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we are inclined to think that he was no stranger to the philosopher incurred the risk of a novel experithe gallantries and immoralities of his time. ment, and benefited in an equal degree.
By his wife, who, perhaps, died young, as the It was already a custom in the villages in the philosopher had no tender expression to consecrate neighborhood of Montaigne's birth-place for women to the memory of his mother, Pierre Eyquen had to suckle their children for seven or eight days, and several children, of whom Michel, the third, was then to surrender the tender office of nurse to a born at Montaigne in Périgord, between the hours she-goat, and some extraordinary instances are of eleven and twelve in the morning, on the last given of affection reciprocally engendered between day of February, 1533. There must have been the infant and dumb foster-mother. But it does something peculiar in the circumstances of his not appear that it entered into the system of our birth, in his infantine physiognomy, or in the state philosopher's father to discover by this means the of his father's mind at the time, for M. Eyquen origin of language. However, no sooner was immediately determined to depart from the plan he Michel born than he was sent to be nursed at a had adopted in the training of his first-born, and to poor village in the neighborhood, where he remaineducate the little Michel as no man's child was ! ed even some time after he was weaned. He was ever educated before. So here at once we find our fed on the coarsest food, dressed in the commonest philosopher paying the penalty or enjoying the ad- raiment, exposed to every hardship. Never, says vantage of having a theoretical father, and are re- Montaigne, generalizing on his own experience, minded of the fact, that if Montaigne's character set yourself up, much less suffer the women of the was of independent formation, it was not for want family to set themselves up, in judgment over of extraordinary efforts to mould and fashion it ac- children's diet. Leave them to chance. Let excording to a system.
perience habituate them to frugality and austerity. At the risk of detaining the reader from the edu- Let them, as they grow older, descend from a cational details we have promised, we must here rugged life, not ascend from this to a more effemgive some further accounts of the eccentric old inate. It was in accordance with this same theory gentieman who presided over them. He was a that Monaigne's father caused him to be held over little man of vigorous constitution, well-skilled in the font by persons of the meanest and most abject all the gymnastic exercises of his time, and partic- condition, in order, as he beautifully expressed it, ularly fond, even to a late period of his life, of that the boy might early learn to feel affection for exhibiting his agility, of which Montaigne gives the humble rather than for the great, and to bené some extraordinary instances. In manner he was his eyes upon those who stretched out their arms grave and modest, in dress, whether he rode or towards him for assistance, not upon the backs of walked, quite point device. To these exterior such as had passed him and were climbing still attributes of a gentleman, he added great scrupu- higher. lousness of word and a very religious turn of mind, This part of the system adopted by the worthy leaning rather towards superstition than the other écuyer in his son's training seems to have answered extreme. Many eccentric notions did he indulge, admirably, for Montaigne always felt inclined to which he transmitted to his son, not the least re- compassionate the misfortunes of the poor, and was markable of which was his enthusiastic and bigoted particularly remarkable for the clemency and genhatred of the medical profession. Some of his tleness of his disposition, which greatly influenced notions were curious and useful. He seems to have his determination in refusing wholly to abide by the originated the idea of Servants' Register Offices,* maxims of the Stoics. He severely blamed the which he made part of an extensive plan for facili- barbarous manners of his times, when children tating, in the absence of the advertising system, were early accustomed to the sight of blood and the interchange of the wants and wishes of so- brought up in cruelty, mothers considering it as an ciety.
