which the king of Prussia avowed in the speech of scarcely feel as a matter of fact, how little way the Sept. 1842, for his ardor in this great work. His influence of talent makes with us against the dead majesty's words about all differences of creed being weight of three overriding influences, birth, wealth, buried in it, savored too much of the modern Pro- and party connexions. Even if they had such testantism of his country. But the work is a great knowledge, it is probable that party influence would one, and a national one, and therefore king and have debarred them from obtaining any other patron cottager do well to befriend it. And indeed, in as good. Nor is it to be denied that, for all his case of any unfortunate falling off in the general eccentricity and discursiveness, Lord Brougham has subscriptions, we think the king would stand in in an extraordinary degree the faculty of stating a need of no apology should he undertake to com- case in the most lucid and emphatic manner. If he plete the work himself; for his majesty is in pos- has undertaken the mission, we believe that he session of the magnificent revenues of the Cologne will discharge it more effectively than any other see, and the appointments of the modern archbishop orator. make but a small deduction from them.

We no less think that the mission is one honorable in itself. Whoever may prove to be “right”.

or “ wrong'' in the affair, it will be convenient for From the Spectator, 14 Nov.

all parties to have it distinctly and authoritatively Whatever may become of the dispute between set forth and kept clear from misrepresentation. the governments of France and England, however And it is an interesting trait in the international menacing the aspect kept up in London, there are relations of the two countries, to see the French still in Paris signs that the disagreement is not past government so desirous of bringing its own case recall. Lord Normanby, as ambassador, acting before the British public, as to appoint an hơnorary upon his instructions, is on one point inexorably agent in our parliament. sulky, but as a man he is as urbane as possible ; It is to be hoped that M. Guizot is sincere in his and the French government shows every desire to desire to maintain amicable intercourse. If so, he conciliate him.

cannot do better than adhere to his avowed purA good deal of speculation has been excited in pose of appealing to the English nation. Absolute Paris by the fact that King Leopold, who had been approval a statesman of his sagacity will not exvisiting his wife's family, did not stay to see the pect: a critical frown at certain supposed sallies Duke de Montpensier and his bride, and that the of cunning on the king's part, met by the minister Belgian ambassador staid away from the “ recep- with undue subservience, he must bear with pation" by the duke and duchess. Reports differ as tience. But the English public cares little for to the king's real opinion ; some representing him niceties of etiquette, which so greatly agitate as leaving congratulatory messages, others as ex- diplomatists and heralds ; attaching much more pressing utter disapproval of the Spanish match. importance to peace, with its quiet, safety, and There is no evidence that he has done anything but commerce. It will sympathize with any sincere what might have been expected from his position endeavor to preserve peace. It will be disposed to and character-preserve an impartial bearing to- pardon our neighbor's escapade as a venial error wards his French and his English relatives. He of over-'cuteness, in consideration of Louis Philwas called away to the opening of the chambers in ippe's past services in the cause of peace, and of his own kingdom; and may yet, if needful, prove a any earnest that he will henceforth act again in the good mediator. In many respects he is well suited same behalf. And we believe, that if it be confor the office. King Leopold is not only a states- vinced as to the reality of such a desire on the man of unusual experience in affairs, and royal by other side, the public will not, after all, suffer any station, but he is familiar with the society, the political party to go to extremes. Much, no doubt, habits, and the views, both of the French and Eng. is tolerated, because there is a strong inclination lish_palaces. His interests are pledged to peace ; just now to be indulgent towards a “ liberal” minfor Belgium has had the dismal distinction of being istry, and not too strictly or openly to criticise its the batile-field of Europe, and would most assured conduct under embarrassing party ties. But French ly be so again in any general contest. He under-statesmen—and English statesmen also—will do stands state policy; he has often displayed good well not to confound that forbearance on purely dosense and good taste; and probably both sides mestic grounds with any disposition to sanction a would have faith in the sincerity of his desire not dangerous foreign policy, should it go to the length to betray the interests of either. We cannot be- of overt acts. lieve the reports of some journalists, that King Leopold has forfeited his advantageous position by

DIPLOMATIC NOTES. any indiscreet declarations.

