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Such persons infamous, and excluded them from be performed by their friends, who considered it as society. Among the Germans, cowards were, a most sacred duty. " There is, on a mountain sometimes suffocated in mud; after which they of 'Iceland (says the author of an old Iceland were cosered over with hurdles, to show, says: romance), a rock so high, that no animal can fallando Tacitus, that though the punilhment of crimes from the top and live. Here men betake them. Thould be public, there are certain degrees of selves when they are afflicted and unhappy. From ab cowardice and infamy which ought to be buried this place all our ancestors, even without waiting 2-Tk in oblivion. Frotho king of Denmark enacted, by for fickness, have departed into Eden. It is law, that, whoever folicited an eminent poft, ought useless, therefore, to give ourselves up to groans upon all occasions to attack one enemy, to face and complaints, or to put our relations to needless two, to retire only one step back from three, and expenses, since we can easily follow the example of a spade never to make an actual retreat till assaulted by our fathers, who have all gone by the way of this is four. The rules of justice were adapted and rock.” When all these methods failed, and atten warped to these prejudices. War was looked upon last when Christianity had banished such barbarous ziliten 28 a real act of justice, and force was thought. practices, the disconfolate heroes consoled themto be an incontestable title over the weak, and a selves by putting on complete armour as soon as visible mark that God had intended them to be they found their end approaching, fubject to the strong. They had no doubt but SCANDINAVIANS, ihe ancient inhabitants of 2nd! that the intentions of the Deity had been to esta. SCANDINAVIA. blish the same dependence among men that takes SCANDIX, SHEPHERD'S NEEDLE, or Venue serbest place among inferior creatures; and, setting out Comb, in botany; a genus of the digynia order, ridal Bay from this principle of the natural inequality among belonging to the pentandria class of plants; and be men, they from thence inferred that the weak in the natural method ranking, under the 45th gradit bad no right to what they could not defend. This order, Umbellate. The corolla is radiating; the tires we maxim was adopted with such rigour, that the fruit subullated, the petals emarginated, the forets name of divine judgment was given not only to of the disc frequently male. The most remarkable the judicatory combat, but to confies and battles (pecies is the of all sorts ; victory being, in their opinion, the SCANDIX ODORATA, with angular furrowed only certain mark by which providence enables seeds. It is a native of Germany, and has a very us to distinguish those whom it has appointed to thick perennial root, composed of many fibres of command others. Lastly, their religion, by an- a sweet aromatic taste, like aniseed, from which mexing eternal happiness to the military virtues, come forth many large leaves that branch out gave the utmost poffible degree of vigour to that somewhat like those of fern, from whence it is propenaty which these people had for war, and named sweet fern. The stalks grow four or five to their contempt of death, of which many in- feet high, are fiftulous and hairy; the flowers are Itances are recorded. Harold, surnamed Blaatand, disposed in an umbel at the top of the stalk, are of or Blue-tooth, a king of Denmark, who lived in

a white colour, and bave a sweet aromatic scent, the

beginning of the 9th century, had founded on This species is easily propagated by feeds, which, the coasts of Pomerania a city named Julin or if permitted to scatter, will supply an abundance Jomsburg. To this place he sent a colony of of young plants, that may be put into any part of young Danes, bestowing the governmcat on a the garden, and require no care. celebrated warrior called Palnatoko. In this colony SCANELLO, a town of Italy, in the departit was forbidden to mention the word fear, even ment of the Mincio, diftri&t and late territory of in the most inminent dangers. No citizen of Verona, feated near the Mincio, and the Chiese

. Jomsburg was to yield to any number of enemies, Near this town, on the 31st July, 1796, the however great. The fight of inevitable death French republicans, under Bonaparte, defeated was not to be an excuse for showing the smallest the Austrians under Wurmser, and compelled apprehension. And this legislator really appears, them to retreat over the Mincio, after loling in from the anecdotes of bravery recorded of his the space of five days 15,000 prisoners, 6000 killed, followers, to have eradicated from the minds of and 20 field-pieces. most of the youth, bred up under him, all traces

