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in the long process of detailed argument which dary of Benaris. It will be expected, after precedes there in your veneral letter. This the judgmen' which you have passed, as an alt
confifts of pieced extracts from opinions de- of indispensable juftice; and, whenever this livered by me in the debates in Council, which promiffory declaration is made public, as it not only preceded the settlement made with must be, if not already known, what may the Rajah Cheye Sing, when his Zenindary have been expected will be reg rued as a cere became the propesiy of the Company; but, tainty. If any hin. were wanting but the Atrange as it will appear. which palled on an express notifiation of your in.ention to conoccafion wholly foreia fr m it, and at a time form it, he recall of Mr. Markham, who when the Company had or obtained the cef was known to be the public agent of my own fion of the Zemindary. At the point of the nomination at Benaris, and he re-appointsettlement your detail nops. Had it proceed ment of Mr. Francis Fowke by your order ed, it must bave exhibited the conditions of con ained in the same letter, would place it the settlement, whih would have contradic- beyond a doubt. This order has been obeya ted every fact which you have afferted; and ed; and, whenever you shall be pleased to ore every man of candour will believe that this der the restoration of Chey Sing, I will venwas the only reason why it did not proceed. ture to promise the same ready and exa& fube For why are my peculative o inions on the miffion in the other members of your Counclaim made us on the Nabob Affof ul Dowlab cil. at the cession of the Zemindary of Benaris, Of the consequences of such a policy I for which I chough: an infringement of a treaty bear to speak. Most happily the wretch, already Tubhiling with him; and upon the whole h pes may be excited by t.e appearmode by which we should allow Rujah Cheytan es in his favour, is ill qualified to avail Sing to exercise the management of his Ze- himself of them; and the force which is ftamindary, when it had become the property of tioned in the province of Benaris is sufficient the Company, quoted in evidence againft me; to suppress any symptoms of internal secition; 'while the actual deeds which conveyed to but it cannot fail to create diftruft and lufa Cheyt Sing his poffeffion of the Zemindary, pense in the minds both of the rulers and of and all the conditions on which he held it, the people, and such a ftate is always producwere the only criteria by which my conduct tive of Gisorder. towards him could be tried? The debates But it is not in this partial considerntion from which my opinions are extracted are so that I dread the effects of your commands. It volu minous, and my share in them bears so is in your proclaimed indisposition against the large a proportion, that it would take up much first executive member of your firft Governa time and argument to prove, what I could ment in India. It is as well known to the prove, that in their collective and relative sense Indian world as to the Court of English prothey are perfectly confiftent, so far as they can prietors, that the firft declaratory nítruments apply at all to my subsequent conduct; but, of the diffolution of my influence, in the year were it otherwise, they were not to be made 1774, were Mr. John Briftow and Mr. Franthe rules of my cooduct; and God forbid that cis Fowke. By your ancicat and known cvery expreffion dictated by the impulse of conftitution the Governor has been ever held present emergency, and, uapremedicatedly ut forth and understood to potless the oftenfible tered in the heat of party contention, should powers of Government. All the correspone impose upon me the obligation of a fixed dente with foreign Princes is conducted in principle, and be applied to every variable oc his name; and every person, reside it with cahon!
them for the management of your political The wisdom of the LegiO ature has declared, concerns, is understood to be more especialy that the whole collective bndy of the Gover his represen'ative, and of his choice: and nar-Generat and Council fall be bound by the which ought to be the rule; for how otheropinions of the majority ; but the doctrine wise can they truft an agent nominated against implied in your quotation of my opinions is the will of his principal? or how, knowing the reverse of that obligation, if my opinions him to act under th: variable infructions of a were not conformable to those of a majority of temporary influence, or the casual dictares of the Board ; and, if they were, the acts of the a majority, can they rely on he mealuses Board, framed on such concurrent opinions, · which he may propose, and wich a sudden ought to be quoted as the rules of my conduct, change of i. fuence, always expected in a de Bor the opinions which only led to them. viarion fr m conftitutional forms, my unde,
Having solemnly pronounced that Rajah and subject them, in every nitance of thuis Cheye Sing had performed his engagements conne&ion, io a continual Auctation of afe with the Company, and that my conduct to fairs? wards him was “improper and unwarranta When the fate of this administration was tle," you proceed to say, that “ such farther such as seemed to admit of the appointment of sesolutions, as you may think proper to come Mr. Bristow to the residency of Lucknow, to on this very important fubje&, will be without much diminution of my own infu. communicated to us by a future conveyance." ence. I gladly seized the occasion to thew any This I cannot otherwise understand ihan as readiness to submit to your commands.' 1 an indication of your intention to order the proposed his nomination i he was nominated, restoration of Rajab Cheyt Sing to the Zemia.