It is rumored that Lord Brougham has under- Lord PALMERSTon is determined to punish the taken to appear as counsel for the French govern- French court and ministry for their perfidy. If he ment in the British parliament—that is, to state the cannot show his resentment in one way he will in case of that government. Our whig papers have another. Debarred the employment of cannon, he raised a shout of ridicule against Lord Brougham, throws all his anger into protocols. They are forin order by anticipation to diminish the effect of his midable instruments when forged by his lordship's agency. It is very likely that the French govern- hands. Everything now is on the monster scalement may have overrated Lord Brougham's per- monster mortars, monster concerts, monster meetsonal influence as a public man. Seeing the prom-ings, monster trains, monster statues. His lordship inent part he has played in national ineasures swims with the stream, and has manufactured a actually adopted, the part he still takes in council, monster “note.” He has sent to M. Guizot a his untiring activity, his personal intimacy with diplomatic letter extending to one hundred and nine distinguished statesmen, and even with several pages of closely-written foolscap. We can imagroyal acquaintances, they may naturally suppose ine the French premier's dismay when Lord Northat he possesses a coëxtensive influence. They manby requested an audience for the purpose of may know as a matter of information, but can presenting this formidable document; but how must

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his terror have been increased when the ambassador ered herself free from the compact of Eu, and the informed hiin he conceived it necessary to read over Montpensier marriage was not postponed. The to him the whole of this extraordinary specimen of Journal des Débats is careful to remark, that no verbosity, in order to insure due attention to the attempt was made against the independence of prolix eloquence of the English Foreign Secretary ? Queen Isabella's choice; England and France Most persons will think, we imagine, that M. Guizot only agreed as to the advice which they would join has now been sufficiently punished for his share of in giving. the transaction.

The Palmerston case stands thus. England did The “note” finished, we are told, with the con- not espouse the cause of Prince Leopold, but he clusion that the Duke and Duchess de Montpensier was first suggested by Qucen Christina. No doubt must, for themselves and their children, renounce but she meant the proposal as a trap for England, all claim to the Spanish succession. The de- and would after all have left the prince in the lurch; mand is as stupid as it is arrogant. If persisted but Lord Palmerston saw the trap, and declined to in, it will cost his lordship his station in the For- interfere. This trick, planned by M. Bresson, was eign-office. The mind of every rational man who defeated solely by the indifference of the British has paid the slightest attention to the question is government to Prince Leopold's success. Lord made up that the treaty of Utrecht gives us no title Palmerston merely insisted that Prince Leopold had for interference with this marriage. Since that nothing in common with the royal family of Engtreaty was concluded there have been no less than land, and that Queen Isabella should he left to a free three alliances between members of the house of choice. The accident that Lord Palmerston first Orleans in France and of the house of Bourbon in numed the Coburg prince, and the pretence that Spain, without one word of objection being uttered the British government gave a preference to him, against the principle of them. The Duke de Mont- is the sole defence of Louis Philippe's conduct. pensier cannot deprive the children of the Infanta The Presse, which is by turns described as repof a right he does not confer on thein. In a consti- resenting the conservative opposition, the court, tutional view, as regards their right to the Spanish and Queen Christina—and indeed appears to do a succession, they are the children of the Infanta little by turns for all those parties—avoids the exalone. There is not the slightest pretence, in acter diplomatic controversies, but continues its sound reason, for the absurd demand Lord Palmer- general railing at England ; harping on an alliance ston has made. Among the ministers of Europe he betwen France, Russia, and the United States, to stands alone in urging it, and to the experienced reduce our maritime power. The liberal Siècle statesmen of the continent he must be an object of laughs at this extravagant dream ; calling to mind wonder and ridicule. His conduct is hardly consis-one serious obstacle to an alliance with Russia—the tent with the supposition of vanity; and it is made annual protest of the French chambers in favor of the more conspicuously foolish by the remoteness Polish nationality. The exciting cause of the fierce of the contingency he raises as a ground of dis-anger is Lord Palmerston's exasperating demeanor; pute. He persists in fighting with a man of straw, our foreign secretary, says the Presse, “by his and on levelling, all the force of his diplomatic conduct, and by the language of his journals, is battery against what is merely the shadow of a real evidently seeking to create a quarrel between the event.

two nations out of a struggle for influence between A few weeks, or perhaps days, must rouse his the two governments.' This is a heavy charge; lordship from the fool's paradise in which he is lap- pity that the Presse, so clearsighted on the point, ping himself. The English people are generally should work so hard to help what it denounces.indifferent to the conduct of their foreign affairs. Spectator, 7 Nov. But there is a limit to their patience, and we are persuaded they will not much longer susser their inFuence on the continent to be sensibly weakened, and their diplomacy made ridiculous, for the sake of retaining a minister at the head of the Foreign

Love was ever yet a martyr; office to write voluminous pamphlets under the

Bred in sorrow, born in pain ; title of “ Diplomatic Notes." ---Britannia, 14 Nov.