SCANGERO, an island in the Grecian Archi. of that sentiment so natural and universal, which pelago. Lon. 42. 0. E. Ferro. Lat. 39. 20. N. makes men think on their destruction with horror. SCANIA, See SCHONEN. Neither was this intrepidity peculiar to the inhabitants of Jomfburg; it was the general character of verle by feet, in order to see whether or not the

SCANNING.part.n.s. in poetry, the measuring of all the Scandinavians. To die with his arms in quantities be duly observed. The term is chiefly his hand was the ardent wish of every free man; used in Greek and Latin verses. Thus an hexameter and the high idea which they bad of this kind of verse is scanned by resolving it into fix feet; a death led them to dread such as proceeded from pentameter, by resolving it into five feet, &c. old age and disease. The history of ancient Scan- * SCANSION. n. s. Iscanso, Lat.] The act or dinavia is full of instances of this way of thinking. practice of (canning a verse. The warriors who found them lielves lingering in (1.) * SCANT. adj. (from the verb.] 1. Not discasc, often availed themselves of their few plentiful; scarce; less than what is proper of remaining moments to shake off life, by a way that competent.-White is a penurious colour, and Ahey firpposed to be more glorious. Some of them where moisture is scant. Bacon.world be carried into a field of battle, that they A single violet transplant; might die in the engagement; others flew them- All which before was poor and scant, selvis. Ilany procured this melancholy fervice 19 Redoubles fill and multiplies.

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cause it contained in the ecclefiaftical divinos Would over-task the best land-pilot's art. Milton., two large provinces, which had their several legati old leta 3. Wary; not liberal; parhmonious.

nati; whereas France had scantly one. Camden's malci

Besomewhat scanter of your maiden presence. Remains. 2. Narrowly; penuriously; without take this

Shak. amplitude. pop. Era (2.) SCANT. adv. (from the adjective.] Scarce- The very hope is a full happiness, but rem ; bardly. Obsolete.-The people, beside their Yet scantiy measures what I shall possess. Dryden. den. Li mavail, charge, and long attendance, received of the * SCANTINESS. n. s. [from scant.) NarrowP to gra barkers seant twenty millings for thirty. Camden. nesk ;' meannefs; smallness.—He thought scantness to read -We scant read in any writer, that there have of eftate too great an evil. Hayward.–Did we but exacphed been seen any people upon the south coast." Abbot's compare the miserable scantness of our capacities

World 4 wild pamphlet would scant allow him with the vast profundity of things,'truth and mos ed, and i to be a gentleman. Wotton.

delty would teach wary language. Glanville. O'er yonder bill does scant the dawn appear. SCANTO. n. s. or SPAVENTO, a sudden imOldala

Gay. pression of horror upon the mind and body. It is * To SCANT. v. a. (gescænan, Saxon, to break; extremely dreaded by the inhabitants of Sicily; Braser, Danish, to spare.] To limit; to ftraiten. and the wild ideas of the vulgar part of the inha

I will your serious and great bufiness scant, bitants respecting it are almost incredible, and their

For she is with me. Shakespeare's Othello. dread of a sudden shock is no less surprising, se: Tel-They aeed rather to be scanted in their nourish. There is scarce a symptom, disorder, or accident,

met than replenished. Bacon.--He bade us not they do not think may befal the human frame in

to strant ourselves. Bacon.-Looking on things consequence of the scanto. They are persuaded i tee through the wrong end of the perspective, which that a man who has been frightened only by a dog,

starts their dimensions, we neglect and contemn a viper, scorpion, or any other creature, which he them. Glanville

has an antipathy to, will soon be seized with the Starve them,

fame pains he would really feel bad he been torn For fear the rankness of the swelling womb

with their teeth, or wounded with their venomous Should scant the passage.

