῖον τὸν κατοιBefore the Lord; either, 1. Before the κοῦντα τὴν γῆν. καὶ ἐῤῥέθη τῷ Δαυίδ, οὐκ ark, which might be here, though that be εἰσελεύσῃ ὧδε, ὅτι ἀντέστησαν οἱ τυφλοὶ καὶ not mentioned in this place. Or, 2. Before οἱ χωλοὶ λέγοντες, ὅτι οὐκ εἰσελεύσεται Δαυὶδ the priest clothed with the ephod; whereby de. 7 καὶ προκατελάβετο Δαυὶδ τὴν περιhe was in a manner put into God's presence. οχὴν Σιών· αὕτη ἡ πόλις τοῦ Δαυίδ. Or rather, 3. In the congregation of the εἶπε Δαυὶδ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ. πᾶς τύπτων mighty, or magistrates, where God used to Ιεβουσαίον ἁπτέσθω ἐν παραξιφίδι καὶ τοὺς be present, Psalm lxxxii. 1; in the public χωλοὺς καὶ τοὺς τυφλοὺς καὶ τοὺς μισοῦντας assembly now met together in God's name τὴν ψυχὴν Δαυίδ, διὰ τοῦτο ἐροῦσι, τυφλοὶ and fear, and as in his presence, to call upon καὶ χωλοὶ οὐκ εἰσελεύσονται εἰς οἶκον κυρίου. him, to appeal to him as the witness and judge of their transactions. Compare Judg. xi. 11; 1 Sam. xxiii. 18.

Ver. 4.

Au. Ver.-4 David was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years.

And he reigned. Houb. DN: Legendum, quadraginta autem (annos regnavit). Sic alibi passim. Omissum fuit, quia antecedit alterum, in .

Ver. 6-8.



שנואי קרי .8 .ver

Au. Ver.-6 And the king and his men went to Jerusalem unto the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land: which spake unto David, saying, Except thou take away the blind and the lame, thou shalt not come in hither: thinking [or, saying, David shall not, &c.], David cannot come in hither.

7 Nevertheless David took the stronghold of Zion: the same is the city of David.

8 And David said on that day, Whosoever getteth up to the gutter, and smiteth the Jebusites, and the lame and the blind, that are hated of David's soul, he shall be chief and captain. Wherefore they said, The blind and the lame shall not come into the house [or, because they had said, Even the blind and the lame, he shall not come into the house].

Pool.-6 Except thou take away the blind and the lame, thou shalt not come in hither ; or, Thou shalt not come in hither, but the blind and the lame shall remove or hinder thee. By the blind and the lame they understand, either, 1. Their own people; and so they imply that the place was so impregnable, that a few blind and lame men were able to defend it against all David's assaults. And these may be called and were the hated of David's soul, ver. 8, not because they were blind and lame, but because they were

6 וַיֵּלֶךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ וַאֲנָשָׁיו יְרוּשָׁלַם אֶל־ Jebusites, a people hated and accursed by הַיְבָסִי יוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ וַיֹּאמֶר לְדָוִד לֵאמֹר לֹא־תָבוֹא הֵנָּה כִּי אִם־הֶסִירְךְ הָעִוְרִים nation ; partly because they possessed this וְהַפַּסְחִים לֵאמֹר לֹא־יָבוֹא דָוִד הֵנָּה:

God and the Jebusites of this place were more hateful to him than the rest of that

place, which David knew was designed for | David and others upon this occasion. Or the one and only place of God's solemn otherwise, The blind and the lame Jebusites worship; and partly because they did so were set to keep the house, i. e., the fort of wickedly and insolently defy the armies of Zion; and to keep others from coming into Israel, and consequently, the God of Israel. it; but now they are shut out of it, and Or, 2. Their gods or images; which, after none of them, to wit, either, 1. Of the Jethe manner of the heathens, they wor- busites; or, 2. Of blind and lame persons, shipped as their tutelary gods, and placed in shall be admitted to come into it again; their gates and walls. These they call blind which David might resolve, and ordain, to and lame sarcastically, and with respect to keep up the memory of this great exploit, David's opinion; as if they said, These gods and of the insolent carriage of the Jebusites, of ours, whom you Israelites reproach, as and their unhappy success. Or, the blind blind and lame, Psal. cxv. 5, 6, and so and the lame shall not come into my house, unable to direct and protect us, they will to wit, into the king's palace. And although defend us against you; and you will find this might be a general rule and decree of they are neither blind nor lame, but have David's, yet he might dispense with it in eyes to watch for us, and hands to some special cases, as in that of Mephifight against you; and you must conquer bosheth. But it is not necessary that this them before you can take our city. And should be a proverb; for the words may be these may well be called the hated of David's thus rendered, as it is in the margin of our soul. But I prefer the former sense, as Bible, Because they had said, Even the blind being most easy, and natural, and proper; and the lame, He (i. e., David) shall not come whereas the latter is metaphorical, and into the house; or, Because they (i.e., the seems doubtful and forced. David cannot Jebusites) had said, The blind and the lame come in hither; concluding their fort to be shall hinder him; (which words are easily impregnable. supplied out of ver. 6, where having spoken of this more largely, it was sufficient here to mention the most emphatical words, as is usual in such cases); he shall not come into the house, or hither, as they say, ver. 6, i. e., into the fort; for the word house is used very largely and generally in the Hebrew language, for any place, as Judg. xvi. 21. And Bp. Patrick.-6 The inhabitants of the land:] That is, of that part of the land (Josh. xv. 63), Judg. 1. 21, xix. 10, 11).

