which you will lavish upon them Tour through Scotland. He is a flighty without fear, will subside to have pompous writer, but may ia fome de. the plcasure of potselling them still lon- gree be depended on. ger. They will noc prostitute them. Yours, &c. No SCOTCHMAN. It is only in the flood of the foolith P.S. The poor Highlanders burn thote thoughts of men that virtue need fcar roots, in chin fripes, for candies. rocks. It is only among civilised nacions that every thing concurs to make HINT, recommended to ibe Attention af us forget the dignity of our existence; Naturalists who manage BEES; from to low the feed of death where God has Mr. BROMWICH's. Experienced placed that of life; rage and despair Bee-Keeper (Revieweding 329.) where he created every thing that might enfure the happiness of a being endued. The firft Mr. Wildman, who thew

ed experiments on boes (for his with understanding and reason.

namesake, who now keeps a thop in Among these lavages, happy Alice, Holborn, 'was not the original discoverer virtue is in fafety ; every thing there is of the method of handling bees, or that the source of happiness, the principle of published the quarto volume concerning difc, activity ; life is a great boon; death them by subscription), having doubtod a geotłe paisage to repose and the bofom whether all the young ones, bred in a of God. Among thete fierce, cruel, bar- hive, proceeded from the queen bet, barous, inbuman people, there is no rea

made the following experiment. He son to fear the fanguinary civility of caught a queen, and tied her by a thread, those young lunatics, who, with you, so that the could not wander but a fer 'are delrous of cutting their own throats, inches; he found notwith&tanding eggs because they are weary of life *; be- foon afterwards deposited in cells an cause they take day for right, the set- which the could not reach. This seemting for che rising of the fun, &c.

ed decisive against the onc mother bee; Set out, Alice, come, 'run, Ay, into but a day or cwo after, more narrowly, my arms." I fhall not be easy till you obferving what passed in the hive, he Live among favages. Adicu.

faw the working bees carrying the eggs

from the said mother, or queen bee, and MR. URBAN,

depositing them for her in the distant OUR correspondent H. S. in your cells. This curious fact is recommend

last Magazine, p. 904, is deceived ed to the notice of such bee-maliers as with reípect to the timber on the moun

have a facility in catching the queen at tains in former times. I have been se.


D. veral times on those which are near Marr Lodge, a seat of Lord Fife's, on MR. URBAN, Dce side, and have seen several roots nearly rotten, and holes out of which THE

following analysis of the Liit

of East India Proprietors qualified roors have been dug. The trees were

to vote on the 14th of April last, distinnot cut down, but burned down during guishing those who are subjects of Great the disputes of the Highland Clans. I Britain, refiding in England, Wales, cannot but add, that there are some firs Scotland, Ireland, St. Helena, the Eric in Marr forest, which measure near !3 Indies, &c. from foreigners, residing in feet round; but there are no old trees in Holland, Geneva, &c. was drawn up Scotland except firs.

by a friend for his own information and Those who wish to see an account of ainusement. Thinking it might be acMarr Lodge, and the environs, may find ceptable to your readers, I detired perone in Cordiner's Appendix to Pennant's million to send you a copy of it, * "In tbe lait journey which I took in


E. Frange, a civilised man ured his utmost en British

Foreigners. deavours at Amiens to persuade me to ftab Proprietors. Votes. Proprietors. Vores. him. His brain was clouded with che fumes


o 4 stars of wine; be misunderfood what I had faid, 19

57 13 3 and he would be dispatched. I beheld him

214 40 with an eye of pity; he was filent.



151 “ Happy is he who does not meet every minute with such favages. They (warm a- 1289 1467 204 mong civilised people. They are so civil,

Total. that before they murder they are accultomed 1493 Proprietors, kaving 1737 Votes. to falute each other." GENT. MAG. December, 1983.



Nov. 29.

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Dec. 2.. not only to raise two millions for the THE THE following LETTER was found service of the nation, but also to open a

printed on a single sheet, and free tradé tổ East India, and to take bound up at the end of a volume of away a MONOPOLY fo long complained folio pamphlets on various subjects. of: 'Since the then East India Company At the end of the letter, under the did give intimation to the House, that poftfcript, is added this manuscript they would advance the two millions

required, if the trade might by law be N. B. This letter was written by the fecured to them, exclusive of all other. Rev. Mr. John Russell, Rector of Wap But the Parliament (who have always ping, London.

had a just abhorrence of the evil of And below, in a different hand, monopolies) rejected this offer. They

N. B. The above note was written vere senlible how the Company had by the Rev. Mr. John Russell himself. formerly treated their fellow-subjects,

