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searched the waters for the pearl, hav. within ? Is the midnight revel, the leing discovered a resemblance, they re- thargic infenfibility of the fucceeding joiced in pronouncing it an acquisition day, to be acknowledged the pure unof the real obje&.
sophisticated feeling of fatisfa&tory deThe dominions of plcasure are im- light? Have you full poffeffion of this measurably eccentric. Whocver launch- all-powerful queen-regent of your afes forth into this boundless fea of de- fections? Describe her fixed empire, ceitful allurements, in a vessel unfur.' and the immunitiés enjořed under it. nished with the proper requisites for its Alas! you grasp vith impetuous warmth fecurity, may be wafted to and fro for a of desire at this lovely form, and, like time withoue peril, while the fun's rays Macbeth grasping at the dagger, you are and the calm sea are propitious; but to obliged at length to conclude, that there hazard a voyage, and to retreat prof. is no such thing. What! are all there perously into port; there muft be a como profufions of delight at lait only the pass to direct, an helm to regulate the mere fpecres of the brain? Confers course, and masts and failing to effec- . then, that all is error and deluswort: tuate the vessel's motion, with ballast that it is as vain to have a firm pofseflion to make it steady.
of this elusory form, as it is for the cenitCome on then, philosopher, and nel in Hamleito trike the ghost with tris make further rescarches after this sove. partizan. 'Tis bere, 'tis there, 'tis gone. ceign good. Has a regular enquiry If the weights in the scale are falfe, deen made into the great ends and de we shall be deceived in the value of the figas of life? Have the means been purchase. Imperfection, lassitude, ditcarefully considered, which lead us on appointment, are acknowledged to be gradually to such ends? Mas it been a the consequences of voluptuous frematter of contemplation, whether there ition; and if imperfection is to be found has been an cxadt correspondence be- here, it necessarily implies perfe&ion cween the faculty and the object; so that somewhere. If we consider pleatine Do falso medium has intervened to dif- . according to its true meaning, it will be colour the object? All these things muit. found to be a regular ratiopal apprchonbe carefully examined, before the pur- fion of an object, in every respect fitting fuit of good begins : unless we envy the and suitable tu a faculty rightly dilo brutal appetites, and, think it the best posed. In the object no fault can resense, to be governed by sense only. lide, for that appears the same to every Range then through this department of onc: but the fauit is in the faculty. indolent fedulity, and obferve in what when the deceit arises, which, through manner the prospect terminates. The its weakness and instability, discerns, champions enter chic lills. The found or thinks it discerns, that in the object of the instrument awakens the pursuit. which does not properly belong to it, All rush forward, and fly to the em We eagerly bend before the awful na. braces of the delusive form. Rapture,. jefty of opulence, we make giert exultation, felicity, triumph for a sea- Irides to be invested with honours and jon, till the rude, disfigured, gloomy digniñed diftinctions: we are coatinu. intruder, Satiety, steps forward, and ally competitors for power and luperifcarters darkness over the whole prof. ority: but we do not reflect, at this pect. What I is faticty suffered to cast junčture, that these fruitions are only her sable mantle over these rosy bowers coveted, as the true means inftruinen of blifs ? Where is satisfaction! Why tally subservient to a nobler objekt in does not the advance, and disabuse the vicw; for when we are pofleted of Fotaries of pleasure, by the exclusion of theic gratifications, we still are in jan sariety? Miserable fate of things! bour after somcthing more, to ingle Alas! pleasure is át length a painful the grand scale of happine's complete. It pursuit! the painful pursuit of pleasure ! is not then poziver, riches, dignity, We pursue pleasure, and in the same honour only, but luriling ellc winch inftant Ay, from happiness. Stand forth these attendants are expected io bring then, thou votary of thadows, and ex with them, that we so much labortiu amine with the utmost caution the state acquire. What then is this? It is thaj and dispositions of thy ideas. After a cenual perfection of crjoyment," that waste of time, devoted to the complee' full and complete alombiage of cariliş tion of these fillies, which would have happiaess, the eale, quiet, content, ack difgraced the festival of Flora, and have inward satisfaction of vind.