agreeable amusement to behold their offspring Though not learned himself, the Sieur Eyquen wringing the necks of pullets, or wounding and wished to be the cause of learning in others. He harassing dogs, cats, or any other animals in their had always been partial to men of letters, and en- power. deavored, in a small way, to imitate Francis I., and Whilst young Michel was knocking about the to collect at Montaigne a little court, as it were, of village and associating with goats, cows, horses, and literati. But when there was born unto him a son asses, probably also with swine, his father, comon whom the professions to which the family, had fortably wrapped in silks and furs, was concocting for centuries been devoted had no particular claim, in his arm-chair a scheme for the future. It was he determined, with what success the whole world his desire that the boy should attain extraordinary knows, to make him a prodigy of learning and proficiency in the learned languages; but he was, science. It is, of course, impossible to estimate at the same time, loath to behold him spend upon exactly the amount of influence exerted on his res- them time that might be better employed. Revolvolution by the theories current in his time, but it ing, accordingly, the matter in his mind, and conwould seem that very peculiar notions on education versing with divers learned men of his acquainthad been broached in the sixteenth century. ance, he at length hit upon a new plan, or rather
The old formal scholastic system was, however, perfected an idea which he had brought with him generally retained in practice, and it is not surpris- from Italy. It was not of easy execution, but ing that those who perceived its defects should, in paternal fondness, directed and fortifed by the enendeavoring to remedy them, have run into the very thusiasm natural to the creator of a new system, opposite extreme. The extraordinary and truly enabled him to surmount all difficulties. He sent Spartan training of Henri Quatre by his grand- to Germany for a preceptor totally ignorant of father Henri d'Albret, king of Navarre,f may have French, but well versed in Latin, and domiciliating been suggested by the same considerations which him in the château, gave into his charge the preinfluenced Pierre Eyquen, and both the king and cious baby before his tongue had learned to articu
late one single syllable. This German, who was *Essais, ii., 269.
well paid for his trouble, became at once tutor and + Préfixe, Life of Henry IV.
His old friends at the university would
have smiled to behold the change in his occupation. (of imitation. We may observe, by the way, that Instead of walking about in the morning with a in giving the above list of learned men whom he Suidas or an Etymologicum Magnum under his called his preceptors, in the first edition published arm, he might have been seen dandling an obstrep- in 1580, he had omitted Muretus. But having met erous infant, whom it was his duty to scold in him at Rome in 1581, he remembered his early Latin, to coax in Latin, to overwhelm with all the obligations, and inserted his name with a parentender epithets that Plautus and Terence, Catullus thetical expression of praise in the next edition. and Propertius supply. The worthy Teutonian These scholars, however, became known to him must have been sadly put to it, and much midnight only at a subsequent period. For a time his edutoil must he have spent after his little charge had cation proceeded at home on the original plan. His squalled itself to sleep, whilst searching into classic father now began to think of instructing him in lore for new expressions adapted to the new circum- Greek. If we may believe Montaigne, he failed, stances in which he constantly found himself placed. not so much through the fault of the system purBy degrees the infantine histories of Jupiter and sued, as through the inaptitude of the scholar. He Hercules were exhausted ; even the stories of has not entered into very minute details on the subMedea and Thyestes furnished few parallel cases. ject, merely intimating that his father adopted the So the amorous vocabulary of the poets was called plan of teaching him Greek as geography and in to complete that of the nursery, as the language arithmetic are sometimes now taught, in the shape of passion has sometimes been adapted to the exi- of a game. Probably this was the first germ of gencies of religious ecstasy. In some way or other many of the royal roads to learning which have the matter proceeded satisfactorily for a few weeks. since become so popular in modern Europe. It was then, however, perceived that the duties M. Eyquen did not confine his cares to the perwere too onerous to be comfortably discharged by fection of his model son in the learned languages;
