breaking up of the great aristocratic parties into which the House was formerly divided. Mr. B. Os borne remarked upon the unsatis factory nature of the encounter which the House had just wit nessed between two skilful combatants. The debate had gone off like many modern duels. Mr. Disraeli had fired a very astounding broadside; the fire had been returned by Lord John Russell; and both parties seemed equally satisfied. But there was another party whom neither represented; and however able the speech of Mr. Disraeli, or however witty the speech of Lord John Russell as to the measures of the Government, that partynamely, the people-would look with indifference both on the attack and the defence.

of their being the cause of the delay which occurs in the transaction of public business. I am quite certain that, if the opinion of the majority of the House could be consulted, they would on certain occasions say, 'Here is a speech which might well be spared: we have heard it five or six times before, and therefore we do not feel it absolutely necessary that we should hear it again."" (Laughter.) Lord John Russell recurred to his position, that with sedition in England, incipient rebellion in Ireland, and convulsion in Europe, the labour of administration was the business that chiefly claimed the care of Government. "There have been moments when every one must have felt that a slight indiscretion would have provoked foreign nations; there have been moments when a slight want of watchfulness or care might have given an inconsiderable number of miscreants an opportunity of involving the country in confusion. Wishing to preserve the tranquillity of Europe valuing peace above all price-and thinking that the war of 1793 was unnecessary for the purpose for which it was set on foot and maintained-we are nevertheless prepared to devote our best energies and our constant endeavours to the maintenance of amicable relations with foreign countries. Valuing, as I do, our institutions, and believing that they are the best adapted of any which ever were framed for preserving the liberty of the community, I trust that whoever may succeed us in the task of future legislation will have to defend, and not to restore, the constitution of this country." (Cheers.) Mr. Hume said a few words, expressing his satisfaction at the

Mr. Disraeli had been conjuring up the old illusion of traditionary influence; but while popular pri vileges, like the right of discussing grievances on reading the order of the day, were swept away, it was precisely because the country could forget its aristocratic prejudices that it was obliged to ac cept the present Government.

He regretted that in this debate the state of Ireland had been passed over. The noble Lord was about to visit that country. He trusted that the visit would not be of the usual character—a trumpet dinner at the Castle in full uniform, and a return home, knowing all about Ireland. If the noble Lord went merely to pay such a visit, or consult with the distinguished individual at the head of affairs there, he might have as much information by post.

The noble Lord would find that a reaction would succeed the temporary panic created by the arrest of the Chartist leaders. miser

able and misguided individuals. He alluded to those wretched carpenters and tailors found plotting in public-houses. He warned the noble Lord, that a reaction would succeed, and that the people of this country would not be satisfied unless some larger and more comprehensive measures were resorted to than the suspension of the Habeas Corpus, or any of the other miserable Downing Street precedents for ruling a people.

The debate then terminated.

At length, on the 5th of September, the end of this unprecedented session arrived. With the exception of the recess at Christmas, and the short intervals at Easter and Whitsuntide, Parlia ment had been sitting continuously for nearly ten months. Although the legislative results bore but a very scanty proportion to this vast consumption of time, the labours which the Members of the House of Commons had undergone had been very severe, and the relief afforded by the prorogation was both a needful and a welcome one. The long-desired event took place on the day above mentioned, Her Majesty being present in person. The magnificent new chamber of the Peers was crowded with persons of distinction. Among the spectators at the ceremony were the Duc de Némours and the Prince de Joinville. The Commons being summoned, the Speaker addressed the Queen in the following terms:

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ful examination of the Estimates which by your Majesty's commands were laid before us, we have made every practicable reduction in the public expenditure at the same time that we have had regard to the financial state of prosperity of this country as affected by the commercial embarrassments of the past year, and by the interruption of trade consequent upon the late political events in Europe, we have taken every precaution to secure the efficiency of all departments of the public service.

"In obedience to your Majesty's most gracious recommendation, which was communicated to us by the Lords Commissioners at the commencement of the Session, our attention has been specially directed to measures relating to the public health. It is impossible to overrate the importance of a subject so deeply affecting the comfort and happiness of the poorer classes; and we confidently hope that, if the Bills which have been passed are carried out in the same spirit in which they have been framed, they will greatly tend to lessen the amount of human suffering, and to promote the moral improvement, as well as contentment, of the labouring classes in dense and populous districts.

"Not unmindful of the condition of Ireland, or of the distressed state of the poor in that country, owing to the limited demand for labour, we have provided additional funds, arising from the repayment of additional loans, to be expended in public works; and we have removed the impediments to the sale of encumbered estates, in order to encourage as much as possible the application of capital to the improvement of land.

"The spirit of insubordination which has prevailed in various parts of the country, especially in Ireland, has forced upon our consideration topics of a far more grave and anxious character. We have cordially concurred in those measures which have been thought necessary to secure obedience to the laws, and to repress and to prevent outrage and rebellion.


Deeply sensible of the value of those institutions under which we have the happiness to live, no effort on our part has been wanting to preserve them from the evil designs of misguided men, who, taking advantage of a season of temporary distress, have endeavoured to excite discontent and insurrection.