Dryden. fting; and that nothing can remove these nervous adam searted in the pleasure of dwelling on your imaginary pangs but a strong dofe of dilena, a

species of cantharides found in Sicily. SCANTILY. adv. (from scanty.] T:Narrowly;

* SCANTY. adj. [The same with scant.] 1. not plentifully. 2. Sparingly; niggardly.- Narrow; small; wanting amplitude; short of He spoke

quantity sufficient.-As long as one can increase Scantily of me. Shak. Ant. and Cleop. the number, he will think the idea he hath a little

SCẢNTINESS. 17. s. [from scanty. 1. Nar. too scanty for politive infinity. Locke.-His domi. rowness; want of space; want of compass.--The nions were very narrow and scanty. Locke kantiners of our heroic verse is not capable of Now scantier limits the proud arch confine. receiving more than one. Dryden. 2. Want of

Pope. amplitude or greatness; want of liberality... 2. Small; poor; not copious; not ample. Their Alexander was much troubled at the scantiness of language, being scanty, had no words in it to Itand zature itself, that there were no more worlds for for 1000. Locke.--They had narrow and scanty con

ceptions of providence. Woodward. : 3. Sparing; * SCANTLET. n. s. (corrupted as it seems niggardly; parfimonious.--In illuftrating a point of from scantling.] A small pattern ; a small quantity; difficulty, be not too scanty of words. Waits. a little piece.-As the world grew fuller, their lives

They with such scanty wages pay were successively reduced to a shorter scantlet, 'till The bondage and the Navery of years. Swift, they came to that time of life which they now

* SCAPE. n. so (from the verb.) !. Escape; bare. Hale.

flight from hurt or danger; the act of declining or (1.) *SCANTLING, 11. s. Leschantillon, French; running from danger ; accident of safety. ciantelino, Italian.] 1. A quantity cut for a par. I spoke of most disastrous chances, ticular purpose. Tis hard to find out a woman

Of hairbreadth scapes.

Shak. that's of a just scantling for her age, humour, and 2. Means of escape; evafion. fortune, to make a wife of. L'Efrange. 2. A

Vain lunatic, against these scapes I could certain proportion.

Dispute, and conquer, if I would.

Donme. The success,

3. Negligent freak; deviation from regularity.Although particular, shall give a scantling No scape of nature, no diftempered day. Shak. Of good or bad unto the general.

Shak. 4. Loose act of vice or lewdness. A bearne! a 3. A small guantity.--Reduce desires to narrow very pretty bearde ! sure some scape ; though I am cantlings

. Taylor.--A scantling of wit lay gasping not bookilh, yet I can read waiting gentlewoman for life. Dryden. In this narrow scantling of capas in the scape. Shak. city we enjoy but one pleasure at once. Locke.

Tooʻlong thou laid'st thy scapes on names (2.) SCANTLING is a measure, fize, or standard,

adored.

Milton. by which the dimensions, &c. of things are to be

(1.) * TO SCAPE. V. a. (contracted from escape.] determined. The term is particularly applied to To escape; to miss; to avoid ; to shun; not to the dimensions of any piece of timber, with regard incur; to iy.-What, have I scaped love-letters in to its breadth and thickness.

the holyday time of my beauty, and am I now a SCANTLY. adv. (froro scant.] 1. Scarcely; fubject for them? Shak. I doubt not but to die a dardly. Obsolete.-England was preferred, be fair death, if I scape hanging. Shak.

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extracted those words and esplications which he Of God all-leeing?

Milton. reckoned moft useful, comprised them in one vo. * To SCAPE. v. n. To get away from hurt lume, and published them as an original work, a danger.

with his own name. The compilation and print. Could they not fall unpity'd on the plain, ing of the Thesaurus had coft Stephens immense But Iain revive, and, taken, scape again? Dryd. labour and expence; but it was so much admired

