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ecutioner of his juft anger he might fill the earth
with all kind of evils, and he bounded his
cruelty and paffion by nothing less than blood.
and burning.




10 And the third angel founded, and there fell a great ftar from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters:

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11 And the name of the ftar is called Wormwood and the third part of the waters became wormwood: and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter.

(4) Homer: Iliad. IV. 75..
Όσον δ'
а5εрæ ἧκε Κρονο παις αγκυλομήτες,
Η ναύτησι τερας, με εξατῳ ευρεῖ λαων,
Λαμπρον τε δε τε πολλοί από

σπινθήρες ἵενται.


At the founding of the third trumpet (ver. 10, 11.) a great prince appears like a star Shooting from heaven to earth; a fimilitude not (4) unusual in poetry. His coming therefore is fudden and unexpected, and his ftay but short. The name of the ftar is called Wormwood, and he infects the third part of the rivers and fountains with the bitterness of wormwood; that is, he


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(5) Evagrii

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is a bitter enemy, and proveth the author of grievous calamities to the Roman empire. The rivers and fountains have a near connexion with the fea and it was within two years after Attila's retreat from Italy, that Valentinian was murdered, and Maximus who had caused him to be murdered reigning in his ftead, (5) Genferic the king of the Vandals fettled in Africa was folicited by Eudoxia the widow of the deceased emperor, to come and revenge his death. Genferic accordingly embarked with three hundred thousand Vandals and Moors, and arrived upon the Roman coafts in June 455, the emperor and people not expecting nor thinking of fuch enemy. any He landed his men, and marched directly towards Rome; whereupon the inhabitants flying into the woods and mountains, the city fell an easy prey into his hands. He abandoned it to the cruelty and avarice of his foldiers, who plundered it for fourteen days together, not only fpoiling the private houses and palaces, but ftripping the public buildings, and even the churches of their riches and ornaments. He then fet fail again for Africa,

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(5) Evagrii Hift. Ecclef. Lib. 2. Cap. 7. Zonaræ Annal. Lib. 13. in fine, Sigonius de Imperio

Occidentali. Lib. 14. Ann. 455. &c. &c,

(6) Voffius

Africa, carrying away with him immense wealth and an innumerable multitude of captives, together with the empress Eudoxia and her two daughters; and left the ftate fo weakened, that in a little time it was utterly fubverted. Some critics understand rivers and fountains with relation to doctrins; and in this fenfe the application is ftill very proper to Genferic, who was a moft Ligotted Arian, and during his whole reign mok cruelly perfecuted the orthodox Chriftians. Victor Uticenfis, or Vitenfis as he is more ufually called, who (6) wrote in three books the hiftory of this perfecution by the Vandals, speaking of St. Austin (7) hath ufed this very fame metaphor, of the river of his eloquence being dried up, and his sweetness turned into the bitterness of wormwood.


12 And the fourth angel founded, and the third part of the fun was fmitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the ftars; fo as the third part of them was darkened, and the day hone


(6) Voffius de Hift. Latinis Lib. 2. Cap. 18. Hofmanni Lex.

(7) Tunc illud eloquentiæ, quod ubertim per omnes cam

pos ecclefiæ decurrebat, ipfo metu ficcatum eft flumen ; atque dulcedo fuavitatis dulcius propinata, in amaritudinem abfinthii verfa eft. Victor Vit. de


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1. not for a third part of it, and the night likewife.

:. At the founding of the fourth trumpet (ver.12.) the third part of the fun, moon, and stars, that is the great lights of the Roman empire, are eclipsed and darkened, and remain in darkness for fome time. Genferic left the western empire in a weak and defperate condition. It ftruggled hard, and gasped as it were for breath, through (8) eight short and turbulent reigns, for the space of twenty years, and at length expired in the year 476 under Momyllus, or Auguftulus as he was named in derifion, being a diminitive Auguftus. This change was effected by Odoacer king of the Heruli, who coming to Rome with an army of barbarians, stripped Momyllus of the imperial robes, put an end to the very name of the western empire, and caufed himself to be proclamed King of Italy. His kingdom indeed was of no long duration; for after a reign of fixteen years he was overcome and flain (9) in the year 493 by Theodoric king of the Oftrogoths, who founded the king

Perfecut, Vandal. Lib. 1. n. 3.
Vide etiam Vitam Auguftini
Lib. 8. Cap. 11. Sect. 2. Edit.


(8) Sigonius de Occidentali

Imperio. Lib. 14, & 15 in initio.

(9) Sigonius ibid. Lib. 15. in fine. Procop. de Bell. Goth. Lib. 1. Cap. 1.

(1) Sigo

kingdom of the Oftrogoths in Italy, which continued about fixty years under his fucceffors. Thus was the Roman fun extinguished in the western emperor; but the other leffer luminaries, the moon and ftars, still subfifted; for Rome was ftill allowed to have her fenate, and confuls, and other fubordinate magiftrates as before. Odoacer (1) at firft fuppreffed them, but after two or three years restored them again. Theodoric (2) changed none of the Roman inftitutes; he retained the fenate, and confuls, and patricians, and all the ancient magiftrates, and committed these offices only to Romans. These lights, we may fuppofe, fhone more faintly under barbarian kings than under Roman emperors; but they were not totally fuppreffed and extinguished, till after the kingdom of the Oftrogoths was destroyed by the emperor of the eaft's lieutenants, and Italy was made a province of the eaftern empire. Longinus was (3) fent then in the year 566 by the emperor Juftin II to govern Italy with abfolute authority: and he changed the whole form of the government, abolished the fenate, and confuls, and all the former magi

(1) Sigonius ibid. Lib. 15. num inftitutum mutavit: fiquiAnn. 476 et 479. dem et fenatum,et confules,patricios,--cæterofque qui fuerant (2) Jam vero nullum Roma- in imperio,magiftratus retinuit,


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