Tossed about on troubled waters;

By a scornful arrow slain. The newspaper war about the Montpensier marriage, between the Paris and London journals, wax

Wherefore, then, O fairest lady,

Bid me sing of Love again? es fiercer, and it professes to reflect the diplomatic relations of the two governments; the Times I was young, and I was dreaming, treating the Journal des Détats as if it were M.

When a burning Vision came, Guizot, the Journal des Débats treating the Times Lighted up mine eyes with passion, as if it were Lord Palmerston. In the midst of the

Touched my cheeks with crimson shame; mutual attacks some further explanations are let fall. Smote my heart, that shrank and trembled, The French case finally takes this shape. When

Till it burst abroad in flame. Queen Victoria was at Eu, the marriages of Queen Is

Long the Vision seemed to linger: abella and the Infanta Louisa were discussed. Lord

Then without a smile or sound, Aberdeen consented that the husband of the queen should be taken from some branch of the Bourbon

Passed beyond my humble region,

Like the sun when seaward bound, family; and he did not resist the marriage of the Infanta with the Duc de Montpensier, but stipulated that

Glorious, but content with having it should take place after the queen's—or, as our

Cast a glory on the ground. journals allege, after she should have children. Now I dwell within the shadows, When Lord Palmerston came into office, he did not

And the Dream that shone of yore respect the arrangement; he added Prince Leo- Lighteth up another passion, pold of Coburg to the list of candidates for the Lingereth on another shore ; queen's hand, and thus broke down the limitation Leaving Love, that was the martyr, to the Bourbon family. France therefore consid-1 Master still, for evermore!







From the Britannia.

within itself something to determine its authorship. The Bonaparte Letters and Despatches; from the and to establish it as part of the mind from which

Originals in his Private Cabinet. 2 vols. Saun- it proceeded. ders & Oiley.

The two volumes before iis contain the corre

Ispondence and despatches of Napoleon from his takThe conviction is now general that a man maying the command of the army of Italy to the treaty be most truly judged by his own revelations. If of Campo Formio. The collection was known he has acted an important part in life, if his cor- before, and has been largely quoted from, but it has respondence has been active and extensive, treating not, to our knowledge, been previously published of many subjects, addressed to many parties, and in this country. The first document is dated March often written on sudden emergencies, without time 6, 1796; the last November 7, 1797. In those for reflection, it will certainly exhibit the move- twenty months he accomplished his most brilliant ments of his mind, and reflect his character, what- operations; and by a succession of victories, so ever that character may be. Furnished with his rapid, glorious, and decisive as to be without parletters, we are enabled to enter with him into his allel in all the annals of warfare, he laid deep and secret cabinet, to view his dealings with the differ- sure the foundations of his throne of empire. ent parties he had to conciliate or oppose, and to The earlier documents are curious for the eviwitness the changes made by circumstances in his dence they furnish of the deplorable destitution of sentiments. The evidence on which we try the army of Italy when Napoleon assumed the him is furnished by neither friend nor foe, but by command of it. A large proportion of the soldiers, himself. It is of all testimony the most unexcep- i without arms, clothing, shoes, ammunition, or food, tionable, for no man can be constantly false to him- seem to have more resembled troops of ragged self. Hence the value of those collections which banditti than battalions advancing to invasion and have been lately formed of the letters and despatches conquest. Bonaparte saw all the difficulties of his of illustrious characters. Cromwell, Marlborough, situation, but he saw that conquest would overWellington, and Nelson are made to tell the story come them. His first care was to impress on the of their own lives without premediation or art. To mind of the Directory his ability to cope with the those names we have now to add that of Napoleon dangers and perplexities of his command. Another Bonaparte.