7 The stronghold of Zion; either, 1. A very strong fort which they had built upon Mount Zion; which being taken, the city quickly yielded. Or, 2. The city of Zion, which was very strongly fortified.

8 Whosoever getteth up to the gutter, i.e., whosoever scaleth the fort, or getteth up to the top of it, where the gutter was. the lame and the blind, or even, or especially (for the Hebrew particle vau signifies both ways) the lame and the blind; i. e., those of them who are set to defend that place; who, as they pretend, should be only the lame and the blind. Others understand it of their idols or images. But they could not properly be said to be smitten, i.e., killed; as that word is used here, and elsewhere. That are hated of David's soul: this belongs to the Jebusite, and the lame and the blind; and it is explained in ver. 6. He shall be chief and captain: these words are fitly supplied out of 1 Chron. xi. 6, where they are expressed; and they must needs be understood to make the sense complete. And such ellipses or defects of a part of the sentence are usual in promises, and oaths, and con- images of their gods (particularly our ditional offers, such as this was. Wherefore learned Gregory hath a whole dissertation they said, The blind and the lame shall not about it). As if they had said, Our gods, come into the house, i. e., whence it became whom ye call blind and lame, that have eyes a proverb, or a common saying, used by and see not, feet and walk not (as it is

Except thou take away the blind and the lame, thou shalt not come in hither:] They imagined their fortress to be so impregnable, that by way of contempt and scorn they told him, the blind and the lame were able to defend it against him and all his forces. So Bochartus translates these words, non huc accedes, &c. "thou shalt not come up hither, but the blind and the lame will drive thee away; "i. e. the most feeble and cowardly among us. Which he thinks is so plain a sense, that he wonders men of great learning should seek for any other (lib. iv. Phaleg. cap. 36). But so it is, a great many, by "the blind and the lame," understand the

στη 1997 99 319


Psalm cxv.), they shall defend us: and you|17 must overcome them before you overcome ΠΤΩΣ ΠΕ 1ης Τάξης ΠΟΠ 17 Sam. Luther himself thus explains the 1997 1999 : 1997 1998 1997 1999 Chron. sense :-“ These blind and lame (saith he) της 21η : 197 1992 1991 1993 Sam.


were the idols of the Jebusites; which, to


1982 Chron.


irritate David, they set upon their walls as 19929 ΠΩΣ Ε their patrons and defenders; and they did 1592 ΠΩΣ Τ as good as say, Thou dost not fight with

us, but with our gods, who will easily repel ΟΠΟΕΠ ΠΑΥ 1925



8 Whosoever getteth up to the gutter, and smiteth the Jebusites, &c.] i. e., “Cuts offi their pipes of water,' or their cisterns into which the waters fell; for the Hebrew word be 1992 85 ΠΟΔΙ 1999 1999 tzinnor, which we translate gutter, is no 5999 πράξη της πρ... Chron.

ης Sam.

where found but in this place, and in Ps.

· . 217 Sam.

xlii. 7, and by St. Jerome is translated fish


97 ΣΕ



: 2875 Chron.


tulæ. But I know not how we come to transpose the words, "he that smiteth the Jebusites," behind the other, which in the Hebrew are first. "He that smiteth the Jebusites, let him throw down into the ditch (which was by the wall) both the blind and the lame, which David extremely hates.” Thus Bochart translates the words Chron. in the place above named, which, if it be|Sam. admitted, there is no need to add thoseChron. words (out of 1 Chron. xi. 6) to make out Sam. the sense, "he shall be chief and captain ;" Chron. for the sense is complete without them. Sam. Wherefore they said, The blind and the Chron. lame shall not come into the house.] Or, as it Sam. οτι ουκ εισελεύσεται Δαυιδ ωδε. is in the margin, “ Because they had said,|Chron. Και προκατελάβετο