and declared to be the agent of my own choice. pad, from the Parfon, Vicar, or Curate, who is Even this effect of my caution is cefeated by authorised to receive the duty on making the your abfolute command for his re-appoint. respective ents es in the regifier. ment, independent of me, and with the sup The regifiering the burials of persons from pobtion that I thould be averfe to it. I am aay Work house or Hospital, or at the sole exnow wholly deprived of my official powers, pence of any charity; and the births of chil. both in the province of Owd and in the Ze dren whole parents at the time receive parille mindary of Benaris.
relief, to be exempled from the duty. Nor will the evil stop at these lines. My The provisions of this & to extend to the general influence, the iffects of which have people called Quakers, and the registers now been happily manifested for the support of kept by them to be subject to the above duty. your intereft, is now wholly lott, or what may The Paslon, Vicar, &c. entering the regis semain of it sustained only by the prescription ters, and receiving the duty, to be allowed two of long pofleffion, and something perhaps of Billings in the pound for his trouble. personal attachment, imprelled by the habits Pecuniary penal.ies imposed to be divided; of frequent intercourse.
one moiety to his Majeliy, and the other I almoft mudder at the reflection of what to such person as shall sue for it, might have happened, had there denunciations againft your own minifter, in favour of a man Tbe foloring is a Letter from bis PRUSSIAN universally coniidered in this part of the world Najefiy to tbe celebrated Mons. D'ALEM as juftly attainted for his crimes, the nurderer BERT, in Answer to a Proposal from ibe of your servants and soldiers, and the rebel to lalt.r, of bis Mujefly's becoming a Subscriber your authority, arrived two months earlier. 10 ibe STATUE OF VOLTAIRE, wbicb was You will learr., by our common dispatches, then making at Paris, by a Subscription, is what difficulties Mahdajee Sindia has had to which won were odonited but ibe mft difline surmount in seconciling the different members guished Cbaratiers in obe Lilcrary World. of the Mahra'ta fate to the ratification, and HE fineft monument of Voltaire is that
1 even, when ratified, to the interchange, of the which he erects himself, his works; they treaty concluded by him in May last with this will subtift longer than the basilic of St. Pe Guvernment. I dare to appeal even to your ter's, the Louvre, and all those buildings that judgment for the reply, and to ask, wheiher van ty confessates to eteroity. Though The ministers of the Peshwa, portelling the French thall cease to be spoken, Voltaire shall knowledge of such a circumttance, would not still be tranllated in the tongue that fbad have availed themselves of it to withhold succeed it; in the mean time, full of the their consent to the treaty, either claiming to plealue given me by his productions, fo include Cheyt Sing as a party in it, or either vas ous, and each fo perfect in its kind, I overtly or secretly supporting his pretensions, coula not, without being ungrateful, refuse with the view of multiplying our difficulties; the propofition you make me, of contributing Or, which is most probable, waiting for the to the monument now railing for him by event of that change in the superior Govern the hand of public gracilude. You need ment of Bengal which such symptoms por. only infirm me of what is expected on my tended, before they precipitated their interests part; I will refuse nothing for this statue, that in a connection with a declining influence, does more honour to the men of leiters who which they might obviously conclude would consecrate it to him, than to Voltaire himself. sender this, with all its orber acts, obnoxious The wild will say, that in this 18th century, to that which succeeded it.
when so many people of learning vie with each (To te continued.)