"We have witnessed with gratitude and proud satisfaction the unequivocal expression, on the part of the great mass of the people, of those marks of attachment to their Sovereign and respect for the law; and we, as their representatives, participating to the fullest extent in these feelings, now tender to your Majesty the sincere expression of our devotion and loyalty."

The Queen, after having given the Royal Assent to some Bills presented by the Speaker, then read from the throne the following speech:

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atrocious murderers who had spread terror through the country were apprehended, tried, and convicted.

"The distress in Ireland, consequent upon successive failures in the production of food, has been mitigated by the application of the law for the relief of the poor, and by the amount of charitable contributions raised in other parts of the United Kingdom.

"On the other hand, organized confederacies took advantage of the existing pressure to excite my suffering subjects to rebellion. Hopes of plunder and confiscation were held out to tempt the distressed, while the most visionary prospects were exhibited to the ambitious. In this conjuncture I applied to your loyalty and wisdom for increased powers; and, strengthened by your prompt concurrence, my Government was enabled to defeat in a few days machinations which had been prepared during many months. The energy and decision shown by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in this emergency deserve my warmest approbation.


In the midst of these difficulties, you have continued your labours for the improvement of the laws. The Act for facilitating the Sale of Encumbered Estates will, I trust, gradually remove an evil of great magnitude in the social state of Ireland.

"The system of perpetual entails of land established in Scotland produced very serious evils both to heirs of entail and to the community; and I have had great satisfaction in seeing it amended upon principles which have long been found to operate beneficially in this part of the United Kingdom.

"I have given my cordial assent to the measures which have in view the improvement of the public

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My Lords and Gentlemen—

"I have renewed in a formal manner my diplomatic relations with the Government of France. The good understanding between the two countries has continued without the slightest interruption. "Events of deep importance have disturbed the internal tranquillity of many of the states in Europe, both in the north and in the south. Those events have led to hostilities between neighbouring countries. I am employing my good offices, in concert with other friendly Powers, to bring to an amicable settlement these differences; and I trust that our efforts may be successful.

"I am rejoiced to think that an increasing sense of the value of

peace encourages the hope that the nations of Europe may continue in the enjoyment of its blessings.

"Amidst these convulsions, I have had the satisfaction of being able to preserve peace for my own dominions, and to maintain our domestic tranquillity. The strength of our institutions has been tried, and has not been found wanting. I have studied to preserve the people committed to my charge in the enjoyment of that temperate freedom which they so justly value. My people, on their side, feel too sensibly the advantages of order and security, to allow the promoters of pillage and confusion any chance of success in their wicked designs.

I acknowledge with grateful feelings the many marks of loyalty and attachment which I have received from all classes of my people. It is my earnest hope that by cultivating respect to the law, and obedience to the precepts of religion, the liberties of this people may, by the blessing of Almighty God, be perpetuated.'

The Lord Chancellor then declared the Parliament to be prorogued to the 2nd November, and the protracted Session of 1847-8 was at an end.

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FRANCE.-Position of the Guizot Ministry-State of Parties in France -Unpopularity of the King-Death of Madame Adelaide, the King's Sister-Surrender of Abd-el-Kader in Algeria-Violation of the Promise made to him-His Letter at the end of the Year to Prince Louis Napoleon-Explanation by M. Guizot as to Foreign Policy of his Government-Able Speech on the Necessity of Reform, by M. Mesnard, in the Chamber of Peers-Address as Voted by the Chamber of Peers -Budget for Year 1849-Discussion in Chamber of Peers on Affairs of Switzerland-Eloquent Speech of Count de Montalembert-M. Guizot on the English Alliance-Speech of Count d'Alton Shee on the Question of Reform of the Electoral Law-Discussion in the Chamber of Deputies respecting the Sale of Offices by the Government— Speeches of MM. Odillon Barrot and Guizot-Victory of Ministers in the Chamber-Discussion on the Separate Paragraphs of the Address -Speeches on Finance by MM. Dumon and Thiers-Speech of M. Thiers on the Affairs of Italy-Reply by M. Guizot-Speeches of MM. Thiers and Guizot on the Affairs of Switzerland—Declaration of M. Duchatel condemning the Reform Banquets-Uproar in the Chamber-Debate on Affairs of Poland-Statement by M. Guizot respecting Destination of Abd-el-Kader-Renewed Discussion on Reform Demonstrations, and Scene of Confusion in the Chamber-The Opposition refuse to Vote-Majority for Ministers-Debate on Electoral Reform-Speeches of MM. Guizot, Thiers, and others-The Address voted in the Chamber of Deputies-State of Public Feeling at this time.

F the annalist has had difficulty

history during the last few years, owing to the tranquillity which has almost, without exception, pervaded Europe, and the absence of incidents calculated to interest attention, he now feels himself almost overwhelmed by the magnitude and variety of the events which have during the year now under review crowded so fast upon each other, and rendered it one of the most remarkable in the annals of the

world. The fountains of the great


suddenly and violently broken up, and the most portentous changes have taken place in the different countries of Europe, the ultimate results of which it is impossible to predict or foresee. The year 1848 will be hereafter known as that of the great and general revolt of nations against their rulers. Within the short space of twelve months centuries seem to have rolled away. Dynasties have been overthrown

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