man would have shrunk from encountering them. These collections are too voluminous to become He grappled with them boldly. In his first depopular, though they may be applied to popular spatch to the Directory he writes :uses. They require some skill and much time to " The administrative situation of the army is deextract their essence. What is material is often plorable, but not desperate. The army will hencemixed with what is purely local and transient. A forth eat good bread, and will have butcher's meat, trait of character, or a principle of policy, may be and it has already received some advances on its overlaid with details for the march of a battalion or arrears of pay.' for victualling a corps. There is a large propor

A week later he remarks in the same strain :tion of chaff to the grain. Nor can these documents " The army is in a state of frightful destitution. be studied in detached portions. The evidence of I have still great obstacles to surmount, but they one part is required to moderate, correct, or explain are surmountable. Want has authorized indisthe evidence of another. A superficial glance cipline, and without discipline there is no victory. will observe in them much that is inconsistent, but I hope that this will speedily be set to rights; the deeper attention will show that the inconsistency, aspect of things is already changing ; in a few days if it exists at all, is a part of the mind of the author, we shall be engaged with the enemy. and therefore to be taken into account, as well as This language was calculated, while it revealed other peculiarities, in estimating his character. As the distresses of the army, to reïnspire the Directory materials for history these collections are invalua- with confidence as to its fate. By their choice of ble, and, if judiciously employed, they may be a general they had removed all responsibility frorn made the means of conveying just ideas to those their own shoulders. Another commander would who have had not leisure or opportunity for a care- have teased them for arms, for food, for clothing, ful perusal of works so voluminous.

just as the generals of Napoleon implored him for It is an evil inseparable from all publications of succors of all kinds. He trusted to his own efforts the kind, that they must contain a mass of matter alone, and took the care of providing for the wants of very subordinate interest. But, in general, of his soldiers entirely on himself. It was not till whatever is written by a person of distinguished he felt his position secure by repeated victories that capacity will bear, in some way or other, the stamp he demanded from the Directory supplies and reinof a superior'mind. In each fragment of his corre- forcements. He made himself indispensable to spondence there will be some originality of thought, them as a servant before he assumed the authority some decision of touch, or some involuntary impress of a master. Their feelings for some months must of his genius to give it value and mark its identity. have been that of profound thankfulness at having Naturalists can, from the single bone of an animal, found a commander who suited them so well. draw out the whole skeleton, and assign the The destitution of the army was indeed greater species to which it belongs. Critics have less cer- than Napoleon had represented it. From the first tain ground to go upon. Yet a letter of Cromwell, he made up his mind that nothing was to be got Wellington, or Napoleon will ordinarily contain from the home government, and that to victory he CXXXVII.


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must look for relief from want. The Directory sent | would save the army, if


would not have us be forth their troops without the slightest thought of considered in Piedmont as men worse than the furnishing them with supplies. The exchequer Goths and Vandals. was empty, all resources were exhausted, and the " Since the 23d of last month the 6th has rearmies were told to supply their wants from the ceived but two rations and a half; and the others countries they invaded. This new principle in have suffered in like manner. It is not possible to warfare was attended with frightful privation ; and repress the men in this miserable state ; your army not all the genius, victories, and resources of Na- is about to be worn down by disease ; and, whenpoleon could prevent his soldiers from suffering the ever we march, by the Barbets; for it cannot be korrors of aggravated famine. On the 15th of doubted that the inhabitants, driven to despair, will April, three days after the victory of Montenotte, arm and slaughter every French straggler. La llarpe writes to Bonaparte

" Above all, general, it is urgent that you “ Notwithstanding your promises, general, the should put a stop to that host of illegal requisitions; troops are without bread; they are sinking under or, if they must continue, it would be better to asfatigue and inanimation. Send us something, at semble the inhabitants, shoot them, and then finish least some bread and a little brandy, for I am fear-plundering, for it comes to the same point; they ful of being a prophet of disaster; but if we are must be starved to death. attacked to-morrow the troops will fight ill, for want “ Bread! bread! and again bread! of physical strength.”