and accordingly two minor Baiuli or bull- he bestowed likewise great pains on his,moral and nurses, were imported from Germany and taken physical development, and fell, in so doing,
Their business was to follow the prin- many contradictions. Whilst professing to pursue cipal, relieve him occasionally from his burden, and every method of hardening Michel and preparing keep up a colloquy in choice Ciceronian for the him to encounter the rough treatment of the world, benefit of the little Michel. Under heavy penal- he actually accustomed him to the esseminate fracties, they were bound to talk no other language tice of being awakened in the morning by the dulcet. but Latin in the child's presence; and in order that sound of some instrument of music, played by a what was then learned might not be lost, not only musician entertained for the purpose. It does not did the father accustom himself to speak in the appear that, like the Dutchman in Le Vaillant, he same tongue, but even the mother. The man-ser- was partial himself to this delightful method of vants and the maid-servants were compelled to be being won back from the land of dreams, but he silent or to utter such words of Latin as they could imagined that nothing was more injurious for
Whether this was a piece of sly contri- children than to be startled suddenly out of their vance of the old Gascon gentleman to procure for slumbers, in which he believed them, with reason, once the blossings of silence appeareth not. At to be more deeply plunged than grown-up men. any rate, if such was his object, he was by no May not this indulgence have encouraged the means successful. The irresistible craving after sleepy and indolent habits of Montaigne ? This speech overcame all difficulties, and everybody be- seems more probable from a fact which he tells us, gan, tant bien que mal, to speak Latin. Thus the namely, that in the tower where he slept, every rare blessings of learning were diffused far and day at early dawn, and in the evening, a bell rang wide. Pierre Eyquen, Madame Eyquen, not to the Ave Maria. The peal seemed to shake the mention Michel, became perfect proficients, and very tower, and yet it often did not even awake even many of the servants acquired a tolerable knowl- him. edge of the language. In fine, so completely did As frequently happens in this world, M. Pierre they Latinize themselves that the stream swelled Eyquen's courage failed, and his enthusiasm cooled around them and overflowed into all the neighbor- as the child grew up, and by the time he had ing villages, where many Latin expressions and reached six years of age resolve was made to subnames of tools remained in use for more than half mit him to the ordinary course of education. Proa century. Perhaps even to the present day some bably the good old gentleman yielded in part to the fragments of this temporary civilization might be solicitations of his neighbors. Doubtless, he had discovered in the mouth of the peasantry.
many friends to give him advice and to take him by It was not until Montaigne was six years old the hand, and to hope that no harm would come to that his native dialect was suffered to approach him. little Michel, that too much learnir.g would not By that time, without book, rule, precept, or gram- make him mad. mar of any kind—and, above all, without punish- Such predictions would find their excuse in the 'ment and tears—he had made himself perfect mas- early developed character of the boy, in his pride, ter of Latin. His themes were given him in bad his obstinacy, his dogged self-will, inaccessible to Latin to turn into good, and he acquitted himself so threats and violence, yielding only to gentleness well that Nicholas Grouche, who wrote De Comitiis and persuasion ; in his dislike of those things Romanorum ; Guillaume Guerente, who commented which to children are the great prize in the lottery Aristotle ; George Buchanan, the Scotch poet and of the world of cakes and sweetmeats, and historian ; and Marcus Antonius Muretus, the best confectionary of every kind in his abhorrence of all orator of his day in either France or Italy, used to the trickery of the playground ; in his reserved tell him when he grew up that he was so perfect habits, his thoughtful manner, his slowness to apthat they were afraid to accost him. Buchanan,preciate the ideas of others, his independent style whom he afterwards met when tutor of the Maré- of thinking, and opinions far above his age. All chal de Brissac's son, said that in an essay on edu- these signs, which revealed an extraordinary mind, cation, which he was writing, he intended to pro- fashioned by an extraordinary education, may easipose the example of Montaigne as one well worthy I ly have been represented by wiseacres and gratui
age of six.