other to detame their contemporaries, there
have been tound some noble and generous e• Affiract of the Act for registering Biribs, & couh to do juftine to a man endowed with
THE Parson, Vicar, or Cuiate, who shall a genius and ial-n's superior to all ages; that
eater such registers, after the iit of Oco we rave det ved Voltaire: the latest pofterity ber, 1983, vnitamped, forfeits five pounds. will Hill envy us this advantage. To duitioThe Commissioners a e, however, empowered guith celebrated men, :0. do justice to me. to grant a license for ubing infiamped registers, rit, is to encourage both science and virtue; on receie ng a bond from the clergyman, whois it is the only recompence of great minds, and authorized to dranand she duty of the under is wil due to those who cultivate in a lupe. ior taker, or other person employed on the fune manner the belles letires. They procure sal, or from the parties to be married, or from pleatures of an exalted species, more durable the parent of the child whole birth or chris. Iban cause of the body ; they foften the most tening is to be registered, or other person re- obdura e naures ; they diffuse their charms quiring the christening of such child, previous over th: while course of our lives ; they repder to the registes thereof being made. Parties our existence fupportable, and our dearbs less refusing to pay the same fo feit five pounds. tenible. Cntidue then, Grnikmen, to protect
Register books, and the stampe, to be pro and celebrate tnule who apply to them, and vided by Churchwardens or Overseers, and to who in Pance have the good fortune to fuce be paid for one of the rates under his or their cord; you cannot possibly do anything more management; and they are fron time to time glorious to your nation. FREDERICK. to receive back the money, which shall be lo
From tbe London Gazette.
ing readily accepted that invitation, they have BY THE KING. A PROCLAMATION. named, as their representatives, viz. bis Mos
jefty the Emperor of the Romans, the moft ide GEORGE R.
luftrious and most excellent Lord Florimond, and Friendihip between us, the Most Baron of Crichegnée, Knight of the Golden Christian King and the King of Spain, hath Fleece, Chamberlain, actual Privy Counsellos been concladed at Versailles on the 3d instant, of State to his Imperial and Royal A poftolick and the ratifications thereof bave been ex Majetty, and his Ambasador to his Most changed upon the 19th inftant; in conformity Christian Majesty; and her Majesty the Em. thereunto we have thought fit hereby to com- press of all the Ruflias, lhe most illutrious and mand that the same be publifhed throughout most excellent Lord, Prince Iwan Bariatiníkoy, all our dominions. And we do declare to all Lieutenant General of the Forces of her imour loving subjects, our will and pleasure, that perial Majesty of all the Ruflias, Knight of the said Treaty of Peace and Friendship be ob the Orders of St. Anne and of the Swedish served inviolably, as well by fea as land, and Sword, and her Minißes Pienipołeatiary to bis in all places whatsoever; trialy charging and Moft Chriftian Majesty, and the Lord'Arredi commanding all our loving subjects to take no. de Marcoff, Counsellur, of Statc to her Ima. tice hereof, and conform themselves thereunto perial Majesty of all the Ruffias, and her accordingly.
Minister Plenipotentiary to his Moft Chrif Given at our Court at St. James's, the 26th tian Majelly. In consequence, their said of September, 1783, in the 230 year of our Majesties, the King of Great Britain and the reign. GOD save the KING! Most Chriftian King, hare named and con
fituted for their Plenipotentiaries, charged The DEFINITIVE TREATY of PEACE and with the concluding and figning of the Defini
FRIENDSHIP, berween His BRITANNICK tive Treaty of Peace, riz. the King of Great MAJESTY and be Most CHRISTIAN Britain, the most illustrious and molt excellent KING. Signed as Verlailles, tbe 3d of Lord George, Duke and Earl of Manchester, Seprember, 1783
Viscount Mandeville, Baron of Kimbolion Is ibe Nome of the Mej Holy and Undivided Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the Trinity, Futber, Son, and Holy Gbofit.
county of Huntingdon, actual Privy Counselo
lor to his Britannick Majefity, and his Ambas. So be ic.
