of the eucharift, of juftification, of repentance, of pretended vifions and miracles, and various other points, are fuch as a papift would abhor, and a proteftant would fubfcribe. Not to feek for farther inftances, the (7) British churches lamented and execrated the fecond council of Nice; and the famous Albin or Alcuin wrote a letter against it, difproving and refuting it by exprefs authorities of holy fcripture; which letter was transmitted to Charles the great in the name of the bishops and other great men of the kingdom. Even in Italy (8) the council of Forojulio prefcribed the use of no other creed but that of the apoftles, fo that they had no conception of the neceffity of so many additional articles, as have fince been made by pope Pius IV, and received by the church. Some even of the Italian bishops aflifted at the council of Francfort before mentioned, and particularly Paulinus bishop of Aquileia bore a principal part in it.



Popery prevailed ftill more in the ninth cenbut yet not without confiderable oppofition. Not Allix's Remarks upon the ancient churches of Piedmont. Chap. 8. Spanhem. ibid. Cap. 9, 10.

(7) Hoveden, Annal. pars prior. p. 232. Simeon Dunelm. Hift. p. 111. Matt. Weftm. Flores Hift. Ann. 793. Uffer. ibid. p. 19, 20. Collier's Ecclef. Hift. B. 2. p. 139.

(8) Tom. 7. Concil. p. 1002.

(9) Fred. Spanhemii Hift. Chriftian. Sæc. IX.Cap. 9. Mif



Not only (9) the emperors of the caft, Nicephorus, Leo Armenius, Michael Balbus, Theophilus, and the emperors of the weft, Charles the great, and Lewis the pious, but also several prelates and ecclefiaftics, opposed the abfolute power and fupremacy of the pope, together with the worship of images, and invocation of faints and angels. The capitularies and edicts of Charles the great and Lewis the pious (1) injoined the reading of the canonical feripture as the fole rule of faith, without any regard to human traditions or apocryphal writings. Private maffes and pilgrimages, and other fuch fuperftitions (2) were forbidden by the fame capitularies. Lewis the pious held a council at Paris in the year 824, which (3) agreed with the council of Francfort in rejecting the fecond council of Nice, and forbidding the worship of images. Agobard, archbishop of Lyons, in his book against pictures and images, maintains, that we ought not to adore any image of God, but only that which is God himself, even his eternal Son; and that there is no other mediator

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diator between God and men, fave Jefus Chrift God and man: fo that it is no wonder that this book is condemned in the Index Expurgatorius of the church of Rome. It was in this century, that the doctrin of tranfubftantiation was first advanced here in the weft by Pafchafius Radbertus abbat of Corbie in France but it was ftrenuously opposed by Rabanus Maurus, Bertramus, Johannes Scotus, and many other bishops and learned men of that age. Rabanus Maurus, archbishop of Mentz, (4) paffes this cenfure upon the novelty of the doctrin C ; Some, fays he, of late not rightly conceiving concerning the facrament of the body and blood of our Lord, have affirmed that this is the very fame body of our Lord, which was born of the virgin Mary, and in < which our Lord himself fuffered, &c; which error we have oppofed to the utmost of our power, &c.' He thus (5) expreffes his own fentiments;



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(5) Maluit Dominus corporis et fanguinis fui facramenta fidelium ore percipi, et in partem [al. paftum eorum redigi,ut per vifibile opus invifibilis oftenderetur effectus. Sicut enim cibus materialis forinfecus nutrit corpus et vegetat, ita etiam verbum Deiintus animam nutrit et roborat. Sacramentum in alimentum corporis redigitur, virtute autem facramenti

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fentiments; Our Lord would have the fa crament of his body and blood be taken and Seaten by the faithful, that by a visible work fan invifible effect might appear. For as the "material food outwardly nourishes and refrefhes the body, fo alfo the word of God inwardly nourishes and ftrengthens the foul.' Again the facrament is reduced into the ⚫ nourishment of the body, but by the virtue of the facrament eternal life is obtained.' Bertramus, or Ratramnus as he is otherwise called, a monk of Corbie, wrote a book of the body and blood of our Lord, which he infcribed to the emperor Charles the bald. The emperor (6) had inquired of him, whether the fame body, which was born of Mary, and suffered, and was dead and buried, and which fitteth at the right hand of the Father, is what is

daily taken in the mouth of the faithful by the mystery of the facrament in the church :'


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facramenti æterna vita adipifci-
tur.Inftitut. Cleric. Lib. 1. Cap.
31. et de Univerfo Lib. 5. Cap.
11. Uffer. de Chriftian. Ecclef.
fucceffione et ftatu. Cap. 2.
Sect. 16.

T. (6) Ubi quærenti imperatori
utrum ipfum corpus quod de Maria
natum eft et paffum, mortuum et
Jepultum, quoique ad dexteram


Patris confideat, fit quod ore fidelium per Jacramentorum myfterium in ecclefia quotidie fumitur: refpondet Bertramus difcrimen inter utrumque effe tantum, quantum eft inter pignus, et eam rèm pro qua pignus traditur; quantum inter imaginem. et rem cujus eft imago; et quantum inter fpeciem et veritatem. Uffer. ibid. Sect. 17.

(7) Ibi

and Bertram anfwers, that the difference beas great as between as great as between the pledge,

tween them is and the thing for which the pledge is delivered; as great as between the image, and the thing whofe image it is as great as between the representation, and the reality. He fays (7) in feveral places, that the bread and wine





are figuratively the body of Chrift, fpiritually not corporally, in figure, in image, in my tery, not in truth, or real exiftence, or prefence of the fubftance.' Johannes Scotus, the famous Irishman, for the Irish were the Scots of thofe times, (8) wrote also a book of the eucharift by the command of Charles the bald and therein he afferted, that the facrament of the altar is not the true body, nor true blood of our Lord, but only the memorial of the true body and of the true blood. He was after this invited into England by king Alfred, was preferred by him, and honored with the title of martyr after his death; which is at least a strong prefumption, that the church of

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(7) Ibi fufé Bertramus, Panem vinumque figuraté corpus Chrifti exiftere; fpiritualiter, non corporaliter; in figura, in imagine, in myfterio, non in veritate, feu reali exiftentia, vel præfentia fubftantia &c. Spanhem. ibid..

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(8) Sacramentum altaris non effe verum corpus, nec verum fanguinem Domini, fed folummodo memoriale veri corporis et veri fanguinis.Spanhem.ibid. Uffer. ibid. Sect. 19. Dupin. IX. Siecle. Chap. 7. Cave Hift.

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