16 LAHARPE.” Either La Harpe's division was one of the worst in the army, or he wanted firmness to view its suf

"Camp of Dego, April 20, 1796. serings unmoved. On the 17th of April he writes

Indiscipline has reached the highest pitch. I to Napoleon, tendering his resignation :

am using all possible means to maintain order, but “ The boundless licentiousness to which the they are of no avail. There is no kind of excess troops give themselves up, and which cannot be which the soldiers do not indulge in, and all that I remedied, because we have not a right to order can do is useless. I therefore request you, gena scoundrel to be shot, is hurrying us into ruin, dis- eral, to be pleased to accept my resignation for I honoring us, and preparing us for the most cruel cannot serve with soldiers who know neither subIn consequence, I beg you to

ordination, nor obedience, nor law, and who are accept, general, my resignation ; and to send an every moment threatening their officers and their officer to take the command entrusted to me, for I



“ Chief of the 70th demi-brigade.” would rather dig the ground for a livelihood than Pse at the head of men who are worse than were

Dego, April 20,

1796. the Vandals of old."

“ Indiscipline and insubordination are at their Napoleon sent supplies when he could, and hopes height; the excesses perpetrated by the soldiers and cheering promises when he could despatch cannot be checked. For several days past, I have nothing better. He constantly held out the pros- been employing all the means in my power to bring pect of conquest to the troops as the only means of them back to obedience and subordination; all my bettering their condition. He taught them to ex- efforts having proved unavailing, and finding my. pect no relief but from their own valor. But after self wholly unable to reduce them to order, I request an action the men committed the most frightful you, general, to accept my resignation. excesses, and were often disappointed in their ex

“ Maugras.” pectation that victory would give them plenty. A few extracts from the despatches of Bonaparte's

Monte Barcaro, April 22, 1796. generals will prove instructive, as showing the

“ It is two o'clock and nothing has arrived; the .condition of his army after its earliest successes :

soldiers are more busily engaged than ever in theft

and plunder ; peasants have been murdered by our Heights of St. Michael, April 20, 1796.

men, and soldiers have been killed by the peasants. “ Several corps have been without bread for Words cannot adequately describe the horrors that these three days: the soldiers abused this pretext to are committed. The camps are almost deserted, abandon themselves to the most horrible pillage. the soldiers roaming over the country more like "The corps have somewhat rallied, but there are ferocious beasts than men ; those who do not join still wanting a considerable number of men, who in the atrocities patrolling the while, with superior have gone off to get provisions in all possible ways. officers at their head; it is to no purpose to drive I am ill seconded by the officers, who pillage too: them from one place; they only run to murder at they were drunk yesterday, like the others.

another. The officers are in despair. The sol- If bread does not reach us, the soldiers will diers are culpable, but those who reduce them to not march. We are still in want of a great many the alternative of plundering or starving are much muskets ; there were nearly 2,000 deficient before more guilty. In the name of humanity, in the the affair.

name of liberty, which wretches are assassinating, " SERRURIER."

rescue us from this situation! Send us wherewithal “ Cairo, April 20, 1796.

to prolong our miserable existence without commit. .“ Unless we receive bread to-night, we shall be ting crimes. without an ounce to-morrow, and, should it even

Can there then exist a Providence, since its arrive, there would not be sufficient to give a quar- avenging bolts do not crush all the villains who ter of a ration to the three brigades and to the are at the head of the administration ?

- LAHARPE.” cavalry.

“All the agents, storekeepers, and others, in all Napoleon's firm nerves were not shaken by these the administrations, are making requisitions at ran- complaints. Action was his remedy for mutiny, for dom ; the peasants of these parts are absolutely famine, for sickness, for every ill that could áflict ruined; the soldiers are destitute, and their leaders the troops. His answer to their complaints was to disconsolate ; rogues only are enriching themselves; precipitate them against the foe ; and it heightens there is not a moment to be lost, general, if you l the merits of his combinations that, fighting under

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every disadvantage, with men worn out by hun- In another place Louis Bonapart notices the deger, and frequently without arms or shoes, he was sertion of some soldiers who had left their corps constantly victorious against the superior forces in a rage on account of their bare and bleeding of the foe, though well disciplined and well pro- feet.” Yet these troops, destitute as they were, vided.

beat five of the finest armies Austria could bring The condition of the army was improved as it into the field, and made the world resound with the advanced into the heart of Italy. But the errors successes of France. and corruption of the administrative officers were Napoleon was not indislerent to the peculations 100 deeply seated to admit of instant cure. In of the army agents and contractors. There are in August, 1796, Despinois complains of the coward these volumes a thousand proofs of the vigilance ice of his troops, and accounts for it by their desti- with which he watched them, and of his care for tution :

the soldiers' interests. The republican adminisBrescia, August 4, 1796.