fador Extraordina' y and Plenipotentiary to his E
may in any manner concern. The Most tian King, the most illustrious and most excel. Serene and Most Potent Prince George the lent Lord Charles Gravier, Count de Ver. - Third, by the Grace of Gop, King of Great gennes, Baron of Welferding, &c. the King's
Britain, France, and Ireland, Duke of Brunf. Counsellor in all his Councils, Commander in wick and Lunenbourg, Arch-Treasurer and his Orders, President of the Royal Council of Ele&tor of the Holy Roman Empire, &c. and Finances, Counsellor of State Military, Mi. the Moft Serene and Most Poient Prince nister and Secretary of State, and of his Com. Lewis the Sixteenth, by the Grace of God, mands and Financess Who, after having exMoft Chriftian King, being equally delious to changed their respective full powers, bare put an end to the war, whicb, for several years agreed upon the following Articles: past, afflicted their respective dominions, ac. Art. I. There shall be a Cbrielian, univercepted the offer which iheir Maj:fties the Em. (al, and perpetual peace, as well by Tea as by peror of the Romans, and the Empress of all land, and a fincere and conftant 'friendship ihe Ruffias, made to them, of their interpose hall be re-eablished between their Bricana tion, and of their mediation. But their Bri- nick and Mor Christian M«jefties, and betannick and Moft Chriftian Majefties, ani tween their heirs and succeffure, kingdoms, mated with a mutual defire of accelerating the dominions, provinces, countries, subjects, and ro-ettablishment of peace, communicated to vallals, of what qualiry or condition foever each other their laudable intention; which they be, without exception either of places or Heaven so far blessed, that they proceeded to persons; so that the high contrading pariies lay the foundations of peace, by figning Preli- shall give the greatest attention to the mainminary Articles at Versailles, the 20th of Ja- taining between themselves, and their faid doDuary, in the prefent year. Thoir faid Majelminions and subjects, this reciprocal friendship tits, the King of Great Britain and the Most and intercourse, without permitting h reafter, Chriftian King, thinking it incumbeat upon on either part, any kind of hostilities to be them to give their Imper al Majelt es a fignal committed, either by sea or by land, for any proof of their gratitude for the generous offer cause or under any pretence wbatsoever. And of their mediation, invited them, in concert, to they shall carefully avoid, for the future, every concur in the completion of the great and fa- thing which might prejudice the union happily lutary work of peace, by taking part, as medi: re-establiceed, endeavouring, on the contrary, ators, in the Definicive Treaty to be concluded to procure reciprocally for each other, on every between their Britannick and Moft Chriftian occasion, whatever may contribute to thir Majestics. Their faid loperial Majesties bare mutual glory, interetts, and advantage, without
giving any affiftance or protection, dire&tly or ons of England and France, consents to reindire&tly, to those who would do any injury nounce abe right of filing, which belongs to to either of the high contracting parties. him in virtue of the aforesaid article of the
There shall be a generat oblivion and am. Treaty of Utrecht, from Cape Bonavifta to nefty of every thing which may have been Cape St. John, ftuated on the eastern coat done or committed before or foce the com of Newfoundland, in fifty degrees north la. mencement of the war which is jult ended. titude; and his majetty the king of Great
Arti II. The Treaties of Weftphalia of Britain consenis on his part, that the 6th7648; the Treaties of Peace of Nimeguen ery affigned to the fubje&s of his most Chris. of 1678 and 1679; of Ryswick of 1097; tian majetty, beginning at the said Cape St. those of Peace and of Commerce of Utrecht John, fafting to the north, and descending of 1713; that of Baden of 1914; that of the by the western coaf of the island of Newa Triple Alliance of the Hague of 17174 that foundland, thall extend to the place called of the Quadruple Alliance of London of Cape Raye, floated in forty.feved degrees, 1918; the Treaty of Peace of Vienna of fifty minuies north latitude. The French 3938; the Definitive Treaty of Aix la fishermea thall enjoy the fithery which is Chapelle of 1748; and that of Paris of 1763, affigned to them by the present article, as ferve as a basis and foundation to the peace, they had the right to enjoy that which was and to the prefent Treaty; and for this pur- afligned them by the Treaty of Utrecht. pose they are all renewed and confirmed in Art. VI. With regard to the fishery in the beft form, as well as all the Treaties in the Gulph of Si. Laurence, the French shall general which fubfiited between the high continue to exercise it conformably to the contracting parties before the war, as if they fifth article of the Treaty of Paris. were herein inferred word for word; so that Art VII The king of Great Britain re• they are to be exa&rly obferved for the fu stores to France the island of St. Lucia, in ture in their full tenor, and religiously ex the condition it was in when it was conecuted by both parties in all the points quered by the British arms: and his Bria which shall not be derogated from by the tannick majefty cedes and guarantees to his present Treaty of Peace.