τησαν οι τυφλοι και οι χωλοι, λεγοντες,

even the blind and the lame, He shall not Sam. Και κατελάβετο Δαυιδ come into the house.” That is, because|Chron. περιοχήν Σιων' αυτη η πολις they had taunted him with the blind and Sam. περιοχήν Σιων· αυτη η πολις του lame, as if they could defend the fort, and|Chron. Δανιδ. Και είπε Δαυιδ. hinder him from coming into it; therefore Sam. Δαυιδ. he was highly provoked to wish they might Chron. be thrown down headlong from their walls Sam. εκεινη into the ditch. And then by the house is Chron. πρωτοις, meant, neither the house of David, nor the|Sam. house of the Lord (as many take it), but|Chron.

Και είπε Δαυιδ τη ημερα πας τυπτων Ιεβουσαίον εν πας τυπτων Ιεβουσαίον,

that very fort wherein the Jebusites had Sam. χωλους, και τους τυφλους και τους
dwelt; from which hereafter they were ex-|Chron.
cluded. And indeed it is a very large word | Sam.
in the Hebrew, signifying any place.

Sam. ερουσι· τυφλοι και χωλοι ουκ εισελεν-

και εσται εις

Ken.-The Hebrew text of 1 Chron. xi. 5, 6, compared with 2 Sam. v. 6, 7, 8, is 1975 1929 929 978199 Chron. . . 489 Sam. ΠΑΠΑΣΠ Α Chron.

לדוד לאמר

.Sam לא תבוא הנה כי אם הסירך

.Sam העורים והפסחים לאמר לא יבוא


.Sam ואת העורים שנאו נפש דוד על

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Ειπαν δε οι κατοικούντες Ιεβους τω
Και εβρεθη


Δαυιδ, ουκ εισελευση ωδε.
Δαυιδ· οὐκ εισελευση ωδε, οτι αντεσ-

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μισούντας ψυχην Δαυιδ.

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απτεσφω εν παραξιφιδι και τους

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Sam. σονται εις οικον Κυρίου.
Chron. αρχοντα και εις στρατηγον.

και ανεβη Chron. επ ̓ αυτην εν πρωτοις Ιωαβ υιος Σα




Chron. Chron. ρουιας, και εγενετο εις αρχοντα.


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την την

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Δια τουτο

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The present English Version.

Chron. And the inhabitants of Jebus said to
Sam. Which
spake unto
Chron. David,
Sam. David, saying, Except thou take


there seems to be very sufficient room for offering another interpretation, in some material points differing from them all. The words in Samuel, so far as the text in Chronicles coincides, are clear and determinate in their meaning, "And the inhabitants of Jebus said to David, Thou shalt not come hither." But the succeeding words in Samuel are very difficult; or, at least, have been variously interpreted. The present Sam. cannot come in hither. Nevertheless, English translation is, "Except thou take Chron. David took the castle ..of away the blind and the lame, thinking David

Thou shalt Sam. away the blind and the lame, thou shalt Chron. not come hither.

Sam. not come in hither: thinking David



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Sam. David took the strong hold of cannot come in hither."

The chief difficulty here lies in determin

ing who are these blind and lame; whether Jebusites, or the Jebusite Deities called blind and lame by way of derision. The latter opinion has been maintained by some considerable writers; but yet seems indefensible. For however David and the Israelites might be disposed to treat such idols with scorn and contempt, 'tis not at all likely the Jebusites should revile their own Deities; and we must remember, that these Deities are

supposed to be here called blind and lame by the Jebusites themselves. But, admitting them to be idol Deities, what meaning can there be in the Jebusites telling David, “he should not come into the citadel, unless he took away the Deities upon the walls?" If he could scale the walls, so as to reach these guardian Deities, he need not ask leave of the Jebusites to enter the citadel. But (which is much more difficult to be answered) what can possibly be the meaning of the last line, "Wherefore they said, The blind and the lame shall not come into the house?" For, who said? Did the Jebusites say, their own Deities (before expressed by the blind and lame) should not come into the house, should not (according to some) come where they were, or, should not (according to others) come into the house of the Lord? Or, could these Deities say, David and his men should not come into the house? The absurdity of attributing such a speech, or

The reason of placing this whole sentence together being obvious, let us proceed to consider the several parts of it in the two chapters. The words ', which are not in the original of Samuel, are not in the Vat. copy of the LXX in Chronicles; but the Alex. translates regularly according to the present Hebrew text. In Samuel there is a clause or two in the speech of the Jebusites, which is omitted in Chronicles for brevity; as the history in Chronicles is any speech to these Idols, is too clear to regular, and the sense complete without it. | need illustration. But though the history be regular and very intelligible in Chronicles, yet the additional clauses in Samuel make the history there remarkably perplexed; and (as Dr. Delany observes) encumber it with more difficulties than are ordinarily to be met with. In full proportion to the difficulties has been the Jebusites in general, called blind and lame, number of different interpretations; and yet for putting their trust in blind and lame

But, though these Deities could not denounce these words, yet the Jebusites might; and 'tis possible (it has been said) that the blind and the lame in this latter part of the sentence may signify the Jebusites; not any particular Jebusites so maimed; but the

Chron. Zion, which is the city of David.
Zion: the same is the city of David.