tration was corrupt in all its branches ; and Bona“I should betray my duty were I not to tell

found it impossible, with the urgent calls on you

parte the whole truth : there is no good, no resource to his time, to collect proofs of the villany of the be hoped from the eighth brigade ; it is so infected agents, who, in all their schemes, hung together. with cowardice that, on the firing of a single mus- and denounced others to the Directory, charging

On his own responsibility he arrested several ; ket by one of our sentinels, this morning, at an Austrian prisoner who had appeared on the road, them as guilty, on his honor, though not supplied half the corps was already in Hight. We, Gene with proofs. They found him inaccessible to ral Bertin and I, and all the brave, join to beseech bribes. Of one superior agent he writes to the Diyou to put this corps in its place, or at least to rectory : spare us the evident risk of being dishonored with

Thevenin is a robber; he affects an insulting it, and of being prevented from justifying your con

profusion; he has made me a present of several fidence. At any rate the division of which you very fine horses, for which I had occasion, but for have given me the command cannot exist in the which I have not been able to make him accept state of disorganization in which it is at

Let him be arrested and kept six payment.

present. It is in want of everything, and not a creature to months in prison; he can pay a war-tax of 500,000 furnish it with supplies, no commissary of war, no

francs in money ; this man does not perform his agent, not even a medical officer and an hospital

duty.” for the wounded. It is always the case that, when

At another time he calls for severe measures a prey to distresses , and suffering all sorts of pric Writing to the Directory in January, 1797, he calls

against the universal corruption that prevailed. vations, the soldier is disheartened ; and it is this mischievous impression too that we ought to hasten

for a despotic magistracy to examine into the army to destroy.

accounts and keep the agents in check :DESPINOIS.”

“ Everything is sold. The army consumes five

times as much as it needs, because the storekeepAlmost at the same time Augereau complains of ers forge orders and go halves with the commisthe deplorable state of a corps who had joined his saries of war. The principal actresses of Italy division :

are kept by the employés of the French army ; Head-quarters, Verona, August 23, 1796.

luxury, licentiousness, and peculation are at their “ The 29th demi-brigade has joined my division, height.” which I reviewed on the 3d and 4th inst. Indeed,

When he felt his power he spoke to the Directothe condition of that 29th is pitiable: it has at most ry in a more decisive tone, and accused them of a hundred bayonets; it has no clothes, no shoes; protecting extortioners :I found in it volunteers under arms without any

“I have written to the treasury relative to its

Those covering but a shirt and linen trousers. These indecent conduct with Flachat and Co. troops must necessarily be armed, equipped, and fellows have done us infinite injury in carrying off clothed, or left in the rear, for they cannot be millions, and thereby placed us in the most critical brought before the enemy in this state, occasioned situation. For my part, if they come into the arby the carelessness of the chief. They are, never-rondissement of the army, I will have them put in theless, soldiers who, on some occasions, have ex- prison till they have resiored to the army the five hibited proofs of bravery, and on whom one night millions of which they have robbed it. Not only rely; which ought to stimulate our anxiety to put does the treasury care nothing about furnishing the them in order, and render them fit to do good ser- army with its pay and supplying its wants, but it vice. Make, I beg of you, all the efforts you can

even protects the rogues who come to the army to to this end.'

feather their nests.'

With vast exertions he succeeded in introducing Three months later yet, and after Napoleon had a system of greater order and regularity into the gained some of his most splendid successes, his financial and commissariat departments of the brother, Louis Bonaparte, represents his troops as literally naked :

army. He personally inspected the stores furnished.

When he ordered shoes for the men, he was not Lavis, Nov. 3, 1796. satisfied without inspecting specimens bimself. The troops are without shoes, without coals—When from the shortness of provisions their rations in short, they are naked, and are beginning to be were reduced, he directed that the difference should daunted ; they looked yesterday with respect at the be made up to them in money. fine appearance of the Austrians in order of battle ; It is not often in these papers that we find they are in the snow; their state ought to be taken Napoleon speaking of himself.' We discover his into most serious consideration. With what conse- activity by incidental notices here and there. " Inquences would not our defeat be attended! The fuse greater activity into your correspondence," he officers in general are worn out; there were some writes to the French minister at Venice. " Have who, amidst the fire, talked only of retiring to their daily accounts rendered 10 you," he writes to Vauhomes."

bois when governor of Leghorn, “and inform me:

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