tous advisers, by old women and friends of the Another proof of his proficiency in learning is, family, as most sinister and disastrous. M. Ey- that whilst at college he sustained the chief charquen began to be alarmed at the work he had un- acters in the Latin tragedies of Buchanan, Guedertaken. Mediocrity was awed in the presence rente and Muretus, which were played with great of precocious genius. The responsibility in case pomp and circumstance. This took place when he of failure was tremendous. Accordingly, it was was not much more than eleven, before the usual resolved that Michel should go to college; and to age at which such parts were confided to scholars. college he went, as we have above hinted, at the He acted with great propriety of voice, expression,
and gesture. It was André Govea,* the principal The college of Guienne was at that time very of the college, who instituted and arranged these flourishing, and considered to be at least one of the spectacles ; for which Montaigne praises him, best in France. Students Aocked to it from all thinking it not improper for youths of good family parts, and some of the most learned professors in to resort to such an amusement. Europe occupied its chairs. Thither, then, our It is not easy to reconcile with these facts the young collegian repaired to finish his studies, fur- assertion that he was slow of apprehension, dull of nished with his father's advice, and very excellent invention, and extraordinarily deficient in memory; private tutors. It was requested that every possi- that, in fact, he was the most backward in learnble facility should be given him, and some modifi- ing, not only of his brothers, but of all the children cations of the ordinary routine seem in this instance of his province. Few authentic instances of profito have been made.
ciency equal to his are recorded, except in the case As early as the age of seven or eight, Mon- of some of those monsters whose early developtaigne conceived a great affection for books, but, ment has insured premature decay. We are perunlike the other children of that time, took no suaded that no one of Montaigne's condiscipuli delight in reading such romances as Lancelot du finally left college at the age of thirteen ; and he Lac, Amadis de Gaul, or Théon Bourdeaux. Ovid's expressly informs us that he had gone through all Metamorphoses, written in what was then to him the classes, besides obtaining an extensive acquaintthe easiest language, afforded him infinite delight; ance with Latin literature. He does not, certainand his master (one of the learned men already ly, profess to have entirely mastered the belles letmentioned) dexterously connived at these irregular tres by twelve years of age ; and philosophy, mathreadings, pretending not to know of them, though ematics, Greek, and Hebrew, at thirteen ; † but at he gently urged on his other studies, allowing hiin a time when most boys are beginning to enter on to run through in secret not only Ovid, but Virgil, their serious studies, he had concluded his. So Terence, Plautus, and the Italian comedies. “ Had far from this rapidity being common, the contrary he been mad enough,” observes Montaigne, “ 10 defect of slowness is constantly made a reproach to have pursued any other course, I should have the education of the sixteenth century. The fifbrought back from college the same detestation of teen thousand students who flocked to the Univerbooks with which our nobility return therefrom.” sity of Paris, wasted there some of the most valua
But, in spite of all this care, Michel's Latin, ble years of their lives. And the misfortune was, which he had brought pure to college, by degrees that their acquisitions had no direct bearing on the became corrupted. He insensibly lost the habit of professions to which they were destined. Nearly speaking it, and although it enabled him to pass so every family was ambitious of placing one of its rapidly through the classes that he finished his members either in the law or the church, and the cours and left college at the age of thirteen, yet, he competition therefore was great; so that, in addisays, his peculiar education was of no subsequent tion to the knowledge actually required, it was value, which may serve to refute the popular max- made incumbent to penetrate into other useless deim, that “ well begun is nigh ended." He knew, partments of science. The great end of education, according to his own account, a little of everything iherefore, had become perverted. No man thought and nothing entire-à la Françoise. He was aware of making of his mind an instrument to effect a that there existed a medical art, a jurisprudence, definite purpose, but every one labored to accumufour parts in the mathematics, and their general late vast masses of facts and theories in his head pretensions, but nothing more. He had never stud- that had no bearing whatever, at least but a very ied any science, never made himself master of the remote one, on the affairs of this life. Doubtless the Aristotelian philosophy; he could not even trace result of all this mental activity was good. The lathe outline of any department of knowledge; and bors of the human mind can never be entirely sterile, when asked to examine a child of the lower form, and it is natural that among the number of those was compelled to draw him into generalities in or- who addicted themselves to study, many should reder to test his natural ability, being totally igno-ally, whether by accident or in consequence of the rant of the method of making him display his ac- original good constitution of their minds, make a quired knowledge.
