world, and being feated principally in Europe, the third part of the world at that time.

7 The first angel founded, and there followed hail and fire mingled with blood, and they were caft upon the earth: and the third part of trees was burnt up, and all green grafs was burnt up.

At the founding of the first trumpet (ver. 7.) the barbarous nations, like a storm of hail and fire mingled with blood, invade the Roman territories; and destroy the third part of trees, that is the trees of the third part of the earth, and the green grass, that is both old and young, high and low, rich and poor together. Theodofius the great died in the died in the year 395; and no fooner was he dead, than the (3) Huns, Goths, and other barbarians, like hail for multitude, and breathing fire and flaughter, broke in upon the best provinces of the empire both in the eaft and weft, with greater fuccess than they had ever done before. But by this trumpet, I conceive, were principally intended the irruptions and depredations of the Goths (4) under the conduct of the famous Alaric, who began


(4) Zofim. Orof. Sigon. ibid. &c, Philoftorgius, Lib. 11 & 12. G 3 (5) Bapbaginy


37. &c. Car. Sigonii Hift. de Occidentali Imperio Lib, 10,

his incurfions in the fame year 395, year 395, first ravaged Greece, then wafted Italy, befieged Rome, and was bought off at an exorbitant price, befieged it again in the year 410, took and plundered the city, and fet fire to it in feveral places, Philoftorgius, who lived in and wrote of these times, (5) faith that the fword of the barba⚫rians destroyed the greatest multitude of men,


and among other calamities dry heats with • flashes of flame and whirlwinds of fire occa• fioned various and intolerable terrors; yea,



and hail greater than could be held in a man's hand fell down in feveral places, weighing as much as eight pounds.' Well therefore might the prophet compare these incurfions of the barbarians to bail and fire mingled with blood. Claudian in like manner compares them to (6) a ftorm of bail in his poem on this very war. Jerome alfo (7) faith of fome of these barbarians,

• that


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(5) βαρβαρικη μην γας το της φθορας πλήθος ειργάζετο μαχαιρα. -αυχμοι φλογώδεις, προσηρές τε ἐπιν οις εμβαλλομενοι, ποικιλον τε δεινον εποιεν και αφορητον και χαλαζα μειζων η κατα χερμάδα πολλαχε γης κατεφέρετο. άχρι γαρ και όκτω των λεγομένων λίτρων ελκεσα βάρος, ώφθη κατά σκήψασα. Nam et barbaricus enfis maximam hominum mul- 11. Cap. 7. (6) Claudian de Bello Getico. ver. 173. Ex illo, quocunque vagos impegit Erinnys,

titudinem delevit;-ficcitates, fammeæ, et ignis turbines cæfitas immifti,multiplicem atque

intolerabilem intulerunt calamitatem Sed et grando, lapide manum implente major, multis in locis decidit. Deprehenfa enim eft alicubi, quæ octo librarum, ut vocant, pondus æquaret. Philoftorgii Hift. Ecclef. Lib,


that they came on unexpectedly every where, and marching quicker than report, fpared not religion, nor dignities, nor age, nor had compaffion on crying infants; thofe were compelled to die, who had not yet begun to live.' So truly did they deftroy the trees and the. green grafs together.

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8 And the fecond angel founded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was caft into the fea; and the third part of the fea became blood:

9 And the third part of the creatures which were in the fea, and had life, died; and the third part of the fhips were deftroyed.

At the founding of the fecond trumpet (ver. 8,9.) as it were a great mountain burning with fire, that is a great warlike nation or hero, (for in the (8) ftile of poetry, which is near akin to the

Grandinis aut morbi ritu per
Præcipites, per claufa, ruunt.

Where Mr. Daubuz would read nimbi inftead of morbi.

devia rerum

(7) Infperati ubique áderant, et famam celeritate vincentes, non religioni, non dignitatibus, non ætati parcebant, non vagientis miferabantur infantiæ. Benedi&. (8) So Virgil of his hero. Æn. XII. 701.

Cogebantur mori, qui nondum vivere cæperant, Hieron. Epift. 84. de morte Fabiola. Col. 661. Tom. 4. Par. 2. Edit.

Quantus Athos, aut quantus Eryx, aut ipfe corufcis.
Cum fremit ilicibus quantus, gaudetque nivali
Vertice fe attollens pater Apenninus að àuras.

G 4

(9) Sigonius

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the file of prophecy, heroes are compared to mountains ;) caft into the fea, turneth the third part of it into blood, and deflroyeth the fishes and the Ships therein; that is, falling on the Roman empire, maketh a fea of blood, with horrible deftruction of the cities and inhabitants: fortwaters, as the angel afterwards (XVII. 15.) explains them to St. John, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues, and the third part is all along the Roman empire; for it poffeffed in Afia and Africa, as much as it wanted in Europe to make up the third part of the world, and the principal part was in Europe, the third part of the world at that time. The next great ravagers after Alaric and his Goths were Attila and his Huns, who for the space of fourteen years, as (9) Sigonius fays, hook the eaft and weft with the most cruel fear, and deformed the provinces of each empire with all kind of plundering, flaughter, and burning. They (1) firft wafted Thrace, Macedon and Greece, putting all to fire and fword, and compelled the eastern emperor, Theo


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(9) Sigonius de Occidentali Imperio. Lib. 13. Hunnica jam hinc bella fcribere ordiemur, quæ poft per quatuordecim annos fæviffima orientem, occidentemque formidine concufferunt, atque utriufque im

perii provincias omni direptione, ftrage, atque incendio deformarunt,

(1) Sigonius ibid. Jornandes de rebus Get. &c. &c.

(2) Jam omnia, quæ intra Apenninum & Alpes erant,


Theodofius the fecond, to purchase a shameful · peace. Then Attila turned his arms against the weftern emperor, Valentinian the third; entered Gaul with feven hundred thousand men, and nót content with taking and spoiling, set most of the cities on fire. But at length being there vigorously opposed, he fell upon Italy, took and deftroyed Aquileia with feveral other cities, flaying the inhabitants, and laying the buildings in afhes, and (2) filled all places between the Alps and Apennine with flight, depopulation, laughter, fervitude, burning, and defperation. He was preparing to march to Rome, but was diverted from his purpose by a folemn embaffy from the emperor, and the promise of an annual tribute; and fo concluding a truce, retired out of Italy, and paffed into his own dominions beyond the Danube, Such a man might properly be compared to a great mountain burning with fire, who really was, as he called himfelf, (3) the Scourge of God, and the terror of men, and boasted that he was fent into the world by God for this purpose, that as the executioner

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fuga, populatione, cæde, fervitute, incendio, et defperatione repleta erant, Sigon, ibid. Ann. 4521

(3) Qui fe Flagellum Dei, et Terrorem hominum appellabat, et ad id in mundum a Deo mif

fum jactabat, ut tanquam juftæ illius vindex iræ terras omni malorum genere permifceret, et crudelitatem ac libidinem fuam non nifi fanguine et incendio terminabat. Sigon." ibid.

(4) Homer:

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