In the former he thus (2) explains the doctrin of the facrament; The hoft is the body of • Chrift, not corporally, but fpiritually. Not ⚫ the body in which he fuffered; but the body of which he spake, when he confecrated the bread and wine the night preceding his paffion, and faid of the confecrated bread, This is my body, and again of the confe'crated wine, This is my blood, which is shed • for many for the remiffion of fins.'. In the latter he hath thefe (3) memorable words, which fome papift of more zeal than knowlege attempted to erafe out of the manufcript copy. Yet this facrifice is not made his body in which he fuffered for us, nor his blood which he poured out for us, but it is fpiritually made his body and blood; as the manna which rained from heaven, and the water ' which flowed from the rock, as Paul the


2 J



apoftle faith. The fynods and councils, which were held in this age by the authority of kings qui pro multis effunditur in remiffionem peccatorum. Apud Uffer. ibid. Sect. 21.

(3) Non fit tamen hoc facrificium corpus ejus in quo paffus eft pro nobis, neque fanguis ejus quem pro nobis effudit, fed fpiritualiter corpus ejus efficitur et fanguis: ficut manna quod de cælo pluit, et aqua


(2) Hoftia illa eft Chrifti corpus non corporaliter, fed fpiritualiter, Non corpus in quo paffus eft: fed corpus de quo locutus eft, quando panem & vinum, ea quæ paffionem anteceffit nocte, in hoftiam confecravit: et de facrato pane dixit, Hoc eft corpus meum; rurfumque de facro vino, Hic eft fanguis meus,

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kings and bishops, fhow evidently that the
of the pope had not yet extended over all. Nay
there were kings and bishops who opposed the
fupremacy, of the pope; and none more than
(4) the council of Rheims in the year 991, and
Gerbert archbishop of Rheims, who declared
that if the pope did amifs, he was liable to
the cenfures of the church' and speaking
of the pope then reigning John XV, What,
fays he, do you conceive this man, fitting
< on á lofty throne, glittering in purple clothing
and in gold, what, I fay, do you conceive
him to be? If he is deftitute of charity, and
is puffed up by knowlege alone, he is Anti-
chrift fitting in the temple of God, and thow-
ing himself that he is God.' He was afterwards
himself chofen pope under the name of Sylvef-
ter II, and poffibly the change of his fituation.
might produce a change in his fentiments.


Much of the fame complexion with the tenth was the eleventh century, equally funk in profligacy, hunc, inquam,effe cenfetis? Nimirum fi charitate deftituiturs folaque fcientia inflatur et extollitur, Antichriftus eft in templo Dei fedens, et fe oftendens tanquam fit Deus. Cap. 6. Sect. 3, &c. Dupin. ibid. Chap. 5. See alfo Allix's Remarks upon

the ancient churches of the Al

que de petra fluxit, ficut Pau-
lus apoftolus ait. Apud Uffer.
ibid. et Cave ibid.

(4) Spanhem. ex Baronio ad ann. 992. Num. 1o. &c. et ex Epift. Gerberti. Si peccaverit, fubeffe judicio ecclefiæ.-Quid hunc, reverendi patres, in fublimi folio refidentem, vefte purpurea et auro radiantem, quid VOL. III.


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profligacy, fuperftition, and ignorance, but yet not without fome fuperior fpirits to bear teftimony against it. The papal power was in this century carried beyond all bounds by the ambition and arrogance of the reigning popes, and particularly by the violence and haughtiness of Gregory VII, whofe former name was Hildebrand, or Hell-brand, as he hath often been deno-⚫ minated. But yet there were emperors and councils, who ftrenuously opposed the pretenfions and ufurpations of the fee of Rome; and these contefts and struggles between the popes and emperors about the right of inveftitures and other articles make a principal part of the hiftory of this age. Our English kings, devoted as they were to the religion, yet would not entirely fubmit to the authority of the bishop of Rome; but contradicted it in feveral inftances. When William I was required by the homage, he made (5) anfwer, • pay hoC mage I have been unwilling, nor am I will

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pope to pay him


ing; for neither did I promife it, neither do I find that my predeceffors paid it to your predeceffors.' His fon William Rufus exerted fome

(5) Fidelitatem facere nolui, nec volo; quia nec ego promifi, nec anteceffores meos antecefforibus tuis id feciffe comperio. Apud Baron. Ann.

1079. Sect. 25. Uffer. de Chriftian. Ecclef. fucceffione et ftatu. Cap. 7. Sect. 9.

(6) Eadmer. Hist. Lib. 2. Collier's

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fomewhat of the fame fpirit, and (6) infifted
that the pope, without his permiffion, had no
manner of jurifdiction in England. Early in
this century, there (7) appeared at Orleans
fome heretics as they were called, who main-
tained that the confecration of the priest could
not change the bread and wine into the body
and blood of Chrift, and that it was unprofitable
to pray to faints and angels; and they were
condemned by the council of Orleans in the year
1017. Not long after thefe (8) appeared other
heretics of the fame ftamp in, Flanders, who
were also condemned by the fynod of Arras in
the year 1025. They came originally from
Italy, where they had been the disciples of Gun-
dulphus; and they are faid to have admitted no
fcripture but the gospels and apoftolical writings;
to have denied the reality of the body and
blood of Chrift in the eucharift; to have attri-
buted no religious worship to the holy confeffors,
none to the crofs, none to images, nor to tem-
ples nor altars; and to have afferted, that there
was no purgatory, and that
death could not abfolve the deceafed from their

penances after

Collier's Ecclef. Hift. B. 4. p.

(7) Dupin XI. Siecle. Chap.
13.Fred. Spanhemii Hift. Chrif-
tian Sæc. XI. Cap. 10. Sec.


(8) Spanhem. ibid. Dupin. ibid. Allix's Remarks upon the ancient church of Piedmont. Chap. 11.

M 2

(9) Uffr.

fins. Other tenets were afcribed to them, which were really heretical: and perhaps they might hold fome errors, as well as fome truths; or perhaps their adverfaries, as it hath been their ufual artifice, might lay things to their charge merely to blacken and defame them. Not long after thefe (9) arofe the famous Berengarius, a native of Tours, and archdeacon of Angers, who more profeffedly wrote against the doctrin of tranfubftantiation; and alfo (1) called


church of Rome a church of malignants, the • council of vanity, and the feat of Satan. It is true that he was compelled by the authority of popes and councils to renounce, abjure, and burn his writings. But his was all a forced, and not in the leaft a voluntary recantation. As often as he recanted, he relapsed again. He returned like a dog to his vomit, as a (2) contemporary popish writer expreffeth it. He lived and died in the fame fentiments. His herefy was from him called the Berengarian herefy; and his followers were fo numerous, that as (3) old hiftorians relate, he had

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(9) Uffer. ibid. Cap. 7. Sect. 24, &c. Dupin. ibid. Chap. 2. Spanhem. ibid. Cap. 8. &c. &c.

(1) Ecclefiam Romanam, ecclefiam malignantium, concilium vanitatis, et fedem Satanæ vocabat. Gulielm. Reginald.

corrupCalvino Turcifm. Lib. 2. Cap. 5. Uffer. ibid. Sect. 24.

(2) Qui licet eandem hærefin fæpiffime in fynodo abjuravit, ad vomitum tamen fuum canino more non expavit redire. Bertoldus Conftantienfis prefby


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