There are, in the letter itself, feveral under the title of interlopers; what barinaccuracies of style, fome grammatical barities they had acted abroad, and faults, which as they do not much dif- what violences at home, by a power figure or misrepresent the plain fenfe of derived from a purchased charter; and the writer, the editor did not think therefore they establifhed a freedom himself at liberty to alter or correct. for all persons in general to trade to the For the rest, the reader is referred to East Indies, that would contribute to the histories of the times, and his own the raising two millions for the service reflections upon them.

of the Government; only allowing An ENGLISHMAN. liberty, to all that were willing, to enter

into the joint stock, to trade after that A LETTER 10 a Member of the firf Parliament of Great Britain. Written in manner, and leaving alt others to their

own liberty. the year 1708. Concerning the East India Company, and the Bill that India Company advanced of the two

On the passing this act, the then East was then brought into the House of millions three hundred and fifteen tboxCommons in their favour.

fand pounds, and, by virtue of the act, SIR,

traded by themselves; and the greater I look upon the business which is ' number of the rest of the subscrib. 75 now before your House, relating to the (being cajoled by designing men, who East India House, of as great impor intended to become directorsand manatance as any that ever was debated in gers of the trade) were drawn in, and Parliament, since the very beginning of persuaded to fubfcribe to a joint stock, our conftitution : Since 'iis much more (many of them not considering what than the confideration of a million and ihey did), and so became known by the two hundred thousand pounds on the name of the New-Company. But the one side, or the interest of a few sepa- rest of the subscribers (who made Tare merchants on the other. 'Tis twenty three aboufand pounds) were whether we thall establish a Monopoly willing to trade by themselves, conby Law,

cluding themielves as fit to manage their And to set this inatter right, I thall own affairs as directing masters, who first take notice, that Anno 9 and 10 would do what they pleased with their Gulielmi tertii, an act of Parliament money, and give them (at their own was pated for sculing the trade to East' leisure) what profits they thought fit te India, the fubftance of which (fo far as beltow on them. it relates to the matter before us) was So that for fome time the date of the briefly ti is; That every person that, trade, stood thus : Thould pay any certain fum inwards the The Old Company traded, tailiog of two millions to be lent to the or might trade, with

315,000 Government, should reccive $ per cent. The New Company, so for the money 10 lent; and bélides, called, traded, or might trade, hould be couitled to a liberty to trade with

1,662,00 10 Eal Initia, for so much as he ad The separate traders, tradvanced towards railing the laid two ed, or might trade, with 23,000 millions, &c. Now, its manifeft, that the design of

In all 2,000,000 the Parliament in pailing that Act was


But the New Company having ob-a-day, life up his horns, and shake his fained a favourable clause in the act, chains, to the terror of the honest trad. which entitled them to 5 per cent. ing sõbject. But it is much stranger, from the rest of the traders, of all goods that any number of men (how powerful brought home and fold in gross; which foever) tould be so hardy, as to prohas been exactly paid them to their pose to the Parliament of Great Britain very great advantage ; but not contented to honour and guard a monopoly with with this, confidering their proportion a law. in stock and title was much above the. If the ghosts of those generous parest, they began to aim at a monopoly triots, who to justly inveighed against of the whole trade, and, the better to monopolies in former reigns (when procure it, they did at length bring the the monopolist crouched to the Crown Old Company to unite with them; and for his support, but trembled at the then they assumed the name of the very name of a Parliament), had any United Company trading to the Eajt sense or feeling of the affrent that is Indies.

offered to their memory, as well as to Having made this step, the more ef. the House of Commons, would they fectually to obtain the intended mono not rattle the House about the ears of poly, they endeavoured to buy off the those that fit in it? Yes, and pluck our feparate traders, and thereby to engross the tongues of those wretches that prothe whole trade to themselves; and ac fane that place, by speaking for so vile, cordingly did buy in a great part of the fo accurled an abomination as a mono23,000l. from the proprietors of the poly. separate trade. But some of the sepa To shew the zeal of former Parliae rate traders, being willing to prevent a ments against monopolies, the laws that monopoly of the trade, refused to sell, have been made against forestallers, re. and have accordingly still traded by grators, ingrossers, &c. do, in some themselves. Being therefore by this measure, do it. And to thew their miss means defeated of effecting their abio- chief to trade in general, as well as to Jute ends, they now endeavour to ob- every private subject in particular, give tain a law, whereby the separate traders me leave to propose one instance. may be utterly excluded, and thereby If the Virginia-trade which deals in establish and perfect the monopoly so tobacco was contincd to a company, much desired.