good use of what they acquired. Among the benMontaigne, however, may exaggerate the dete-efits resulting, that which principally siruck Nirioration which took place in his knowledge during chaelo Euriano, a Venetian ambassador contempothe seven years he was in college. What leads us rary with Montaigne, was the fact that the bishopto suspect this is, that in another part of his book rics began no longer to be bestowed on ignorant he tells us that Latin was natural to him ; that he persons; “ and would to God,” he naïvely exunderstood it better than the French, and that, al- claims, “ that this matter had been earlier taken though since his childhood he had ceased to speak into consideration for the benefit of Christenor even write it, yet when he was strongly stirred dom!”I by some sudden emotion, he would by a natural The great evil, however, of the system pursued effort utter his feelings in Latin. He mentions one occasion particularly, when seeing his father, before
* See Bayle, Dict. v. "Govea." apparently in a state of health, suddenly fall upon mo Filosofo e Giureconsulto F. Paola Servita, p. 78.
+ Griselini, Memorie Anedote spett. alla Vita del somhim fainting, he uttered at first his exclamation in
“Il che Dio volesse che fusse stato considerato molto the language that had been originally taught him. prima per bene della Cristianita !”—I.,
was the loss of time it entailed. The picture of it evident that his idleness arose partly from love of by Rabelais, when due deduction is made on account contemplation. When he did condescend to play, of exaggeration, will give the reader some idea of however, his thoughts and sentiments so governed the slowness of the process. Five years did Thu- his actions, that he never attempted to gain an adbal Holofernes employ in teaching young Gargantua vantage by any of those arts of childish dishonesty his letters, and forty-five years more did Jobelin which evince the absence of a rule within. Bride occupy in directing the remainder of his The slow, deliberate, and somewhat stolid manstudies; "after which,” says the satirist, “heners of Montaigne when a boy, arose in part, likewas as wise as when he began."'* So far from wise, out of a certain pride springing from a conbeing able to use his knowledge, when called upon sciousness of superiority. His meditations, which to reply to an address, his eloquence was on a par he employed about few things, and such only as he with that of a dead ass ! This reminds one of the could seize with a firm grasp, produced as offspring anecdote of the young Prince of France, who, after ideas singularly daring, and opinions above his age. having completed his studies, was offered some These, in general, he kept to himself, digesting mark of respect by the corporation of a great town. them in private for his own use. His character Rising to reply, he cast his eyes around him and seems to have been at all times gentle, and rarely said, “ Messieurs !” Having made this observa- was it necessary to inflict any chastisement upon tion and allowed due time for applause, he him. Twice only was he beaten, and then very bethought him that it would be worth while saying gently. For acts of commission he seems rarely to it again, and accordingly he repeated," Messieurs !" have deserved punishment. No one feared that he This, at least, was emphatic; the whole assembly would do ill, but that he would do nothing. He hung upon the word, and listened anxiously for its was not even greedy after those things which chilsuccessor ; but the princely lips were stationary, dren most covet, as sugar, sweetmeats, and cakes. his eye was vacant. An uneasy sensation began It was necessary to compel him to eat them, which to spread ; each man looked at his neighbor; was done from an opinion that this refusal of delipeople felt ashamed, as they always do when lis- cate food arose from excessive delicacy of taste. tening to a hesitating orator. At length, however, Montaigne left college in 1546, and from that a third time the air was moulded into sound, and a time until he was grown up little or nothing is third time the emphatic“ Messieurs !" was uttered. known of his life. We must suppose that he conThe force of patience or even loyalty could no far- tinued, though not very assiduously, the studies he ther go; a general titter went round, and the un- had begun, but that the manners, habits, opinions, fortunate young man rushed out of the room, hid and ideas of his times, opposed themselves to any himself from the public gaze, and, with tears in his inclination he might have felt to devote the princieyes, cursed the tutors who had given him the rudi- pal part of his leisure to the acquisition of bookments of all the sciences, but had not taught him learning. It would seem that, from the period of how to express himself in his own language. which we speak until he was nearly forty years of
From what we have said above, it would appear age, his life resembled that of his neighbors and that the rapidity with which Montaigne went through equals. We know that he early became councillor his studies was almost unexampled. His extrava- in the parliament of Bourdeaux, that he led a disgant assertions of incapacity, therefore, seem de- sipated life for some time, that he made a mariage signed to exalt his natural powers by the deprecia- de convenance; but it is almost impossible to trace tion of his acquirements. The truth seems to be, the progress of his intellect. That it did develope that young Montaigne was not what is called á itself we know, and likewise that it developed itself brilliant boy. He was inclined to physical inactiv- in the direction which might have been expected ity, so much so that it was difficult to persuade him from his early education. But there is little beyond to join in the games natural to his age; but it is conjecture to enable us to determine whether he
lost or gained more from having been plunged for *"1 devint aussi saige qu’oncques puis ne fourneas nearly twenty years in the gaieties of French socimes nous"-an extraordinary idiom.