SCAPE-GOAT, in Jewish antiquity, the goat by those learned men to whom he bad shown it, which was set at liberty on the day of folemn ex. and seemed to be of such effential importance to piation. For the ceremonies on this occasion, fee the acquisition of the Greek language, that he Levit. xvi. 5, 6, &c. Some say, that a piece of reasonably hoped his labour would be crowned scarlet cloth, in form of a tongue, was tied on the with honour, and the money he had expended $ forehead of the scape-goat. Hof. Lex. Univ. in would be repaid by a rapid and extenfive fale ka voc. Lingua. Many have been the disputes among But before his work came abroad, Scapula's da the interpreters concerning the meaning of the bridgment appeared; which, from its size and X word fcape-goat; or rather of azazel,

for wbich price, was quickly purcbased, while the Thesau. "TE, a scape-goat is put in our version of the Bible. See rus itself lay neglected in the author's bands. The AZAZEL, and Spencer, De leg. Hebr. ritual. Dis- consequence was, a bankruptcy on the part of that fert, viii. Among other things, he observes, that Stephens, while he who had occasioned it was read the ancient Jews used to substitute the name Sa- enjoying the fruits of his treachery. Scapula's ! MAEL for Azazel; and many of them bave ven. Lexicon was first printed in 1970, in 4to. It wag sitt tured to affirm, that at the feast of expiation they afterwards enlarged, and published in folio. It has were obliged to offer a gift to Samael to obtain his gone through several editions, while the valuable fz6:22 favour.' Thus also the goat, fent into the wilder- work of Stepbens has never been reprinted. Its Sabate nels to Azazel, was understood to be a gift or ob- fuccess is, however, not owing to its superior me? Len tu lation. Some Christians have been of the same rit, but to its price and more commodious fize. opinion. But Spencer thinks that the genuine Stephens charges the author with omitting many case, reasons of the ceremony were, 1. That the goat, important articles. He accuses him of misunder. lie loaded with the fins of the people, and sent to standing and perverting his meaning, and of tra. Azazel, might be a symbolical representation of cing out abfurd and trifling etymologies, which he he the miserable condition of finners. 2. God sent himself had been careful to avoid. He composed bleed the goat thus loaded to the evil dæmons, to show the following epigram on Scapula : that they were impure, thereby to deter the peo- Quidam Titiw me capulo tenus abdidit enfem ple from any conversation or familiarity with Æger eram a Scapulis, fanus et huc redeo. them. 3: That the goat sent to Azazel, suffici Doctor Busby, so much celebrated for his know. derece ently expiating all evils, the Israelites might the ledge of the Greek language, and his success in more williogly abstain from the expiatory sacri- teaching it, would never permit his scholars at fices of the Gentiles.

Westminster school to make use of Scapula. SCAPEMENT, n. f. in clock-work, a general (1.) * SCAPULAR. SCAPULARY. adj. [/capua sheila term for the manner of communicating the im. laire, Fr. from scapula, Lat.] Relating or belong: pulse of the wheels to the pendulum. The ordi. ing to the shoulders. The humours dispersed nary scapements consist of the swing-wheel and through the branches of the axillary artery to the pallets paly ; but modern improvements have add. fcapulary branches. Wifeman.-The viscera were ed other levers or detents, chiefly for the pur-counterpoised with the weight of the scapular poses of dimisishing friction, or for detaching the part. Derham. pendulum from the pressure of the wheels during (2.) SCAPULAR, in anatomy, the name of two part of the time of its vibration. See Watch- pair of arteries, and as many veins. MAKING.

(3.) SCAPULAR, or n. s. a part of the babit of SCAPOLITE. See MINERALOGY, Part II. SCAPULARY, several religious orders in Chap. IV. Class 1. Ord. s. Gen. XII. Sp. 5. the church of Rome, worn over the gowo as 3

SCAPTESYLE, in ancient geography, a town badge of peculiar veneration for the Blessed Vir. of Thrace, near Abdera, abounding in gold and gin. It consists of two narrow Nips or breadths filver mines, and belonging to THUCYDIDES, the of cloth covering the back and the breast, and historian. Plut. in Cim. Lucr. vi, 810.

hanging down to the feet. See Cowl, \ 2. The SCAPTIA, an ancient town of Latium,

devotees of the scapulary celebrate its festival on (1.) * SCAPULA. n. f. [Latin.) The fhoulder the 10th of July. blade.-The heat went off from the parts, and (1.)* SCAR. n. S. (from esthar, efcare, French; spread up higher to the breast and fcupula. Wifem. io xapa.] A mark made by a hurt or fire; a ci.

