fands of them were deftroyed with vaft flaughter. They utterly destroyed Salamis, a city of Cyprus, having firft murdered all the inhabitants. These things were transacted in the reign of Trajan: and in the reign of Adrian (7) was their great rebellion under their falfe Meffiah Barchochab, and their final difperfion, after fifty of their ftrongest castles and nine hundred and eighty five of their beft towns had been demolished, and after five hundred and eighty thoufand men had been flain by the fword, befides an infinite multitude who had perished by famin and sickness and other cafualties, with great lofs and flaughter too of the Romans, infomúch that the emperor forbore the ufual falutations in his letters to the fenate. Here was another illuftrious triumph of Chrift over his enemies; and the Jews and the Romans, both the perfecutors of the Chriftians, were remarkably made the dreadful exccutioners of divine vengeance upon one another. The great fword and the red borse are expreffive emblems of this flaughtering and bloody period; and the proclamation for flaughter

adtriti funt. In Mefopotamia quoque rebellantibus juffu imperatoris bellum illatum eft, Itaque multa millia eorum vasta cæde deleta funt. Sane Salaminam, urbem Cypri, inter

fectis omnibus accolis deleverunt. Orof. Hift. Lib. 7. Cap, 12. p. 487. Edit. Havercamp,

(7) Eufeb.ibid. Cap. 6. Dion. ibid. Lib. 69. p. 794 (1.AT

E 4


(8) EA

flaughter is fitly made by a creature like an ox that is destined for flaughter. This period continued during the reigns of Trajan and his fucceffors by blood or adoption about 95 years.

5 And when he had opened the third feal, I heard the third beast say, Come, and fee. And I beheld, and lo, a black horse; and he that fat on him had a pair of balances in his hand.

6 And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beafts fay, A measure of wheat for a peny, and three measures of barley for a peny; and fee thou hurt not the oil and the wine.

The third feal or period (ver. 5, 6.) is characterized by the ftrict execution of justice and judgment, and by the procuration of corn and oil and wine; and was proclamed by the third living creature, who was like a man, and had his ftation in the fouth. And I beheld, and lo, a black horfe; and he that fat on him had a pair


(8) Eft autem o tritici tantum, quanto homo fanus in diem indiget, ut ex Herodoti libro tertio et feptimo obfervarunt eruditi, alii etiam ex Hippocrate, Diogene Laertio et Athe


Denarius vero tantum, quantum quoque die mereri poterat homo ftrenue laborans, ut videre eft Matt, XX, 2. &c. Grot. in locum. Vide etiam Vitring. p. 259.

(9) Sep

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of balances in his hand. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four living creatures fay, A meafure of wheat for a peny, and three measures of barley for a peny; and fee thou hurt not the oil and the wine. Where Grotius and others have (8) obferved, that a cheenix of corn, the measure here mentioned, was a man's daily allowance, as a peny was his daily wages; fo that if his daily labor could earn no more than his daily bread, without other provifion for himself or his family, corn must needs bear a very high price. But whatever may be the capacity of the chanix, which is difficult to be determined, as it was different in different times and countries; yet fuch care and fuch regulations about the neceffaries of life imply fome want and scarcity of them. Scarcity obligeth men to exactness in the price and meafure of things. In fhort, the intent of the prophecy is, that corn fhould be provided for the people, but it fhould be diftributed in exact measure and proportion. This third period commenceth with Septimius Severus, who was an emperor from the fouth, being (9) a native


(9) Septimius Severus-oriundus ex Africa. Solus omni memoria et ante et poftea ex Africa imperator fuit. Eutropius. Lib. 8. Cap. 10. Inter

fecto Didio Juliano, Severus Africa oriundus imperium obtinuit. Elius Spartianus in Seveto. Hift. Auguft. Scriptores VI, p. 64. Edit. Salmafii.

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of Africa. He was an (1) enactor of just and equal laws, and was very fevere and implacable to offenfes; he would not fuffer even petty larcenies to go unpunished: as neither would Alexander Severus in the fame period, who (2) was a moft fevere judge againft thieves; and was fo fond of the Chriftian maxim, Whatfoever you would not have done to you, do not you to another, that he commanded it to be ingraven on the palace, and on the public buildings. Thefe two emperors were alfo no lefs celebrated for the procuring of corn and oil and other provifions, and for fupplying the Romans with them after they had experienced a want of them, They repaired the neglects of former times, and corrected the abuses of former princes. Of Septimius Severus it is faid, that (3) the provifion of corn, which he found very small, he fo far confulted, that at his death he left a cer


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tain rate or allowance to the Roman people for feven years and alfo of oil as much as for the fpace of five years might supply not only


(1) Legum conditor longe æquabilium-implacabilis deJitisne parva latrocinia quidem impunita patiebatur. Aurel. Victor de Cæfar. Cap. 20.

(z) Severiffimus judex contra fures-Quod tibi fieri non vis, alteri ne feceris; quam fenten

tiam ufque adeo dilexit, ut et in palatio et in publicis operibus præfcribi juberet. Lampridius in Alexandro. Hift. Auguft. Script. VI. p. 123 & 132. Edit. Salmafii.

(3) Rei frumentariæ, quam minimam repererat, ita confuluit, ut excedens vita, feptem anno


the ufes of the city, but likewife of all Italy which might want oil. Of Alexander Severus it is also faid, that (4) he took such care in providing for the Roman people, that the corn which Heliogabalus had wafted, he replaced out of his own money; the oil also, which Septimius Severus had given to the people, and which Heliogabalus had leffened, he restored whole as before. The color of the black horfe befits the feverity of their nature and their name, and the balances are the well known emblem of juftice, as well as an intimation of fcarcity; and the proclamation for justice and judgment, and for the procuration of corn and oil and wine, is fitly made by a creature like a man. This pe-. riod continued during the reigns of the Septimian family about 42 years.

7. And when he had opened the fourth
feal, I heard the voice of the fourth beaft
fay, Come, and fee.

to 8 And I looked, and behold, a pale horse;

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