most Chriftian majeliy the island of Tobago.. Art III. All the prisoners taken on either The Proteftant inhabitants of the said iro fide, as well by land as by fea, and the hof- land, as well as those of the same religion tages carried away or given during the war, who tha! have settled at St Lucia whilst and to this day, 'Ihall be reflored, without that ifand' was occupied by the British arms, rantom, in fix weeks at lateft, to be come thall not be molested in the exercise of their puted from the day of the exchange of the worship: And the British inhabitants, or o. Tat:fication of the present Treaty; each thers who may have been subjects of the crown respectively dilcharging the advances king of Great Britain in the aforesaid ife which thall have been made for the sube lands, thall retain their poffeffions upon the filence and maintenance of their prisoners fame titles and conditions by which they by the fovereign of the country where they have acquired them; or else they may retire í all have been detained, according to the in full security and liberty, where they may receipts and artefted accounts, and other au- think fit, and shall have the power of tel. thentic vouchers, which thall be furnitbed ling their ettares, provided it be to the fube on each fide: And fureties thall be recipro. jects of his moft Chriftian majefty, and of cally given for the payment of the debrs removing their effrets, as well as their perwhich the prisoners have contracted in the fons, without being refrained in their emi. countries where they may have been de.. grations, under any pretence whatfoever, tajned, until their entire release. And all except on account of debts, or of. criminal · thips, as well men of war as merchant ships, profecutions. The term limited for this ewbich may have been taken fince the expio migration is fixed to the space of eighteen tation of the terms agreed upon for the cer• months, to be computed from the day of the sation of hoftilities by sea, thall likewise be exchange of the ratifications of the presene
reftored, bona fide, with all their crews and Treaty. And for the better securing the pos. ·cargoes. And the execution of this article fefsions of the inhabitacts of the aforesaid
thall be proceeaed upon immediately after the island of Tobago, che molt chriftian king cxcbange of the ratifications of this Treaty. Ihall issue ictiers patent, containing an abaidia
Art. IV. His majesty the king of Great' tion of the Droit d' Arbaine in the said ifland. Bricain is maintained in his right to the is. Art. VIII. The most Chrifiian king reLand of Newfoundland, and to the adjacent if- ftores to Great Britain the inlands of Grena. lands, as the whale were assured to him by the da and the Grenadines, St. Vincent's, Do. thirteenth article of the Treaty of Utrecht; minica, St. Christopher's, Nevis, and Montexcepting the islands of St. Pierre and Mi- ferrat; and the fortreffes on thefe idlands quelon, which are ceded in full right, by the thall be delivered up in the cond tion in prefent Treaty, to his moft Chriftian majefty, which they were when the conqueft of them
Art. V. His majesty the most Christian was made. The fame dipulations inserted king, in order to prevent quarrels which in the preceding article shall take place in bave hitherto arisen, between the two natifavour of the Freucla Subjects with refpe&
to the inands enumerated in the present ar allies of their Britannic and moft Chriftian ticle.
majeftics thall not bave acceded to the pred Art. IX. The king of Great Britain cedes sent pacification, or concluded a 1-parate acin full right, and guarantees to his most commodation, their faid majefties thall not Christian majesty, the river Senegal and its give them any affiance, directly or indi. dependencies, with the forts of St. Louis, re&tly, againf the British pr French porPodor, Galam, Arguin, and Portendric: and fellions, or againit the ancient pofselons of his Britannic majetty restores to France the. their respective allies, such as they were in iland of Goree, which thall be delivered up the in the condition it was in when the conquest Art. XVII. The king of Great Britain, of it was made.