(2.) SCAPULA, is anatomy. See ANATÓMY, Catrix. Index.

Scratch thee but with a pin, and there re(3.) SCAPULA, Jobn, the reputed author of a mains Greek lexicon, Audied at Laulanne. His name Some scar of it. is recorded in the annals of literatựre, neither on

No soft delicious air, account of his talents nor learning, nor virtuous To heal the scars of these corrosse fires, industry, but for a gross act of fraud which he Shall breath her balm.

Milton. committed against an eminent literary character -It may be ftruck out of the omnisciency of of the 16th century: Being employd by Henry God, and leave no fear nor blemish behind. Merc. Stephens as a corrector to his press, while he was

--This earth had the beauty of youth and bloompublishing his Thesaurus lingua Grece, Scapula ing nature, and not a wriokle, fear, or fradure

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De on all its body. Barnet.-In a hemorrbage from found among reeds by the banks of rivers. (Liso

the langs, ftypticks are often inkgnificant; and if ter.) A variety of this species, but which Lifter pasi ve they could operate upon the affected part, so far makes a distinct fpecies, called the yellow Capri

as to make a fear, when that fell off, the disease corn, has a large black spot on each of the cafes would return. Arbuthnot.

of the wings. It is found among the dry hay in (2.) Scar, in geography, a town of Ireland, in April. id in the county of Wexford, and province of Leinster. 2. SCARABÆUS CARABUS, the MAY-BUG, DORR

(3.) SCAR, GREEN, 2 clusters of rocks, near BEETLE, or COCK CHAFFER, has, like all the reft, portare

(4.) SCAR, NORTH, ) the E. coast of Northum- a pair of cases to its wings, which are of a redberland, the former 2 miles N. of Blythe ; the dish brown colour, fprinkled with a whitish duft, latter 9 miles NNW. of Coquet island.

which easily comes off. In some years their necks (s.) Scar Nose, a cape of Scotland, on the are feen covered with a red plate, and in others capedia

N. coat of Banffshire. Loni o. 27. E. of Edin. with a black; these, however, are distinct forts, bergh. Lat. 57.40. N.

and their difference is by no means accidental, be Trece

(6.) SCAR, SOUTH, a rock half a mile from N. The fore legs are very short, and the better cal. Scar.

culated for burrowing in the ground, where this * To Scar. v.a. (from the noun.) To mark infect makes its retreat. It is well known, for its

2 with a fore or wound. med to

evening buzz, to children; but still more formidaYet I'll not lied ber blood,

bly introduced to the acquaintance of the bus. Nor scar that whiter skin of her's than Inow, bandman and gardener ; for in some feasons it has And smooth as monumental alabaster. Sbak. been found to swarm in such numbers as to eat (1) SCARA, or SCAREN, a town of Sweden, in up every vegetable production. The two fexes W. Gothland, S. of lake Wenner, 66 miles NE. in the may.bug are easily diftinguished, by the fu. of Gottenburg. Lon. 12. 14. E. Lat. 38. 16. N. perior length of the tufts, at the end of the horns,

(2.) Scara, or CIARA, a town of Brasil, in the in the male. They begin to copulate in fummer; province of Maranhao.

and at that season they are seen joined together * SCARAB. 1. s. (scarabée, Fr. scarabaus, Lat.) for a considerable time. They fly about in this A bete; an infect with Sheathed wings.--A small state, the one hanging pendant from the tail of the Prorab is bred in the very tips of elm-leaves: these other. It has been supposed, that, like foails, beáves may be observed to be dry and dead, as al.. they are hermaphrodites, as there seems to be a fo targid, in which lieth a dirty, whitish, roughmutual infertion. The female being impregnated, mazot

