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In the former he thus (2) explains the doctrin of the facrament; The hoft is the body of • Chrift, not corporally, but fpiritually. Not ⚫ the body in which he fuffered; but the body of which he spake, when he confecrated the bread and wine the night preceding his paffion, and faid of the confecrated bread, This is my body, and again of the confe'crated wine, This is my blood, which is shed • for many for the remiffion of fins.'. In the latter he hath thefe (3) memorable words, which fome papift of more zeal than knowlege attempted to erafe out of the manufcript copy. Yet this facrifice is not made his body in which he fuffered for us, nor his blood which he poured out for us, but it is fpiritually made his body and blood; as the manna which rained from heaven, and the water ' which flowed from the rock, as Paul the
apoftle faith. The fynods and councils, which were held in this age by the authority of kings qui pro multis effunditur in remiffionem peccatorum. Apud Uffer. ibid. Sect. 21.
(3) Non fit tamen hoc facrificium corpus ejus in quo paffus eft pro nobis, neque fanguis ejus quem pro nobis effudit, fed fpiritualiter corpus ejus efficitur et fanguis: ficut manna quod de cælo pluit, et aqua
(2) Hoftia illa eft Chrifti corpus non corporaliter, fed fpiritualiter, Non corpus in quo paffus eft: fed corpus de quo locutus eft, quando panem & vinum, ea quæ paffionem anteceffit nocte, in hoftiam confecravit: et de facrato pane dixit, Hoc eft corpus meum; rurfumque de facro vino, Hic eft fanguis meus,
kings and bishops, fhow evidently that the
Much of the fame complexion with the tenth was the eleventh century, equally funk in profligacy, hunc, inquam,effe cenfetis? Nimirum fi charitate deftituiturs folaque fcientia inflatur et extollitur, Antichriftus eft in templo Dei fedens, et fe oftendens tanquam fit Deus. Cap. 6. Sect. 3, &c. Dupin. ibid. Chap. 5. See alfo Allix's Remarks upon
the ancient churches of the Al
que de petra fluxit, ficut Pau-
(4) Spanhem. ex Baronio ad ann. 992. Num. 1o. &c. et ex Epift. Gerberti. Si peccaverit, fubeffe judicio ecclefiæ.-Quid hunc, reverendi patres, in fublimi folio refidentem, vefte purpurea et auro radiantem, quid VOL. III.
profligacy, fuperftition, and ignorance, but yet not without fome fuperior fpirits to bear teftimony against it. The papal power was in this century carried beyond all bounds by the ambition and arrogance of the reigning popes, and particularly by the violence and haughtiness of Gregory VII, whofe former name was Hildebrand, or Hell-brand, as he hath often been deno-⚫ minated. But yet there were emperors and councils, who ftrenuously opposed the pretenfions and ufurpations of the fee of Rome; and these contefts and struggles between the popes and emperors about the right of inveftitures and other articles make a principal part of the hiftory of this age. Our English kings, devoted as they were to the religion, yet would not entirely fubmit to the authority of the bishop of Rome; but contradicted it in feveral inftances. When William I was required by the homage, he made (5) anfwer, • pay hoC mage I have been unwilling, nor am I will
pope to pay him
ing; for neither did I promife it, neither do I find that my predeceffors paid it to your predeceffors.' His fon William Rufus exerted fome
(5) Fidelitatem facere nolui, nec volo; quia nec ego promifi, nec anteceffores meos antecefforibus tuis id feciffe comperio. Apud Baron. Ann.
1079. Sect. 25. Uffer. de Chriftian. Ecclef. fucceffione et ftatu. Cap. 7. Sect. 9.
(6) Eadmer. Hist. Lib. 2. Collier's
fomewhat of the fame fpirit, and (6) infifted
Collier's Ecclef. Hift. B. 4. p.
(7) Dupin XI. Siecle. Chap.
(8) Spanhem. ibid. Dupin. ibid. Allix's Remarks upon the ancient church of Piedmont. Chap. 11.
fins. Other tenets were afcribed to them, which were really heretical: and perhaps they might hold fome errors, as well as fome truths; or perhaps their adverfaries, as it hath been their ufual artifice, might lay things to their charge merely to blacken and defame them. Not long after thefe (9) arofe the famous Berengarius, a native of Tours, and archdeacon of Angers, who more profeffedly wrote against the doctrin of tranfubftantiation; and alfo (1) called
church of Rome a church of malignants, the • council of vanity, and the feat of Satan. It is true that he was compelled by the authority of popes and councils to renounce, abjure, and burn his writings. But his was all a forced, and not in the leaft a voluntary recantation. As often as he recanted, he relapsed again. He returned like a dog to his vomit, as a (2) contemporary popish writer expreffeth it. He lived and died in the fame fentiments. His herefy was from him called the Berengarian herefy; and his followers were fo numerous, that as (3) old hiftorians relate, he had
(9) Uffer. ibid. Cap. 7. Sect. 24, &c. Dupin. ibid. Chap. 2. Spanhem. ibid. Cap. 8. &c. &c.
(1) Ecclefiam Romanam, ecclefiam malignantium, concilium vanitatis, et fedem Satanæ vocabat. Gulielm. Reginald.
corrupCalvino Turcifm. Lib. 2. Cap. 5. Uffer. ibid. Sect. 24.
(2) Qui licet eandem hærefin fæpiffime in fynodo abjuravit, ad vomitum tamen fuum canino more non expavit redire. Bertoldus Conftantienfis prefby