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of England had not at that time received the doctrin of tranfubftantiation. In Italy itself (9) Angilbertus, archbishop of Milan, would not acknowlege the fupremacy of the pope, nor did the church of Milan fubmit to the fee of Rome till two hundred years afterwards. But no one was more willing, as indeed no one of that age was more able to ftem the torrent of fuperftition than Claude bishop of Turin, in his numerous writings and comments upon fcripture. He (1) afferted the equality of all the apoftles with St. Peter, and maintained that Jefus Chrift was the only head of the church. He overthrew the doctrin of merit and all pretences to works of fupererogation. He rejected traditions in matters of religion, held the church to be subject to error, and denied the use of prayers for the dead. He propofed the doctrin of the eucharist in a manner totally different from Pafchafius Radbertus, and entirely conformable to the fenfe of the ancient church. He oppofed with all his might the worship of faints, of relics,
Litt. Ann. 858. p. 45. Vol. 2. Collier's Ecclefiaft. Hift. B. 3. p. 165.
(9) Sigon.de Regn. Ital. Lib. 5. Ann. 844. Spanhem. ibid. Cap. 9. Sect. 1.
(1) See these points proved by quotations and extracts from his works in Dr. Allix his Remarks upon the ancient churches of Piedmont. Chap. 9. See alfo Spanheim, Dupin, Cave, &c.
relics, of images, together with pilgrimages, penances, and other fuperftitions of the like kind. He may in a manner be faid to have fown the feeds of the Reformation in his :diocese of Turin; and his doctrins took fuch deep root especially in the valleys of Piedmont, that they continued to florish there for fome centuries, as the papists themselves acknowlege.
The tenth century even the writers of the Romish communion lament and describe as the moft debauched and wicked, the most illiterate and ignorant age fince the coming of Christ. Genebrard (2) fays This is called the unhappy age, being deftitute of men famous for wit and learning, as alfo of famous princes and popes; in which scarce any thing was done worthy of the memory of posterity.' He fubjoins, But chiefly unhappy in this one thing, that for almoft 150 years about 50 popes totally degenerated from the virtue of ' their
(2) Infelix dicitur hoc fæcuJum, exhauftum hominibus ingenio et doctrina claris, fic etiam claris principibus; et pontificibus; in quo nihil fere dignum memoria pofteritatis geftum fit-Hoc vero uno infelix, quod per annos fere 150 pontifices circiter 50 a virtute majorum
prorfus defecerint, Apotactici
(3) En novum inchoatur fæ-
their ancestors, being more like apoftates than apostles.' Baronius himself (3) denominates it an iron, a leaden, and obfcure age: and declares that Chrift was then, as it appears, ' in a very deep fleep, when the fhip was covered with waves; and what feemed worfe, when the Lord was thus afleep, there were wanting disciples who by their cries might awaken him, being themselves all fast asleep:' It is not to be wondered, that in fo long and dark a night as this, while all were asleep, the subtle enemy fhould fow his tares in great abundance. However there were fome few like lights fhining in a dark place, who remonstrated against the degeneracy and fuperftition of the times. The refolutions and decrees of the councils of Francfort and Paris against the worship of images (4) had ftill fome force and influence in Germany, in France, in England, and other countries. In the former part of this century, in the year
909, a council (5) was held at Trofly, a village near Soiffons in France: and having made feveral wife and good regulations, they concluded with a profeffion of the things, which Christians ought to believe and practise: and in that profeffion are none of thofe things -which conftitute the fum of popifh doctrin, nothing of the pope's being head of the church, nothing of the daily facrifice of the mafs, or of purgatory, or of the worship of creatures, or of commentitious facraments, or of confeffion to the priest, but of pure and fincere confeffion to God; fo much did this council differ from the fpirit and principles of the council of Trent. Many churches (6) ftill retained the use of the fcriptures in the vulgar tongue: and in England particularly Athelstan caufed them to be tranflated into the Anglo-Saxon idiom. Great oppofition (7) was alfo inade in feveral countries to the celibacy of the clergy; and feveral councils were held upon the controverfy between the
Spelmanni Concil. Brit. Vol. 1.
(8) Sigebert de Ecclefiaft. Script. Cap. 138. Uffer. ibid. Sect. 20. Spanhem. ibid. Cap.7. Sect. 3. Dupin. ibid. Chap. 4.
(9) Uffer. ibid. Sect. 20, 21. Spanhem. ibid. Sect. 2. Dupin.
monks and the fecular clergy, and particularly in England, where Elfere earl of Mercia expelled the monks out of the monafteries in that province, and introduced the clergy with their wives. Many too even in this age denied the doctrin of tranfubftantiation. Heriger abbat of Lobes near Liege (8) wrote exprefly against it; as did alfo (9) Alfric in England, whose homily for cafter used to be read publicly in the churches. His principal aim therein (1) is to prove, that we fpiritually tafte the body of * Chrift, and drink his blood, when with true faith we partake of that holy facrament; 'the bread and wine cannot by any benediction be changed into the body and blood of Christ, "they are indeed the body and blood of Christ,
yet not corporally, but fpiritually;' with much more to the fame purpose. He wrote also two epiftles, the one addreffed to Wulfin bishop of Shirburn, and the other to Wulfftan arhbishop of York, wherein he afferts the fame doctrin. In