Labour made the favage blush, say, is all right earnestly for a mind conscious of reti.
tude, and this 'satisfaction fows imme- Shreve-Tuesday, on which day this diately into it, and as neceffarily adheres cuftom prevailed, they concluded the - to it, as die bloom adheres to the fruit. day, in throwing the ball: which fecms But if we will ftill prcfer satiçiy to satis to infinuate, that the cock-fighting was faction, and imaginary. to real good, -merely in conformity to ancient usage, we ought not to complain of the fruit's and limited only to part of the day, to acidity.
makc way for a more laudable perAway then with this effeminacy of formance. We may reasonably uppaftime, and let us confider, whether pore, although this author is entirely something manly, active, and generous, filent upon this head, that while cockunder the character of amusement, has fighting was going on, cock-throwing not rcfected undiminished lustre on the was the sport of the lowest class of former ages of this country Whether people, who could not afford the exthe amusements or pleasures of those pence of the former t. Another species days, wbile they imparted ftrength to of manly exercise, was truly martial, zhe body, did not at the same time im- - and intended to qualify the adventurers prove the mind..
for martial discipline. It is related by From the ancient records of this Fitz: Stephen thus : “ Every Friday in country, it appears, that the sports, “ Lent, a company of young men amusements, pleasures, and rec.cations, comes into the field on horseback, of our ancestors, as described by Fitz « attended and conducted by the best Stephen“, added strength and agility to “ horfemcn: then march forth the fons the wheels of state-mechaniíin, while $ of the citizens, and other young mon, they had a direct tendency towards : « with difarmcd launces and shields; utility. Formelt of theto ancient re " and there they practice, feats of war. ercations are resolvable into the public “ Many courtiers likewise, when the defence of the state, againft the attacks - " King is ucar the spot, and attendants of a foreign enemy. The play at ball, upon noblemen, do repair to these derived from the Romans, is first in “ exercises; and while the hope of troduced by this author, as the com “ victory does inflame their minds, mon exercise of every school-boy. The “ they thew by good proof, how ferperformance was in a field, where the. “ viceable they would be in martial af. resort of the moft fubftantial and con fairs." This evidently is of Roman fiderable citizens, to give encourage- defcent, and immediately brings to our ment and countenance to this feat of recollection the Ludus Troja, Tuppold agility, was fplendid and numerous. to be the invention, as it was the comThe intention of this amusement at this mon exercise, of Ascanius. The coinperiod of time was to make the juve.. mon people, in this age of masculine nile jace active, nimblc, and vigorous; manners, made overy amusement, which qualities were requisite, when.. where itrergth was exerted, the firbject. ever their a'fitance thould be wanted matter of inttruction and improvement : in the fiotection of their country. The instructed to exert their bodily firength next fpecies of pastime, indeed, does in the maintenance of their country's not scem to have this tendency: but it rights; and their minds improved, by was only, as it seems, an annual cur- . such excition, isto cvery manly and
This was cock fighting. The gunerous principle. author tells us, that in the afternoon of In the vacant intervals of indufry
Otherwise called William Stephanides, a monk of Canterbury, who lived in the reign of King Stephen, so the time of Richard the Firt. He wroica Latin treatise, in which he gives an account of she several paflimes, which were countenanced. in lis.timé. Bale in his writings draw's a pleasing portrait of him. He is likewise keiched in strong and fircible outlines of praise and commendation" by Leland. Bale says thus of him, The * time, which other people usually misemployed in an idle and frivolous manner, he con“ secrated to enguiries, which tended to increase the fame and dignity of his country: in “ doing which, he was not unworthy of being compared to Plato: for, like him, he made * the Itudy of men and beaved his couitant exercife."