and none could trade thither, or bring And accordingly a bill (for this very, tobacco hither, but only themselves, purpose) is now brought into your might they not (when thus conftituted) Houfe, by which (if it pats into a law, fell tobacco at 45. or 5s. or 6s. per which God forbid !) the whole trade to pound, or indeed at what price they East India is monopolized, and brought pleased? Since where there is but one into the power of a select number of shop to sell, he that comes to buy must men, who may manage it as they plcase; pay what the seller thinks fit to de there being not a man left that dare mand, or go away without the counbring in a mufin neck-cloth, or a pound modity which he wants. It is in Huckof pepper, but only themselves.

fers bands, says the old proverb, &c. Monopolics are to destructive and And tho' if this Virginia Company odious to the nation, that our Parlia, fhould advance the price of tobacco, ment have always been careful to sup- 'tis very likely it would hinder its conpress them. I need not, Sir, mention fumption; yet if the consumption were to you, how much the monopolists have funk half in half, if they doubled the vexed and oppreiled their fellow sub- price, they would ftill be gainers, in jects in fome former reigns, nor yet lay regard half the navigation would serve how much they have fullied the lives of to fetch it, half the money would those needy, weak, and coveteus prin- pay the customs, &c. Ao the Dutch ces, who, for a little private profit, East India Company, who bave inhave given them establishmeat. I need grossed all the Moluccas, and are rcnot copy the noble fpceches which have ported to burn morc fpices than then been pronounced within your walls, bring home; yet still telling the hält agaioft those vipers. You have read that's faved, for as much as the whole, them, and juftly admired, and com if preferved, would yield, they fave mended them; có that it is Strange that half of the charge of navigation, and after all our ítruggles for liberty, this half the culioni, &c. But whether moner, a monopols, ihould at this time fucla practices as thetc bc for the beneta

fit of navigation, for encouraging the and left moře separate traders, it would royal revenue, or for the case of him have been much more to the advantage that buys, needs no long thought to of the nation; this is my opinion. But determine.

that those few separate traders that are Thus when our East India Company left, do prevent a monopoly, the united have gotten this law (which is now interest of the Company, &c. and all proposed), may they not sell mullins their friends (procured by what means (and cæteris paribus in respect of other foever) in the House, to fupprefs the goods) at 105. or 125. yea or at 205. feparate trade, proves manifestly. Why per yard; yes, goods in the hand of a do they use vigorous atrempts but to single person will be sold at what price' gain a monopoly! Their own endtathe feller pleases; as coffee now (not vours confure the objection, for want of it, but for being ingrofted) Obje&tion. But the feparate trade is * is fold for ros. per pound, which was disadvantage to the nation. formerly sold for 3 or 45. And this is Answer. - This will be proved, wher not the single mischief of a monopoly, they can shew, that a monopoly is for but, as before hinted, trade is discou- the advantage of the nations and that raged, navigation leflened, the public the separate traders do prevent a morevenue impaired, and all to enrich the nopoly is manifelt is fact. monopolizer.

Ohje&tion.-Bret the feparate traders But perhaps fome may fay, I am do burt the trade abroad, and make ibe warm against monopolies, and there is Company buy dearer in India than oiberno design in the Company to establish wife rbey would do. a monopoly To much dreaded, but to Answer. This is as falle as the fore trade fairly and sell goods cheap.

mer, fince I am well informed, that But nobody can make this objection, the separate traders do endeavour to but he that is really or willingly ignorant, find out places for trade, where the hnce a monopoly is nothing cle than Company never fat their feet, er caft an engroffing of a trade into one principal, their cyes, in regard they know they fo that none besidcs can fell or gain by mutt come with disadvantage to any it. And if the present East India Com- place where the Comāny have estaba pany trading in joint stock, did not de- lifhed their factories. The feparare lign this, why did the two Companies traders are the principal persons that go unite; but because the one fhould not upon discoveries, and if for no other undersell the other, but bring the whole rcafon, yet for this, they deserve ene trade under one management, and to couragement, and one would think this make a monopoly?

great, this very great, confideration Why did they endeavour to buy in Thould find its weight in your House. the stock of the separate traders (and If indeed the Britis East lodik that too at a very dear price) but to Company should engross the whole bring the whole into their power, and trade of Eaft India, exclufive of all establish a monopoly:

other European nations, there might Why do they now use such strenuous be fome room for this objection ; but endeavours (I will say no worfe) to when the French, the Dutch, the Danes, obtain a law, to cut of those few fepa &c. buy goods as well as they, how rate trader's which are left, but in order can the separate Englifo trader raife the to engross the whole trade, which is price of goods? A cobweb is as thick a downright monopoly, a monopoly in as this objcction. its strictest and truest sense and mean Objection.--but under the pretence of ing?