ety in the sixteenth century.
Lovers, like corks, would come out with a pop,
Long, long ago, long ago!
Oh, if the whigs their old fame would renew,
(Quite rococo quite rococo)
And rival the glories of Brian Boroo, TWINE me the curls I delighted to see
Long, long ago, long ago. Long, long ago—long, long ago ;
Let them but give us, our thanks to secure, Bring the old curling-tongs hither to me
Instead of a bill for removing the poor,
A bill for removing the shady coiffure
A HUMMING-BIRD, fresh glittering with the colors Long, long ago, long ago!
of a rainbow he had just flown through, fluttered
into our sanctum yesterday, and seemed the emDon't you remember the ringlets that flow'd bodiment of some beautiful Thought come home Long, long ago-long, long ago ;
from long and fruitless wandering. He soon grew The beautiful ringlets that then were the mode, weary of stillness, however, and the monotonous Long, long ago, long ago?
click of the type ; and, taking him to an open winSome call'd them "corkscrews”—a gross mala- dow, a ray of green and golden light flashed for an prop,
instant before our eyes, and, like that Thought forSave that when met at a squeeze, or a hop,
gotten, he was gone forever.-Tribune,
From Chambers' Journal.
to those vegetable physiologists who would deny SPONTANEOUS MOTION.
all spontaneity of motion to the vegetable kingdom,
and assert that the opening and shutting of flowers Few phenomena in natural science are so puz- is in every case due to the influence of the sun's zling as that which, for the want of a more appro- light. It may be mentioned, en passant, to show priate epithet, has been termed spontaneous motion. the unworthy arguments of some who deny the It consists in the performance of a class of move-possession of this attribute altogether to plants, that ments for which we are unable to assign any cause, one experimenter constructed artificial leaves and by bodies and organizations commonly unendowed flowers of two materials, united into one baurina, with motion of a voluntary or mimic voluntary and attempted to overturn the theory here advocatcharacter. In the present paper, I shall almosted, by triumphantly exhibiting the irregular contorconfine myself exclusively to the display of sponta- tions and motions of these toys, produced by their neous motions afforded us in the vegetable king- differing hygrometric properties. Many of the dom; but it may be preliminarily mentioned, that movements abovementioned are undoubtedly effectsubstances completely inorganic, in certain circum-ed by the influence of the sun's, and of other stances, possess what may be called spontaneous light; but this is no grave admission, for it remains motion. Thus a lump of camphor, when placed in to be shown, first, the manner in which light thus water, will revolve on its axis for several hours ; acts; and, second, the cause why such an influence and if it is forcibly arrested, it will immediately, is not invariable. The cereus does not expand bewhen set at liberty, recommence its revolutions. fore the light; and other flowers which do so, nevThere is a salt, called an iodide of mercury by ertheless close again under the full influence of the chemists, which simulates spontaneous motion. same cause. That light, as a general rule, is When it is newly formed, it is yellow. If it is essential to them, no one would hesitate to admit. watched beneath the microscope, it is found that Decandolle performed some interesting experiments each crystalline scale jumps over, and instantly upon this question : he discovered that, by a comchanges its hue from yellow to à vivid scarlet. bination of six powerful lamps, he was able to make Such, and similar instances are not unfrequent: a the genus mesembryanthemum amenable to the insatisfactory explanation of the cause of the motion fluence of an artificial day : these plants expanded has not been given. In the first of the instances their flowers before the glare of the lamps, and cited, it would be curious to inquire if this, and closed them again when removed into darkness. other identical motions of inorganic particles, are The leaves of the Mimosa pudica—the “ sensitive due in part to the diamagnetic properties of certain plant”—droop and fold up, in common with many bodies recently developed by Faraday.