, from which proceeds a beetle. Derbam. quickly falls to boring a hole into the ground, SCARABÆUS, the BEETLE, in zoology, a wherein to depofit her burden. This is generally SEALS Of infects of the coleopterá order. The an- about half a foot deep; and in it the places her dece are of a clavated figure, and filile longitu- eggs, which are of an oblong Ihape with great re. dinally: the legs are frequently dentated. There gularity, one by the other. They are of a bright are 8, fpecies; all, however, concurring in one yellow colour, and no way wrapped up in a comcommon formation of baving cases to their wings, mon covering, as some have imagined. When which are the more, neceffary, as they often live the female is lightened of her burden, she again uader the surface of the earth, in holes, which afcends from her hole, to live, as before, upon Obey dig out by their own industry. The cases leaves and vegetables, to buzz in the summer even present the various injuries their real wings mighting, and to lie hid among the branches of trees in futain by rubbing or crushing againft the fides of the heat of the day. In about three months after their abode. These, though they do not affift these eggs have been thus deposited in the earth, fight

, yet keep the internal wings clean and even, the contained infe& begins to break its shell, and and produce a loud buzzing noise when the ani- 'a small grub or maggot crawls forth, and feeds mal rises in the air. All animals of the beetle upon the roots of whatever vegetable it happens kind have their bones placed externally, and

their to be neareft. All substances of this kind leem mascles withia, like 'Thell fish. These muscles are equally grateful; yet it is probable the mother much like those of quadrupede; and are formed

insect has a choice among what kind of vegetawith fuck furprifing Strength, that, bulk for bulk, bies she shall deposit her young. In this manner they are 1000 times stronger than those of a man. these voracious creatures continue in the worm This ftrength is of use in digging the animal's ftate for more than three years, devouring the fubterraneous abode, whither it most frequently roots of every plant they approach, and making Pelumas

, even after it becomes a winged infect their way under ground in queft of food with capable of Rying. Besides the difference which great dispatch and facility. At length they grow results from the shape and colour of these ani.. to above the size of a walout, being a great thick maks

, the size also makes a confiderable one; some white maggot with a red head, which is seen most beetles being noi larger than the head of a pin; frequently in new turned earth, and which is bile others

, fuch as the elephant beetle, are as eagerly fought after by birds of every {pecies. big as one's áll. But the greatest

difference among When largest, they are an inch and a half long, of theca is, that some are produced in a month, and

a whitish yellow colour; with a body consisting in a Single season go through all the ftages of their of 12 segments or joints, on each side of which exifence; while others take near 4 years to their there are 9 breathing holes, and 3 red feet. The prodution

, and live as winged infects a year more. head is large in proportion to the body, of a red1. SCARABÆUS CAPRICORNUS, the small gilded dish colour, with a pincer before, and a semicir. Capricorn, is of a true gold colour, but in some cular

lip, with which it cuts the roots of plants, Fights has a call of green and purple. It is often and sacks out their moisture. As this infe&t_lives