+ There were places fet apait for the battles of these animals, as at this day, where no one was admities without money. Thele places, or pits commonly called, were schools, as at this day, in which people were inli ructed in the doctrines of chance, lots and gain, betting and wagers, and particularly in the liberal art of loying two to ore. Cock-throwing has been faudabiy abolished: for it was a (pecies of cruelly towards an innocent and uteful animals and loch a cruelty, as would have kindled com; alion in the heart of the ranket barbarian.
end labour, commonly called the holy- and erected courts, or oblong edifices, days, indolence and inactivity, which for the performance of the exercise. at this day mark this portion of time, About the year 1253, in the 38th were found only in those whose lives year of Henry III. the Quintan was a were distempered with age, or infirmity. sport much in folhion in almost cvery
The view, which Firz-Stephen gives us part of the kingdom. This contrivance of the Easter-holydays, is animated. consisted of an upright pust firmly fixed ** In Easter-holydays, they fight battles in the ground, upon the top of which " upon the water. A thield is hanged was a cross picce of wond, moveable
upon a pole, fixed in the middle of upon a spindle; one end of which was « the stream.
A boat is prepared binad, like the flat part of an halberd, “ without oars, to be borne along by while at the other end was hung a bag
the violence of the water; and in of sand. (Sce the plate.) The exercitë " the fore-part thereof standeth a young was performed on horseback.
The " man, ready to give charge upon the masterly performance was, when, opom “ fhield with his launce. If fo be, that the broad part being struck with a " he break his launce againg the thield, lance, which fomctimes broke it, the " and doch not fall, he is thought to assailant rode swiftly on, so as to avoid 6 have performed a worthy deed. If beir.g struck on the back by the bag of “ without breaking his launce, he fand, which turned round instantly " runs strongly against the shield, down upon the froke given, with a very fwift " he falleth into the water; for the motion. He, who executed this feat in " boat is violently forced with the tide: the most dextrous manner, was declared " but on each side of the shield ride victor, and the prize, to which he be" two boats, furnished with young came entitled, was a peacock. But if, " men, who recover him who falleth, upon the aim taken, the contender mif
foon as they may. In the holy-days carried in striking at the broad fide, his * all the summer, the youths are exer. impotency of skill became the ridicule
cifed in leaping, dancing, shooting, and contempt of the spectators. “ wrestling, cafting the stone, and Dr. Ploti, in his Natural History of
practicing their fhields; and the Oxfordshire, tells us, that this partime “ maidens trip with their timbrels, and was in practice in his time, at Dedding“ dance, as long as they can well see.
ton in this county:
They first," 5 In winter, every holy.day before says this author, "'fixed a poft perpen5 dinner, the boars prepared for brawn «'dicularly in the ground; and then " are set to fight, or else bulls or bear's “ placed á finall piece of timber upon « are baited."
" the top of it, fastened on a spindle, These were the laudable pursuits, to " with a board nailed to it on one end, which leisure was devoted by our fore “ and a bag of fand hanging at the fathers, so far back as the year 1930. “ other. Against this board they an Their immediate successors breathed the “ ciently rode with spears : now as I same generous fpirit. In the year 1222, “ saw it at Deddington, only with fiong the 6th year of Henry III. we find, “ staves, which violently bringing athat certain masters in exercises of this “ bout the bag of sand, if they make kind made a public profession of their not good fpeod away, it strikes their instructions and discipline, which they
“ in the neck or shoulders, and someimparted to those who were desirous of “ times perhaps strikes them down from attaining excellence and victory in these “ their horfes; the great design of bonourable atchievements. About this “ the sport being, to try the agility period, the persons of better rank and “ both of man and horse, and to break family introduced the play of Tennis* ; “ the board; which, whoever did,
* The word Tennis seems to owe its original to the Frencb language : if so, the game is of Frencb production. Yo the word een-z will hardly be found to atford incontrovertible evidence upon this subject. For the holding, or keeping possession of the ball, is no part of the game, but rather a circum liance casually attending it ; fince, during the performance of it, the ball is in continual motion, so there can be no tene2 at this junetuse. Perhaps a place in France, called Tennois, (as chere is a town, which differs only in a le!ter, called Sennois, in the diftri&t of Champagne) was the place, where the balls were firli made, and the game firtt introduced. GENT. MAG. September, 1793.