Chron. And David said, ..
Sam. And David said on that day, Who-
Chron. soever

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Sam. soever getteth up to the gutter, and
Chron. smiteth the Jebusites first,
Sam. smiteth the Jebusites,

and the


Sam. lame, and the blind, that are hated of


David's soul—wherefore they said,

Sam. The blind and the lame shall not shall be chief


Sam. come into the house.
Chron. and captain. So Joab the son of


Chron. Zeruiah went first up and was

Chron. chief.

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idols. This seems too refined an interpre- | David took the strong hold of Sion, which tation; and we may safely conclude that the is the city of David. And David said on same expression of the blind and lame that day, Whosoever (first) smiteth the means the same beings in the two different Jebusites, and through the subterraneous parts of the same sentence. It has been passage reacheth the lame and the blind, farther observed, that these blind and lame that are hated of David's soul, because the are here spoken of as different from the blind and the lame continued to say, He Jebusites, "Whosoever smiteth the Jebu- shall not come into this house sites, and the lame and the blind; " and if shall be chief captain." they were different, it requires no great skill at deduction to determine they were not the


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Having thus mentioned some of the present interpretations, it may be now proper to submit another to the judgment of the learned reader. And here, for the sake of clearness, I shall first give what seems to be the true interpretation of this passage; and then subjoin the several arguments in defence of it.

That the connected particles DN signify for in this place is evident, because the words following are rather causal than ob

Perhaps then these blind and lame were, jective, and we have several instances of in fact, a few particular wretches, who this sense of the two particles given us by laboured under these infirmities of blindness Noldius: thus Prov. xxiii. 18, they are renand lameness; and therefore were different dered for in the English translation; and so from the general body of the Jebusites. in the English, Greek, Syriac and Arabic But here it will be demanded at once, how versions of Lam. v. 22. That the verb TA we can then account rationally for that bit- is not here the infinitive, but the preter of terness, with which David expresses himself Hiphil, is apparent from the sense; that it here against these blind and lame; and how has been so considered is certain, from the it was possible for a man of David's hu- Masoret pointing, as De Dieu and other manity to detest men for mere unblameable, critics have observed; and we see it is and indeed pitiable, infirmities? And lastly, translated as such by the LXX, in the plural the authors of the "Universal History," in number, avreσTηoav. From this version their note on this transaction, mention the then, and from the plurality of the two following as the first plausible argument nouns, which are necessarily the nomiagainst the literal acceptation; how could natives to this verb, we may infer, that it David distinguish the halt, or the lame, or was originally, the vau having been the blind, from able men, when posted upon dropped here as in many other places. lofty walls; since those infirmities are not | Thus Gen. i. 28, we have (et subdiscernible but near at hand? This, it must jicite eam) instead of twice in the be allowed, would be a difficulty indeed, if verb (regularly reputavimus David's information here had been only eum) in the 3d and 4th verses of the from his eye-sight. But this objection im- 53d of Isaiah; in this very 7th verse, in the mediately vanishes, when we reflect that the word Daw, which should be, as it is Jebusites are said in the text to have told in the 9th and other adjoining verses, and David, "the blind and the lame should this vau is also omitted in the 9th verse in keep him off;" for certainly David could, which we are told in the margin should easily conceive the men who were placed be, where the yod has also been upon the walls to insult him were "blind corrupted into a vau. Enough having and lame," when he was told so by the been said of the number, let us now consider Jebusites themselves, and told so, to render the tense of this verb; which being preter, this insult of theirs the greater. some have translated it by a word expressive of time past. But the sense necessarily requires it to be translated as future in other languages, though it be more expressive in the original in the preter tense: it being agreeable to the genius of the Hebrew language frequently to speak of events yet future, as having actually happened, when the speaker would strongly express the cer"And the inhabitants of Jebus said to tainty of such event. This observation is David, Thou shalt not come hither: for the peculiarly applicable to the case here. For blind and the lame shall keep thee off, by this castle of Mount Sion had never yet saying, David shall not come hither. But been taken by the Israelites, though they

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