carrying out only 1000l. or 1,5ool. fleck, Objektion.-But perhaps you may re- they carry out two or three thousand ply, ibat ibe separate traders are so pounds, and so are guilty of a fraud. yer, and inconsiderable, that their trade Antwer.-1f this were true, they does not at prefent prevent a monopoly.. long since would have been punished

Answer. You know I am no mcr- by the accusation of those that envionity chant, nor did ever trade for the value watch them with Argus's eyes; if this of zol. in my whole life. I therefore were true, they ought to be punished; give my opinion from fpeculation, ra but, if falle, let falle accusers be alto ther than practice, and in thort it is punished. this ; that had the managers of the first Objection Buitbe Government wants subscriptions made lets ute of artifice, money, and ibt Company are not willing


to advance 12,000,000l. unless tbey can that when more monopolies are to be exclude the separate traders, and bave a fold, as well as annuities, that the monopoly of ibe whale trade.

House will be pleased to make fonic Answer. I am sorry to read such an amends to the India separate traders, objection as this in your letter, How by allowing them to have the first offer, fad is our condition, if we are brought and also the refusal of the next monointo such a case, that a monopoly may poly. be bought of the Parliament of GREAT Let me ask one questión 'more, and I BRITAIN! Alas! that our forefathers have done, What will the Company do cannot rise out of their graves to hear with the ftock of the separate traders this objection! Could it ever enter into when they have paid them off? the thought of an Englishman, a Scatch You tell me that a great man in the man, or (both in one) a Briton, that Company fays, they will sell it, i. e. (as ever we could be brought to such a I, understand it) sell every hundred Kate, that money thould buy the pounds paid off, at the price of pocknational fanction of a mischief, that jobbing, which at present is 260l. per all our ancestors were careful to pre. cent. India stock, and, upon passing of vent! If things are brought to this pafs, this monopoly bill, mult certainly adthat omnia cum precio, let us lie down

And is not this bonourable, to and dic; better that death close our compel men, even those yery men, that eyes than have them kept open to live served the nation in a time of distress, and see fuch wretched bargaios.

to take 100l. for what the monopoliBut let us consider how much is got zers will immediately fell (it is likely) by the honourable bargain, (for I per- for 3001 ? Pray connder it, I say, pray ceive by what you write, that some are consider, how happy, how profitable, fond of this marketing, out of a prin. how honourable, it is to be a monopolift ciple of good husbandry to the nation). now; how odious and dijagreeable soever Why there is fused, say you, the in- it was formerly. terest of this 12,000,000l. for fix years, Objeion. But the Company, the Bank, which at sl. per cent. comes to 360,000l. &c. bave such a power, such an intere?! - so that then I perceive 360,000l. is the Answer. This is indeed from bad price of a monopoly.

to worse, poft vulnera mortem. If the But will not the nation pay dear for case be fo, I hope that some pious perthis ja the end? Will not the Company, fon will write upon your door, as they know how to buy the

“ Lord have mercy upon

us." know how to sell him? Í hope another I have wrote you my thoughts, and age will have virtue enough to be could say much more, but the subject alhamed of such a contract.

is so melancholy, it makes my head But let me ask, whether the bargain ake; I therefore conclude only with a may not be as well made (if the House with (for I fear that's all I can do) please) by including the separate trade that our poterity may never read it ers, as to pass it, by excluding them, hercaftcr in the annals of time, and fo prevent a monopoly, notwith THAT THE FIRST BRITISH PAR- Standing the former objection, and so LIAMENT WERE THE FIRST PARftill fave the 360,000l, to the nation, , LIAMENT THAT EVER ESTABLISHand allo do justice to the separate trad ED A MONOPOLY BY LAW. ers; Gnce they are members of the That such black characters' may general society, &c. equally with the never gain occafion' to be inserted in Company trading in joint pock; and did future history, is the hearty prayer of pay their money at the first fubfcription

Yours, &c.

J. R. for the service of the nation, at a time February 23, 170--8. when things looked with a cloudy af. P.S. I beg you will tell me in your peat, on expectation of receiving equal next, Why, when the bill was read the advantage with those in joint flock. And first time in the House, it was not put therefore, I ask, Whether their exclu- into the printed votes ? fion now, may not look something like injuftice-But if the House are re MR. URBAN, loved on the billion will make your As your correspondent, Mr. Row, in be the methods of the Parliament of folio 759, mentions some particulars Great Britain ? If so, I shall only re- relating to Cardinal Wolsey, I have qucft, in behalf of the sepa: arc traders, taken the troublc of examining two


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