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en firely under ground, it has no occafion for eyes, are favourable to their propagation, they are feate 5 and accordingly it has done; but is furnished with in an evening as thick as flakes of snow, and hit two feelers, which, like the crutch of a blind man, ting against every object with a fort of capricious ferve to dire& its motions. Such is the form of blindness. Their duration, however, is but short, this animal, that lives for years in the worm as they never survive the seafon. They begin to it fate under ground, ftill voracious, and every year join Nortly after they have been let loose from changing its skin. It is not till the end of the their prison; and when the female is impregoaled, 24 fourth year that this extraordinary insect prepares fhe cautiously bores a hole in the ground, with 27er to emerge from its subterraneous abode, and even an instrument fitted for that purpose with which the this is not effected but by a tedious preparation. she is furnished at the tail; and there depofits ber 3-2 About the end of autumn, the grub begins to eggs, generally to the number of threescorc. If smo perceive the approaches of its transformation: it the season and the soil be adapted to their propa. stava then buries itself deeper and deeper in the earth, gation, these foon multiply as already described, 113 sometimes fix feet beneath the surface; and there and go through the various stages of their exif- «203 forms itself a capacious apartment, the walls of tence. This infect, however, in its worm ftate, a which it renders very smooth and Shining by the though prejudicial to man, makes one of the chief exertions of its body. Its abode being thus - repaks of the feathered tribe, and is generally the formed, it begins soon after to shorten itself, to first nourithment with which they supply their wieds swell, and to burst its last skin, to assume the form young. Hogs will roof up the land for them, and i of a chrysalis. This, in the beginning, appears at first eat them greedily; but feldom meddle abraja of a yellowish colour, which heightens by degrees, with them a second time. Rooks are particularly criteria till at laft it is nearly red. Its exterior form plain- fond of these worms, and devour them in great times ly discovers all the vestiges of the future winged numbers. The inhabitants of the county of Nor, infect, all the fore parts being diftin&ly feen; folk, some time since, went into the practice of while, behind, the animal seems as if wrapped destroying their rookeries; but in proportion as it site in swaddling clothes. The young may-bug con, they destroyed one plague they were pestered tinues in this ftate for about 3 months longer; and with a greater; and these insects multiplied in it is not till the beginning of January that the such an amazing abundance, as to destroy not aurelia divests itself of all its impediments, and be only the verdure of the fields, but even the roots comes a winged infea completely formed. Yet. of vegetables not yet shot forth. One farm in fill the animal is far from its natural strength, particular was lo injured by them, in 1751, that health, and appetite. It undergoes a kind of in- the occupier was not able to pay his rent; and fant imbecility; and, unlike most other inse&s, the landlord was not only content to lose his inthat the instant they become Ries are arriyed at come for that year, but also gave money for the their state of full perfection, the may.bug conti-. support of the farmer and his

family. In Ireland nues feeble and fickly. Its colour is much bright- they suffered so much by these insects, that they er than in the perfect animal; all its parts are soft ; .came to a resolution of setting fire to a wood of and its voracious nature seems for a while to have some extent, to prevent their mischievous,

propa. entirely forsaken it. As the animal is very often gation. “ Neither the severeit frosts in our clie found in this fate, it is supposed, by those unac. mate (says Mr Rack), nor even keeping them in quainted with its real history, that the old ones, water, will kill them. I have kept some in water of the former season, have buried themselves for near a week; they appeared motionless; but on the winter, in order to revisit the fun the ensuing exposing them to the fun and air a few bours, Lummer. But the fact is, the old one never sur. they recovered, and were as, lively as ever. Hence vives the season; but dies, like all other winged it is evident they can live without air. On exainseats, from the severity of cold in winter. - About mining them with a microscope, I could never the end of May, these inse&s, after having lived discover any organs for respiration, or perceive 4 years under ground, burst from the earth when any pulsation. When numerous, they are not de the first mild evening invites them abroad. They froyed without great difficulty, the best method áre then seen rising from their long imprisonment, is, to plough up the land in thin furrows, and em. from living only upon roots, and imbibing only ploy children to pick theni up in baskets; and ** the moisture of the earth, to visit the mildness of then strew salt and quick-lime and harrow ia. the summer air, to choose the sweetest vegetables About 30 years since I remember many

farmers for their banquet, and to drink the dew of the crops in Norfolk were almost ruined by them in evening. Wherever an attentive observer then their grub ftate, and in the next season, when walks abroad, he will see them burfting up before they took wing, the trees and hedges in many pa. Aim in his pathway. He will see every part of rishes were stripped bare of their leaves as ig win. the earth, that had its surface beaten into hardness, ter. At first the people used to brush them down perforated by their egreffion. When the season with poles, and then

sweep them up and burn is favourable for them, they are seen by myriads them. One farmer made oath that he gathered buzzing aloag hitting against every object that 80 bushels; but their number seemed not much intercepts their fight. The mid-day fun, how- lessened, except just in his own fields. ever, seems too powerful for their conftitutions : 3. SCARABÆUS CARNIFEX, which the Amerithey eben lurk under the leaves and branches of cans call the tumble-durg, Particularly demands some mady tree; but the willow seems particular. our attention. It is all over of a dusky black, ly their most favourite food; there they lurk in rounder than those animals are generally found lo Clusters, and feldom. quit

, ihe tree till they have be, and so strong, though not much larger ihan devonred all its verdure. lo those seasons which the common black beetle, that if one of them be

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