was accounted conqueror: for whom now ordered to withdraw for a season, " hererofore there was some reward The drama, it seems, was attempted « always appointed *.
by a set of useless and insignificant perMatibew Paris, speaking of this sóns, called parish-clerks; who, bemanly diversion, says, “ the London cause they had the knowledge of the "youths made trial of their strength alphabet, ignorantly prefamed that this
on horseback, by running at ihe included every other species of know“ Quintan; in doing which, whoever ledge. The subject was truly serious, « excelled all the rest was rewarded the creation of the world; but the per" with a peacock.” This sport is con- formance must have been ludicrous. It tinued to this day in Wales, and being was however honoured with the attendin usc only upon marriages, it may be ance of noble personages; and royalty considered as a votive paftime, by itself deigned to caft å favourable eye which these heroic spirits scem to with, upon it, for the King and Qucen were that the male illue of such marriage may present. These interludes Tatted no
be as strong, vigorous, and active as longer than the time requisite for the those, who are at that time engaged in former confederacy. of utility and pleathe celebration of this festive exertion sure to resume its powers; as when the of manhood.
pliable bow by being too much bent is Virtuous exercises of this kind put out of shape, and by its elasticity would be too rude and barbarous for recorers its foriner position. The lance, the attendants on picasure in the pre- the shield, the ball, and the equestrian fcnt age. The band would tremble at procession came forward again, and put the weight of the javelin; and the heart the dramatic usurper to fight. would pant upon the apprehension of After this period, these objects of perfonal infecurity. While there exer
generous pleasure seem to have had tions of triumplant prowess continued, their audience of leave, and one general the fordid digeneracy of difpofition, ocet, indeed no lefs manly than the the supple bateness of temper, were un former, to have filled their stations, known : for the love of country, as the which was, archery. This had a conRoman orator has wisely observed, in tinuance to the reign of Cbarles I. for ciuded all other virtues. But if we
we find in many hospitals founded in guard the pakice of honour, like the thit reign, among the articles of benebrazen cafile of Danae, . with every fadion recorded upon their walls, this pullible security, importunate corrup- fingulur provision, `Arms for the boys; tion will be ever waiting at the gare, to which signified bows and arrows. seize an opportunity of intrusion. These There are many places at this day, fuats of honourable conteft were fuc formerly resorted to, for the practice of ceeded by the gilded banners of exhi this noble art, diftinguished by appellabition, and all the long train of de tions, which indicate their antient usage: pendents in the interest of indolence: such as Brintford Butts, Newington Buils, for the writers of these times inform and many others of the lıke denominaws, that thc fost pleasures of the stage tion,
It appears from 33 Hen. VIII. forced the parties to public tavour in the that by the intrufion of other pernicious year 1341, and likewise in the year
games, archery had been for a long 1409: to that utility, which before timc diluicd; to revive which, this ftastood on the right bund of pleasure, was tute ivas made. It fceins that the bows
* This was certainly an exercise, derived from a military ioftitution of the Romans, tho' pot inftrumentally the fame. Whoever confiders the foim and difpofition of the Roman camps, which were forned into a square figure, will find there were four principal gares, or parages. Near the Q x Plorien, or Quattor's apartment, was the forum, or winat is now caliea a furtling house ; and from being near the 22lor's ftation, called Quicftorium fare. At this part was a filth gat: M.1, where the folders were intructed in ihe discipline of che Pularia, which was to aim at ard Itrike their javelins agaiatt an upright port fixes in the ground, as a kind of prolufion to a real engagement with an enemy. By ibe frequerit practice of this exercise, fometimes called exercitium ad parum by Roman writers, the lola crs at leogeb acquirid oot only a dexterity and address in the management of this arms, by a conftant and regular ex tness in the direct.00 of them. Tius Livius Patavinus, Cap. 2. L'ari iroliu: Rerum Mumoral vib. 2. tit. 21. Vulturins in Augustanis Monumentis, lib. LI p. 237.