others, at night; and when this plant was subjected Voluntary motion is so commonly regarded as the to the lamplight, it was found that its periods of peculiar attribute of animals, possessed of the, as we sleep and awakening were first deranged, and for believe it, necessary apparatus of nerves and mus- several days were irregular; but after this, accles, that, in ignorance of other powers capable of knowledged the new influence, and closed and producing voluntary or spontaneous motion, we are folded up during the day, unfolding again at night slow to admit the existence of such motion in that day and night being purposely reversed. Many portion of organized creation, the vegetable world, plants bow their heads at night, and raise them which is furnished with no demonstrable nerves or again in the morning : thus the Noli-me-tangere muscles. It will be the object of the present paper hides its flower from the chill dews of the evening to indicate a few of those instances in vegetable under its leaves, withdrawing the shelter again durlife which appear to point to the opposite conclu- ing the day. The sleep of leaves and flowers, sion—that motion, and even locomotion, are not however, does not appear to have in every instance confined to the narrow limits of animal organiza- a common cause. While, generally, both organs tion.
fold up during the night simultaneously, it is related The sleep and rëopening of flowers and leaves by M. Berthelot that a plant, a species of acacia, (a afford a familiar and very common instance of a tribe, it may be mentioned, endowed with a larger species of spontaneous motion in plants. The share than usual of sensitive and spontaneous mohumble daisy opens with the morning's sunrise, tions,) cultivated in the gardens of Orotava, in the and closes at sunset; and Macculloch remarks, island of Teneriffe, at sunset closes its leaflets in an “ that nothing but permanent force can keep the imbricated manner, (one overlapping another,] but, young daisy open when it has closed for the night.”' at the same time, its flowers expand, and the nuIf its petals are separated, it will again close with a merous stamina stand up in tufts. At sunrise, species of action not unlike that of a sphincter while the leaves resume their proper position, the muscle. But many flowers observe, with a precis- flowers droop and hang down, the long filaments ion of the most striking character, certain periodism bending, and, from their glistening character, giving in their opening and closing, which serves to bring to the flowers the appearance of a flock of silk. In out more forcibly the apparently spontaneous nature this instance the expansion of the leaves is diurnal, of these movements.
Linnæus claims the credit of of the flowers nocturnal. having constructed a table of their varying, and yet If some spontaneous motions of the periodical naalmost invariable motions, which he denominates ture here described are influenced by light, others “ Flora's Clock”—the first hour on which is three of equal singularity are considerably affected by in the morning, and the last ten at night. Some atmospheric humidity. Thus, as a companion to species of the convolvuli announce the beginning of “ Flora's Timepiece," an ingenious botanist has the floral day, and others—the purple-its close. constructed a scale of plants, which may constitute Many flowers also open at stated hours of the day, “ Flora's Weatherglass.' By observation of but some close again long before the sun has set; and again, it is familiar to almost every one that
* As a pendant to these, we might add "Flora's Pro. many open at night, and are closed during the day : phetic Almanac," for the Euphorbia oleæfolia hangs down the night-blowing cereus is an instance. In these its head all winter, and announces the return of spring by cases we are furnished with a most decided answer lifting it up again.