corrupted almoft all the French, Italians, and English with his depravities. When Gregory VII had, both by letters and by a council held at Rome in the year 1074, ftrictly forbidden the marriage of the clergy, it raised (4) great commotions among the ecclefiaftics in Germany; who not only complained of the pope for impofing this yoke, but likewife accufed him of advancing a notion infupportable, and contrary to the words of our Saviour, who faith that all are not able to live in continence, and to the words of the apoftle, who ordereth thofe who have not the gift of continence to marry. They added that this law, in forcing the ordinary course of nature, would be the cause of great diforders; that they would rather renounce the priesthood than marriage; and the pope should provide, if he could, angels to govern the church, fince he refufed to be ferved by men. This was the language of these corrupt ecclefiaftics, as (5) Dupin hath called them: but the decree of the pope was no lefs opposed

ter apud Uffer. ibid. Sect. 34.

(3) Eodem tempore, Berengarius Turonenfis,in hæreticam prolapfus pravitatem, omnes Gallos, Italos, et Anglos, fuis jam pene corruperat pravitatibus, Matt, Weftmonalt, et Hift.

Roffen. in anno 1087. Uffer. ibid, Sect. 27.

(4) Dupin. ibid. Chap. 5. Spanhem. ibid. Cap. 7. Sec. 4.

(5) C'est ainsi que ces ecclefiaftiques corrompus parloient, Dupin, ibid, p. 36, M 3

(6) Collier's

oppofed in France, in Flanders, in Italy, and England, than in Germany. A council was held at Winchester in the year 1076, wherein it was (6) decreed indeed, that no canon fhould marry; but the priests in the country, who were already married, were allowed to cohabit with their wives; whereas the pope had injoined all priests without diftinction to put away their wives, or to forbear the exercife of their office. Whereupon Mr. Collier hath made this juft reflection; "From hence it appears "that the papal fupremacy had not reached its "zenith in this century, and that the English bishops did not believe the patriarchal power arbitrary and unlimited, but that a national "church had fome referves of liberty, and might diffent from the conftitutions of the "fce of Rome upon occafion."



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Europe hitherto was involved in the dark night of popery, with only fome ftars appearing here and there in the horizon; but in the twelfth century there began to be vifible fome ftreaks of the morning light, fome dawnings of a reformation. Here in England, during the reign of Henry II, the famous conftitutions of Clarendon were fworn

(6) Collier's Ecclefiaft. Hift. B. 4. P. 248, 249. Spelmanni Concil. Vol. 2.

(7) Platina in vita Pafchal. II. Spanhemii Hift. Christian, Sec. XII. Cap.5. Sect. 2. Cave

fworn to and figned both by the clergy and the laity, in recognition of the rights of the crown,: particularly forbidding all appeals to Rome without the king's licence, and appointing the trial of criminal clerks before fecular judges: But the beft account of this as well as of the other memorable transactions of this reign the public expects with some impatience from one of the most masterly and elegant writers of the present age, a friend to religion and virtue, a friend to liberty and his country. Fluentius bishop of Florence (7) taught publicly, that Antichrift was born, and come into the world: whereupon pope Pafchal II went to Florence, held a council there in the year 1105, and feverely reprimanded the bishop, and ftrictly forbad him to preach any fuch doctrin. St. Bernard himself, devoted as he was and bigotted to the church of Rome in other refpects, (8) yet inveighed loudly against the corruption of the clergy, and the pride and tyranny of the popes, faying that they were the minifters of Chrift and ferved Antichrift, that nothing remained but that the man of fin fhould be revealed, that the beaft in the Apocalyps occupied St. Peter's chair, with other expreffions to the

(8) Spanhem. ibid. Uffer de Chriftian Ecclef. fucceffione et ftatu. Cap. 7. Se&t, 5, 6. M 4 (9) Rogeri

Hift. Litt. Sæc. XII. Concilia. Vol. 2. p. 258. Calmet. Dict. in ANTICHRIST.

the fame effect. While our King Richard I was` at Meffina in Sicily, going upon his expedition to the holy land, he (9) fent for the famous abbat Joachim of Calabria, and heard him with much fatisfaction explain the Apocalyps, and difcourfe of Antichrift. He faid that Antichrift was already? born in the city of Rome, and that he would be advanced to the apoftolical chair, and exalted above › all that is called God or is worshipped. So that fome true notion of Antichrift began to spread even among the members of the church of Rome; and no wonder that it prevailed among thofe, who more directly oppofed the doctrins of that church. Peter de Bruis and Henry his difciple (1) taught in feveral parts of France, that the body and blood of Chrift were not offered in the theatrical mafs; that the doctrin of the change of the fubftances in the facrament is falfe; that facrifices, that is maffes, prayers, alms, and other works of the living for the dead, are foolish and impious, and profit them nothing; that priefts and monks ought rather to marry than to burn; that croffes are not



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to be adored, or venerated, and fo many. 'croffes, ferving to fuperftition, ought rather to


be removed than retained' and they both were martyrs, the one being burnt, and


the other imprisoned for life, on account of

their doctrins. Other herefies were laid to

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their charge, and their own writings are not extant to speak for them; but these things. they taught and profeffed, their enemies themfelves being judges. Arnold of Brescia (2) held opinions contrary to thofe of the church concerning the facrament, and preached mightily against the temporal power and jurisdiction of the pope and the clergy; for which he was burnt at Rome in the year 1155, and his afhes were thrown into the Tyber, to prevent the people from expreffing any veneration for his relics. But the true witneffes, and as I may fay the proteftants of this age, were the Waldenfes and Albigenfes, who began to be famous at this time, and being dispersed in various places were distinguished by various appellations. Their first and proper name feemeth to have been Vallenfes, Remarks upon the ancient churches of the Albigenfes. Chap. 14.

(2) Otho Frifing de Gettis Frederici. Lib. 1. Spanhem. ibid. Cap. 7. Sect. 4. Dupin, ibid. Allix's Remarks on the ancient church of Piedmont. Chap. 18.

(3) Vallenfes


Cruces non adorandas aut venerandas et tot cruces fuper fitioni fervientes, potius amovendas quam retinendas, &c. Hift. Ecclef. Magdeburg. Vol. 3. Cent. XII. Cap. 5. p. 331. &c. Edit. Bafil. 1624. Spanhem. ibid. Cap. 7. Se&t. 2. Dupin. XII. Siecle. Chap. 6, Allix's

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