C'pon the irruption of the litri into the Roman camp, whichohay plundered, says Livius, soal Puertorium forang gwintunamynt prewener ari.
of the hest kind were made of yew;
“ to lose and forfeit for every such bow and that this wood might be readily ob “ fo lacking, the sum of three thillings tained for this purpose, yew-trees were “ and four pence.” It seems, there planted in church-yards. Seevol. XLIX. was a species of vew at this time called P: 578; L. p. 14; LI. p lo. The fons Elk, which wood was fronger, and of those only who were persons of for more pliant than the common yew, tone and fashion, if under 17 years of mentioned in this statute, and the price age, were permitted to use such bowe, of it fixed. “Moreover no bowyer shall The words of the statute are singular, “ fell or put to fale to any of the King's and r m thus: “No person under seven subjects, any bow of yew, of the tax * teen years, except he, or his father or “ called Elk, above the priče of three “ mother, have lands or tenemets to “ Thillings and four pence under the " the yearly value of ten pounds, or be “ pain to forfeit twenty shillings for « worth in value or moveables the sum every bow fold above the faid price." “ of forty marks sterling, shall Thoot Froin these several considerations, " with any bow of yow, which shall be which occur in this statute, we can trace “ bought for him, after the fraft of our three resplendent qualities, courage, “ Lady next coming, under the pain frength, and agility: which thice u
to lofe and forfeit fix thillings and nited inspired civo more, generosity “ eight-pence.” Two observations a. and magnanimity. Upon the decline rife here, upon these words. One, that of this, and other polished *amufethe yew wood, not being so common ments, a lavage deformity of manners as other wood, might probably be foon sprung up, but spangled here and there, found deficient, as it was the best wood with the opposite character of lazy opufor making bows, if not restrained in lence, which began now to creet her the use of it, to particular ages and velvet standard, in dcfiance of chalte persons, as young people wantonly de and regular manners. stroy what is put into their hands for Towards the beginning of James the useful purposes. The other observa- first's reign, military prowess seems to rion is, that the age of seventeen is by have founded a retreatt. James, whose this flatute distinguished as the age of memory forbids all honorary oblations, discretion, when young people are more unless cowardice may be called a virattentive and considerate in things of tue, to gratify the importunity of the private concern; an age in these times common people, and at the same time which few ever arrive at, and some to obviate his own fcars upon a refusal, never. This statute makes provision of published a book of sports, in which other kinds of wood for the common the people had been some time before. people, in the following manner: "To usually indulged on Sunday evenings, & the intent that every person may have but which had been lately prohibited. « bows of mean price, be it enacted, Thcsc sports consisted of dancing, fing" that every bowyer shall, for every ing, wrestling, cliurch ales, and other “ bow that he maketh of yew, inake profanations of that day. Upon the “ four other bows, meet to shoot with, murther of Rizzio in his mother's “ of elm, wich, hasill, afh, or other presence, who was then big with this " wood, apt for the fame, under pain BURTHEN, the terror of the mother
* How widely different the conceptions of politeness at this day, from what they were in the most refined ages of Greece and Rome! These two itales, agreed in fixing the itardard of this accomplishment upon the fitness and propriety of things. We bend to an arbidrary imprifture of language, trutting to the sense and meaning of our oppofire Gall's neighbours, as if this illa d was at all times to be the foot-ball of that continent. To define pol seners in its ancient and true sense, it is a maily exertion of conduét, found. d upon every noble and virtuous principle. Gallic politeness is any effeminate impo:ence of demeanor, founded vpon faliacy, evasion, and every insidious artifice. There can be no security, no happiness, no prosperity awaiting this kingdom, so long as we fawn to famions that disgrace humaa nity, and to manners, which conlist of more thar Punic perfidy.
f It has been confidently asserted by some hiltorians, chat James was, during his whole life, ftruck with terror upon the light of a drawn Tword: which was the reason of his great unwillinge is in bestowing the honnur of knighthood. For at this juncture, he had such a tremor upon him, that instead of laying the sword upon the thoulder of the person to be knighted, he frequently would be observed, almost to thrust the point of it into the face of the party : which occafioned those about him to assist him in the direction of his hand.