deGrous to give his moft Chriftian Art. X. The most Christian king, on his majelty a fincere proof of reconciliatioa and part, guarantees to the king of Great Bri- frendihip, and to contribute to render solid tain the pofTefiions of Fort James, and of the the peace re-established between their faid river Gambia.
majeflies, confents to the abrogation and Art. XI. For preventing all discussion in suppression of the articles relative to Dun.. that part of the world, the two high con kirk, from the Treaty of Peace concluded tra&tiog parties shall, within three months at U recht in 1713, inclufve, to this day. after the exchange of the ratifications of the Art XVIIl' Inmediately after the exo prefent Treaty, name commissaries, who change of the Ratifications the iwo higde Thall be charged with the settling and fix- contracting parties shall name commiffaries ing the boundaries of the respective poffef. to treat concerning new arrangements of fions. As to the gum-trade, the Englith commerce between the two nations, on the Mall have the liberty of carrying it on, from balis of reciprocity and mutual convenience; the mouth of the river St. John, to the bay which arrangements thall be settled and cono, and fort of Portendric inclusively. Provi- cluded within the space of two years, to be ded that they shall not form any permanent computed from the ait of January, 1784. Settlement, of what nature foever, in the Art. XIX. All the countries and terrie faid river St. John, upon the coast, or in tories which may have been, of which may the bay of Portendric.
be, conquered in any part of the world whate Art. XII. As to the residue of the coast foever, by the arms of bis Britanaic majefe, of Africa, the English and French Pubjects ty, as well as by those of his moft Chrittian, shall continue to resort thereto, according to majesty, which are not included in the prethe ufage which has hitherto prevailed. sent Treaty, neither under the bead of cero.
Art. XIll. The king of Great Britain fous, nor under the head of rettirutions, restores to his moft Chriftian majesty all the Thall be restored withour d fuulty, and withe settlements which belonged to him at the out requiring any compenfation. beginning of the present war, upon the Art. XX. As it is neceflary to appoint a coast of Orixa, and in Bengal, with liberry certain period for the refticutions and evaa to furround Chandernagore with a ditch for cuations to be made by each of the high condraining off the waters : And his Britannic tracting parties, it is agreed that the king majefty engages to take such meafures as of Great Britain fhall cause to be evacuared fhall be in his power for securing to the sub the inlands of St. Pierre and Miquelon,' je s of France in that part of India, as three months after the ratification of the well as on the coasts of Orixa, Coromandel, prefent Treaty, or sooner, if it can be done; and Malabar, a safe, free, and independent St. Lucia (one of the Charibee islands) and trade, such as was carried on by the French Goree, in Africa, three months after the East India Company, whether they exercise ratification of the present Treaty, or sooner, it individually or united in a company. if it can be done. The king of Great Bria
Art. XIV. Pondicherry thall be in like tain thall in like manner, at the end of manner delivered op and guaranteed to three mon hs after the ratification of the France, as also Karikal: And his Brican present Treaty, or rooner, if it can be done, nic majesty thall procure, for an additional enter again into the poffeffion of the islands dependency to Pondicherry, the two dif of Grenada, the Grenadines, St. Vincent's, triats of Valanour and Bahour; and to Ka Dominica, St. Christopher's, Nevis, and rikal, the four Magans bordering thereupon. Montserrat. France thall be put in poflesioa
Art. XV. France shall re-enter into the of the towns and factories which are re. pofleffion of Mahé, as well as of its factory ftored to her in the East Indies, and of the at Sorat; and the French Thall carry on territories which are procured for her, to their trade, in this part of India, conform serve as additional dependencies to Pondi. ably to the principles established in the thir. cherry, and to Karikal, fix months after the teenth article of this treaty:
ratification of the present Treaty, or sooner, Art. XVI. Orders having been sent to if it can be done. France hall deliver up, India by the high contracting parties, in at the end of the like term of fix months, pursuance of the fixteenth article of the Pre the towns and territories which her arms liminaries, it is further agreed, that if, with may have taken from the English, or their in the term of four months, ibc rc pestive allics, in the East Indies. la consequence